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Table of 8bew Bread. From the Arch of Titua. 

6)xt^ gtsps Hnb lUnslniiions. 




The righi of TrantXalirm is rtservrd. 

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( iii ) 

The * Larger Diciionartr o^ the* Biole i& maiiily intended for 

DiyineiS and ScJi6IJrtV«nd .the ' Concis^«.D^ctio]!iary *^ for Families 

. and Stndents ; but" a jsmaHpr. and mtfrerieleipentary work is needed 

..' ^for ^.-tibe use of ';Schoyi^. Sunday -feichpolHTeaxih^^^ Young 

-^^elpsons' in general. I have accDtdiji^j. ;drawn up from the 

. ,<"?foriner worKs thi^ * Smaller T^i^fio^aT^*' inypelf^ and have spared 

^ ho pains to adapt it to the wanferpf " the persons for whom it 

>;•. is intended. It contains' such ' an *'^iaxj^ of Biblical anti- 

* quities, biography, geography, and nafivrf^l >^i^'*^ry as a young 
. • .person is likely to require in the study of the Bible. Judgment 

i« needed ilijcftdwing what subjects ought to, be omitted as well 
as inserted in? such a work, as iihe present ; but it is confidently 
beHeved that * those, for; wjioin. the book is chiefly designed will 
not inm in vaiA for tbeiif formation of which thay are in quest. 
It oontains every name ^n 'the Bible and Apocrypha respecting 
which, anything -can be said; it gives ian account of each of the 
. books iof theBible; it explains ,the civil and religious institu- 
tions, thfii manners and <5ustom8 Of. the Jews, as well as of the 
varioup' nations mentioned of alluded to in Scripture; in fine, 
.it seeks to render the stfme service to the study of the Bible as 
the Smaller Classicfld Dictionaries hiaye done for the study of the 
Greek and Boman Classics in i^oofs. 

• In addition to the woodcuts inserted in the text, thirty-one 
separate views are given of some of the most important places 
mentioned in theBible ; and several maps are added to illustrate 
the articles relating to geography and history. 

lAmdan^ May 19/A, 1866. 

sx. D. B. I 

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S. ASS03 

.... .. 51 


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.... „ 78 


.... „ 79 


.... „ 81 

9. C0L06SAE 

. . . . „ 108 


.... „ 105 


.... „ 118 


. ... „ 159 


.... „ 165 


. . . . „ 188 


. ... „ 189 

16, WTtRnnM 

. . . . „ 207 


. . . . „ 251 


. . . . „ 165 


.... „ 208 


. . . . .. 297 

21. LTDDA 

.... „ 818 


. . . .. 871 


. . . . 425 


. . . . .. 477 


. . . . M 487 


.... „ 495 


. . . .. 518 


. . . . .. 547 


.... „ 551 


.... M 555 


. . . . „ 587 

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MENT" To face paye 2^7 








88. PLAN OF JERUSALEM On page 249 



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A'ABONy the ton of Amnin and Jochebed, 
and the dder brother of Moaee and 
Miriam (Num. zzTi. 59, zzxiiL 89). He was 
• LeTite, and it first mentioned in Ex. It. 14, 
aa one who ooold "speak welL" He was 
appointed by Jehorah to be the Interpreter 
and " Month " (Ex. iT. 16) of his brother 
Moses, who was "slow of speech;" and 
aocordlnglj he was not onlj the organ of 
oommnnication with the Israelites and with 
Pharaoh (Ex. ir. SO, tU. 3), bat also the actual 
instrument of working most of the miracles 
of the Exodus. (See Ex. TiL 19, ftc) Thus 
on the way to Mount Sinai, during the battle 
with Amalek, Aaron is mentioned with Hur, 
as staying up the weary hands of Moses, 
when they were lifted up for the lictory of 
Israel (not in prayer, as is sometimes ex- 
plained, but) to bear «he rod of God (see Ex. 
xTiL 9). Through all this period he is men- 
tioned as dependent upon his brother, and 
deriving all his authority firom him. The 
contrast between them is cTen more strongly 
marked on the arriTal at Sinai. Moses at 
once acts as the mediator (Oal. iii. 19) for 
the people, to come near to God for them, 
and to speak His words to them. Aaron only 
approaches with Nadab, and Abihu, and the 
serenty elders of Israel, by special command, 
near enough to see God's glory, but not so as 
to enter His immediate presence. Left then, 
on Moses* departure, to guide the people, 
Aaron is tried for a moment on his own re- 
sponsibility, and he foils firom a weak in- 
ability to withstand the demand of the people 
for Tisible " gods to go before them.'* Poe- 
sibly it seemed to him prudent to make an 
image of Jehorah, in the well-known form of 
Egyptian idolatry (Apis or Mnevis), rather 
than to risk the total alienation of the people 
to&lsegods; and his weakness was rewarded 
by seeing a ** feast to the Lord** (Ex. xxxii. 5) 
degraded to the lowest form of heathenish 

sensuality, and knowing, flrom Moses* wordn 
and deeds, that the corenant with the Lord 
was utterly broken. He repented of his 
sin, and Moses gained fbrgirenees for him 
(Dent. ix. 2(1}. — Aaron was now conse- 
crated by Moses to the new office of the 
high-priesthood. The order of God for the 
consecration is found in Ex. xxix., and the 
record of its execution in Lev. Till. The 
solemnity of the office, and its entire depend- 
ence for sanctity on the ordinance of God. 
were vindicated by the death of his sons, 
Nadab and AUhu, for "oflbring strange fire *' 
on the altar (Lev. x. 1, 3). From this time 
the history of Aaron la almost entirely that 
of the priesthood, and its chief feature is the 
great rebellion of Korah and the Levites 
against his sacerdotal dignity, united with 
that of Dathan and Abiram and the Beuben- 
ites against the temporal authority of Moses 
[Kokah]. — ^The only occasion on which his in- 
dividual character is seen is one of presumption. 
The murmuring of Aaron and Miriam against 
Moses clearly proceeded fhnn their trust, the 
one in his priesthood, the other in her pro- 
phetic inspiration, as equal commissions firom 
God (Num. xii. S). On all other oecasions 
he is spoken of as acting with Moees in the 
guidance of the people. Leaning as Jie seems 
to have done wholly on him, it is not strange 
that he should have shared his sin at Meri- 
bah, and its punishment [Mosbs] (Num. xs. 
10-13). Aaron's death seems to have followed 
very speedily. It took place on Mount Hor, 
after the transference of his robes and office 
to Eleaaar (Num. xx. 38). This mount is 
still called the "Mountain of Aaron.*' [Hon.] 
— ^The wife of Aaron was Elisheba (Ex. vi. 
2S) ; and the two sons who survived him, 
Eleazar and Ithamar. The high-priesthood 
descended to the former, and to his descend- 
ants until the time of EU, who, although or 
the house of Ithamar, received the high- 

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priesthood, and transmitted it to his children ; 
with them it continned till the accession of 
Solomon, who took it from Abiathar, and 
restored it to Zadok (of the house of Eleasar) 

AB (fcUher)t an element in the composi- 
tion of many proper names, of which Abba is 
a Chaldaio form, the syllable affixed giving 
the empliatic force of the definite article. 
Applied to God by Jesns Christ (Mark xir. 
36), and by St. Paol (Bom. Tiii. 15 ; Gal. 
iT. 6). 

AB. [MoMTSS.] 

ABAD^DON. [Apoutoh.] 

AB'ANA, one of the " rirers of Damasoos" 
(2 K. T. 12). The Barada and the Auxy are 
now the chief streams of Damascus, the 
former representing the Abana and the latter 
the Pharpar of the text. The Barada rises 
in the Antilibanus, at about 28 miles from 
the dty, after flowtog through which it runs 
across the plain, till it loses itself in the lake 
or marsh Bahret d-KSbHyek, 

AB'ABIM, a mountain or range of high- 
lands on the east of the Jordan, in the land 
of Hoab, dicing Jerichoi and forming the 
eastern wall of the Jordan valley at that part. 
Its most elevated spot was " the Mount Nebo, 
*head' of * the' Pisgah," from which Moses 
viewed the Promised Land before his death. 
These mountains are mentioned in Num. 
xxviL 12, zxziiL 47, 48, and Dent. xxziL 

AB'BA [Ab]. 

AB'DON. 1. A Judge of Israel (Judg. xiL 
IS, 15), perhaps the same person as Bedan in 
1 8am. xiL 11.— 9. Son of Micah, a contem- 
porary of Josiah (2 Chr. xxxiv. 20), called 
AoHBoa in 2 K. zxiL 12.- 3. A city in the 
tribe of Asher, given to the Gershonites ( Joeh. 
xxL SO ; 1 Chr. vi. 74). 

ABEiyNEGO (i. e. tenant of Kego, per- 
haps the same as Ntbo)^ the Chaldaean name 
given to Axariah, one of the three fHends of 
Daniel, miraculously saved fhnn the fiery 
Aumaoe (Dan. iii.). 

A'BEL, the name of several places in 
Palestin e , probably signifies a meadow. 1. 
A'bsl-bkth-ica'aohah, a town of some im- 
portance (2 Sam. XX. 19), in the extreme N. 
of Palestine, which fell an^early prey to the 
invading kings of Syria (1 K. xv. 20) and 
Assyria (2 K. xv. 29). In the parallel pass- 
age, 2 Chr. zvi. 4, tiie name is changed to 
AsBirKAZM, ** Abel ou the waters." It is also 
called simply Abel (2 Sam. xx. 14, 18). 
— a. A'bkl-mizka'im, ft. s. the mourning of 
Egypt, the name given by the Canaanites to 
the floor of Atad, at which Joseph, his bro- 
thers, and the Egyptians made their mourn- 
ing for Jacob (Gea. L 11). It was beyond 

(on the east of) Jordan. [Atad.] — 8. A'bbi^ 
sHrr^TiM, '*the meadow of the acacias," in 
the "plains" of Moab ; on the low level 
of the Jordan valley. Here — their last rest- 
ing-place before crossing the Jordan— Israel 
*' pitoSed fh>m Betl^esimoth unto A. Shittim " 
(Num. xxxili. 49). The place is most fre- 
quently mentioned by its shorter name of 
Shittim. [SHir"!!!.] — 4. A'bel-mx'holah 
(<* meadow of the dance "), in the N. part of 
the Jordan valley (1 K. iv. 12), to which the 
routed Bedouin host fled from Gideon (Judg. 
vii. 22). Here Elisha was found at his plough 
by EUJah returning up the valley ttom. Horeb 
(1 K. xix. 16-19). 

A'BEL (L e. WwUky vapour^ trantitorineas, 
probably so called from the shortness of his 
life), the second son of Adam, murdered by 
his brother Cain (Gen. iv. 1-16). Jehovah 
showed respect for Abel's offering, but not 
for that of Cain, because, according to the 
Epistie to the Hebrews (xi. 4), Abel *<by 
faith cftond a more excellent sacrifice than 
Cain." The expression ** sin," i. s. sin- 
oflSering "lieth at the door" (Gen. iv. 7), 
seems to imply that the need of sacrifices of 
blood to obtain foi^veness was already re- 
vealed. Our Lord spoke of Abel as the first 
martyr (Matt xxiiL 85) ; so did the early 
church subsequently. The traditional site of 
his murder and his grave are pointed out 

A'BI, mother of king Hezekiah (2 K. 
xvlii. 2), written Abuab in 2 Chr. xxix. 1. 

ABI'AH, second son of Samuel, whom to- 
gether with his eldest son Joel he made 
Judge in Beersheba (1 Sam. viii. 2 ; 1 Chr. 

ABI-AL'BON. [Abixu] 

ABI'ATHAB, hiigrh-priest and fourth in 
descent fhmi EU, who was of the line of 
Ithamar, the younger son of Aaron. Abia- 
thar was the only one of all the sons of 
Ahimeleoh the high-priest who escaped the 
slaughter inflicted upon Us father's house by 
Saul, in revenge for his having inquired of 
the Lord for David, and given him the shew- 
bread to eat (1 Sam. zxlL). Abiathar having 
become high-priest fled to David, and was 
thus enabled to inquire of the Lord for him 
(1 Sam. xxili. 9, xxx. 7 ; 2 Sam. iL 1, v. 19, 
ftc). He adhered to David in his wander- 
ings while pursued by Saul; he was wit> 
him while he reigned in Hebron (2 Sam. iL 
1-8), the city of the house of Aaron (Joeh. 
xxi. 10-18) ; he carried the ark before him 
when David brought it up to Jerusalem 
(1 Chr. XV. 11 ; 1 K. ii. 26) ; he continued 
fkithfta to him in Absalom's rebellion (2 Sam. 
XV. 24, 29, 85, 36, zvU. 15-17, xix. 11) ; 
and ** was aflUoted in all wherein David was 

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ftfflieted." 'When, tumerer, Adoi^jah set 
himself ap for David's soooessor on the 
throne, in oppositioa to Solomon, Abiathar 
rided with him, while Zadok was on Solo- 
mon's side. For this Abiathar was depriyed 
ci the high-prie«thood, and we are told that 
**Zadok the priest did the king put in the 
room of AbUthar" (1 K. iL 27, 85), tha» 
fulfilling the propheeyctf 1 Sam. ii. 30. — Zadok 
was desoended firam Eleaxar, the elder son of 
Aaron. He is first mentioned in 1 Chr. xiL 
2$, and is said to have joined David while 
he reifaed in Hebron. Frcnn this time we 
read, both in the books of Samnel and Chro- 
Didee, of *' Zadok and Abiathar the priests." 
There were, henceforth, two high-priests in 
the reign of David, and till the deposition of 
Abiathar by Solomon, when Zadok became 
the sole hlgh^prlest In Mark ii. 26, we find 
Abiathar qx>kea of as the high-priest in 
whose tfane David ate the shew-bread : this 
may perh^ts be aoooonted for, if Abiathar 
was the perscm who persuaded his father to 
allow David to have the bread, and if the 
loaves were given by him with his own hand 


A'BIEL. 1. Faiher of Kifh, and oonse- 
quently graadfoUier of Saul (1 Sam. ix. 1), 
•a well as ci Abner, Saol's oommander-ln- 
chief (1 Sam. xiv. SI). This is seen by the 
foUowlAg taUe :— 






»fl. One of David's mighty men (1 Chr. zi. 
SI). In 2 8am. zxiii. 31 he is called Abi-al- 


ABI-E'ZER, eldest eon of Oilead, and de- 
seendant of Manasseh (Joeh. xvii. 2 ; 1 Chr. 
TiL 18; Nam. zxvi. 80, where the name is 
given in the eontraeted form Jbezzb). He 
was the ancestor of the great Judge Gideon. 
[OxDvoji.] The name also occurs in Judg. 
vi. 84, viiL 2 ; and in an adjectival form 
("the Abiexrite") in Judg. vi. 11, 24, viii. 

ABIGAIL. 1. The beautiful wife of Nabal, 
a wealthy owner of goats and sheep in Carmel. 
When David's messengers were slighted by 
Nabal, Abigail supplied David and his fol- 
>wers with provisions, and succeeded in 
appeasing his anger. Ten days after thia 
Nabal died, and David sent for Abigail and 
made her his wife (1 Sam. xxv. 14, Ac). 
By her he had a eon, ealled Chileab in 2 Sam. 
UL 8 ; but Daniel In 1 Chr. lU. 1.-9. A 
sisttr ot David, married to Jether the Ish-i 


wtaelitef and mother, by bim, of Amasa (1 
Chr. U. 17). The statement in 2 Sam. xvii. 
25 that the mother of Amasa was an JtraeliU 
is doubtless a transcriber's error. 

ABI'HD, the second son (Mum. iii 2) of 
Aaron by Elisheba (Ex. vi. 23). Being, to- 
gether with his elder brother Nadab. guilty 
of ofTering strange fire to the Lord, he was 
consumed by fire from heaven (Lev. x. 1, 2). 

ABI'JAH or ABrjAM. 1. Son and sue 
cesser of Behoboam on the throne of Judah 
(1 K. xiv. 81 ; 2 Chr. xii. 16). He is called 
Abuab in Chronicles, Abuam in Kings. He 
began to reign b.c 959, and reigned three 
years. He endeavoured to recover the king- 
dxao. of the Ten Tribes, and made war on 
Jeroboam. He was sucMssftil in battle, and 
took several of the cities of Israel. We are 
told that he walked in all the sins of Beho- 
boam (idolatry and its attendant immorali- 
ties, 1 K. xiv. 23, 24), and that his heart 
" was not perfect before God, as the heart of 
David his father.** He was enooeeded by 
Asa.— a. Son of Jeroboam I. king of Israel, 
died in his childhood, just after Jeroboam's 
wife had been sent in disguise to seek help 
for him. In his sickness, from the prophet 
Ab^ah (1 K. xiv.)->a. A descendant of 
Eleacar, who gave his name to the eighth 
of the twenty-four courses into which the 
priests were divided by David (1 Chr. xxiv. 
10 ; 2 Chr. viiL 14 ; Neh. xii. 4, 17). To 
the course of Ab^ah or AUa belonged 
Zaoharias the ftither of John the Baptist 
(Luke i. 5). 

ABI'JAM. [Abuah, No. 1.] 

ABlLA. [Abilsmb.] 

ABILE'NE (Luke iii. 1), a tetrarehy of 
which the capital was Abila, a city situated 
on the eastern slope of Antilibanus, in a dis- 
trict fertiliaed by the river Barada. Its name 
probably arose frtnn the green luxuriance of 
ito situation, "Abel*' perhaps denoting **a 
grassy meadow." [See p. 2.] The name, 
thus derived, is quite sufficient to account 
for the traditions of the death of Abel, which 
are assoeiated with the spot, and which are 
localised by the tomb called JVsM JEToK/, on a 
height above the ruins of the dty. The 
city was 18 miles fhnn Damascus, and stood 
in a remarkable gorge called B(ik Wady 
BaradOy where the river breaks down through 
the mountain towards the plain of Damascus. 

ABIAfELECH [father qf tht king), the 
name of several Philistine kings, was pro- 
bably a common title of these kings, like that 
of Pharaoh among the Egyptians, and that of 
Caesar and Augustus among the Bomans. 
Hence In the title of Ps. xxxiv. the name of 
Abimelech is given to the king, who is called 
Achish in 1 Sam. xxL 11.— 1. A Philistine, 

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king of Gerar (Gen. xx., zxi.)f who, exercis- 
ing the right claimed by Eastern princes, of 
collecting all the beaatifol women of their 
dominions into their harem (Gen. xii. 16 ;• 
Esth. ii. 8), sent for and took Sarah. A 
similar aoooant is giren of Abraham's oon- 
dact on this occasion, to that of his behaTioor 
towards Pharaoh [AsnAHAif]. — S. Another 
king of Oerar in the time of Isaac, of whom 
a similar narratiTe is recorded in relation to 
Rebekah (Gen. xxyL 1, ftc.). — 8. Son of the 
Judge Gideon bf his Shechemite concubine 
(Jndg. TiiL SI). After his father's death he 
mnrdered all his brethren, 70 in nxunber, 
with the exception of Jotham the yoangest, 
who concealed himself; and he them per- 
soaded the Shechemltes to elect him king. 
Shechem now became an independent state, 
and threw off the yoke of the conqnering 
Israelites. When Jotham heard that Abime- 
leoh was made king, he addressed to the 
Shechemltes his fable of the trees choosing a 
king (Jndg. ix. I). After Abimdech had 
reigned three years, the dtiaens of Shechem 
tebelled. He was absent at the time, bat 
he retomed and quelled the insarrectioa. 
Shortly after he stormed and took Thebea, 
but was struck on the head by a woman with 
the fh^rmsnt of a mill-etone (comp. 8 Sam. 
xL 21) ; and lest he should be said to hare 
died by a woman, he bade his armour-bearer 
slay him. Thus God arenged the murder of his 
brethren, and ftalflUed the curse of Jotham. 

ABI'RAM. 1. A Beubeaite, son of Eliab, 
who with Dathan and On, men of the same 
tribe, and Korah a LcTitc^ organised a con- 
spiracy agsinst Moses and Aaron (Num. xvi.). 
[For details, see Kokah.]— 0. Eldest son of 
Hiel, the Bethelite, who died when his fkther 
laid the foundations of Jericho (1 K. xtL 34), 
and thas accomplished the first part of the 
curse of Joshua (Josh. tL 36). 

ABlSHAG, a beautiAil Shunammite, takem 
into David's harem to comfort him in his ex- 
treme old age (1 K. L 1-4). After Darid's 
death Adon^ah induced Bathsheba, the 
queen-flsother, to ask Solomon to give him 
Abishag in marriage; but this imprudent 
petition cost Adon^Jah his life (1 K. iL IS, 
in,), [Adoni/ah.] ■ 

ABISHAl, the eldest of the three sons of 
Zeruiah, David's sister, and brother to Joab 
and Asahel (1 Chr. U. 16). like his two 
brothers he was the devoted follower of 
David. Kb was his companion in the 
desperate night expediticm to the camp of 
8aul (1 Sam. xxvi. 6-0). On the outbreak of 
Absalom's rebellion he remained true to tho 
king, and commanded a third part of the army 
in the decisive battle against Absalom. Ha 
rescued David from the hands of a gigtntio 

Philistine, Ishbi-benob (3 Sam. xxL 17). His 
personal prowess on this, as on another occa- 
sion, when he fought single-handed against 
three hundred, won for him a place as captain 
of the second three of David's mighty men 
(2 Sam. xxiU. 18 ; 1 Chr. xi. 30). 

ABISHXJ'A, son of Phinehas, the son of 
Eleasar, and fkther of Bukki, in the genealogy 
of the high-priests (1 Chr. vi. 4, 6, 60, 51 ; 
Est. vii. 4, 5). 

ABLUTION. [PuxincATioK.] 

AB'NER, son of Ner, who was the brother 
of Kish (1 Chr. ix. 36), the father of Saul. 
Abner, therefore, was Saul's first cousin [see 
Table, p. S], and was made by him com- 
mander-in-chief of his army (1 Sam. xiv. 61, 
xvii. 57, xxvL S-14). After the death of 
Saul David was proclaimed king of Judah in 
Hebron ; and some time subsequently Abner 
proclaimed Ishbosheth, Saul's son, as king of 
Israel, at Mahanaim beyond Jordan. War 
soon broke out between the two rival kings, 
and "a very sore battle" was fought at 
GibeoB between the men of Israel under 
Abner, and the men of Judah under Joab, 
son of Zendah, David's sister (1 Chr. IL 16). 
When the army of Ishbosheth was defeated, 
Joab's youngest brother Asahel pursued 
Abner, and in spite of warning refused to 
leave him, so that Abner in self-defiance was 
forced to kill him. After this the war con- 
tinued, success inclining more and more to 
the side of David, till at last the imprudence 
of Ishbosheth deprived him of the counsels 
and generalship of the hero who was in truth 
the only support of his tottering throne. 
Abner had married Bispah, Saul's concubine, 
and this, according to the views of Oriental 
courts, might be so interpreted as to imply a 
design upon the throne. Eightly or wrongly, 
Ishbosheth so understood it, and he even 
ventured to reproach Abner with it. Abner, 
incensed at hb ingratitude, opened negotia- 
tions with David, by whom he was most 
fkvourably received ai Hebron. He then 
undertook to procure his recognition through- 
out Israel ; but after leaving his presence for 
the purpose was enticed back by Joab, and 
treaoheroudy murdered by him and his bro- 
ther Abishai, at the gate of the dty, partly 
no doubt from fear lest so distinguished a 
convert to their cause should gain too high a 
place in David's fkvour, but ostcndUy in re- 
taliation for the death of Asaud. This mur- 
der caused the greatest sorrow and indigna- 
tion to David ; but as the sssssdns were too 
powerfU to be puaidied, he contented him- 
self with showing every public token of 
respect to Abner's memory, by fbUowing the 
bier and pouring forth a simple dirge over 
the slain (3 Sam. ilL SS, U). 

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tUmed by oar Sarionr as a aigii of the ap- 
proaehing destroction of Jerotalem, with 
refiereiioe to Dan. ix. S7, xL SI, xU. 11. 
The Jews conaidered the prophecy of Daniel 
aa fulfilled in the profanation of the Temple 
under Antioehvs Epiphanea, when the larael- 
Itea themaelTea creeted an idolatrooa altar 
upon the sacred altar, and offered sacrifice 
theraca : tiiis altar is described as ** an abo- 
mination of deedlation" (1 Mace L 54, tI. 7). 
The prophecy howerer referred ultimately to 
the destruction of Jerusalem by the Komanii, 
and ecosequently the ** abomi]iati<m " must 
describe some occurrence connected with that 
event. It appears most probable that the 
proftmities of the Zealota constituted the 
abcminatioii, which was the sign of impend- 
ing ruin. The introduction of the Boman 
standards into the Temple, regarded by many 
as the •'desolation," took (lace afUr the de- 
sCructica of the city* 

A'BBAHAM or A'BBAM, as his name 
appears in the earlier portion of the history, 
was the son of Terah, and Ibunder of the 
great Hebrew nation. His Cunily, a branch 
of the descendants of Shem, was settled in 
Ur of the Chaldeee, beyond the Buphratea. 
Terah had two other sons, Nahor and Haran. 
Haraa died before his ihther in Ur of the 
Chaldoes, leaTing a son Lot; and Terah, 
taking with him Abram, with Sarai his wife, 
and his grandson Lot, emigrated to Haran in 
Mesopotamia, where he died. On the death 
of his fkther, Abram, then in the 75th year 
of his age, with Sand and Lot, pursued his 
course to the land of Canaan, whither he was 
dirseted by divine command (Gen. xiL 5), 
when he received the general promise that he 
should become the founder of a great nation, 
and that all the fsmilies of the earth should 
be blessed in him. He passed through the 
heart of the country by the great highway to 
Sheehem, and pitched his tent beneath the 
terebinth of Moreh (Gen. xiL e). Here he 
received in vision firom Jehovah the fbrther 
revelation that this was the land which his 
descendants should inherit (xiL 7). The 
next halting-plaoe of the wanderer was on a 
mountain between Bethel and Ai (Gen. xiL 8). 
But the country was suillBring fhun femine, 
and Abram, finding neither pasture for his 
cattle nor food fbr his household. Journeyed 
stin southwards to the rich corn-lands of 
Egypt. There, fearing that the great beauty 
of Sand might tempt the powerful mooareh 
of Egypt and expoee his own life to peril, he 
arranged that Sarai should represent herself 
M hie sister, which her actual relationship 
to him, M probably the da u gh t e r of his bro- 
ther Haran, allowed her to do with some 

semblance of truth. But her beauty wss 
reported to the king, and she was taken 
into the royal harem. The decefitiMi was 
discovered, and Pharaoh with some indigna- 
tion dismissed him fhmi the country (xiL 
10-30). Abram left Egypt with great pos- 
sessions, and, accompanied by Lot, returned 
by the south of Palestine to his former en- 
campment between Bethel and Ai. The in- 
creased wealth of the two kinsmen was the 
ultimate cause of their separation. The soil 
was not fertile enough to support them both : 
their herdsmen quarrelled; and, to avoid 
dissensions in a country whero they were 
surrounded by enemies, Abram proposed that 
each should follow his own fortune. Lot 
choee the fertile plain of the Jordan, rich 
and well-watered as the garden of Jehovah; 
while Abram quitted the hllMlutness between 
Bethel and Ai, and pitched his tent among the 
oak-groves of Manure, doee to Hebron (Gen. 
xiiL). The chiefe of the tribee who peopled 
the plain of the Jordan had been subdued in 
a previous irruption of northern warriors, 
and for twelve years had been the tributaries 
of Chedorlaomer, king of Elam. Their re- 
bellion brought down upon Palestine and the 
neighbouring countries a fk«ah flood of in- 
vaders fhMU the north-east, who joined battle 
with the revolted chieftains in the vale of 
Siddim. The king of Sodom and his con- 
federates wero defeated, their dtiee plun- 
dered, and a host of captives accompanied 
the victorious army of Chedorlaomer. Among 
them wero Lot and his femily. Abram, then 
confederate with Mamro the Amorite and his 
brethren, heard the tidings fhmi a fhgitive, 
and hastily arming his trusty slaves, started 
in pursuit. He ft>llowed the track of the 
conquerors along the Jordan valley, came up 
with them by Dan, and in a night-attack 
completely routed their hoet, and checked for 
a time the stream of northern immigration. 
The captives and plunder wero all recovered, 
and Atoam was greeted on his return by the 
king of Sodom, and by Melcbiaedek king of 
Salem, priest of the Most High God, who 
mysteriously appears upon the scene to bless 
the patriaroh, and receive firom him a tenth 
of the spoil (Gen. xiv.). After this, the 
thrice-ropeated promise that his descendants 
should become a mighty nation and possess 
the land in which he was a stranger, was 
confirmed with all the solemnity of a reUgious 
ceremony (Gen. xv.). Ten years had passed 
since, in obedience to the divine command, 
he had left his fkther's house, and the f^ilfil- 
ment of the promise was apparenUy moro 
distant than at first At the suggestion of 
Sarai, who despaired of having children of 
her own, he took as his concubine Hagar, 

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her Egyptian maid, who bare him Ishmael in 
the 86th year of ills age (Oen. xvl.)* [Haoas; 
leHKAKi^] But this was not the accomplish- 
ment of the promise. Thirteen years elapsed, 
during which Abram still dwelt in Hebron, 
when the last step in the rerelation was 
made, that the son of Sand, and not Ishmael, 
should inherit both tbe temporal and spiritual 
blessings. The covenant was renewed, and 
the rite of circumcision established as its 
sign. This most important crisis in Abram's 
life is marked by the significant change of 
his name to Abraham, ** father of a multi- 
tude ; " while his wife's from Sand became 
Sarah. In his 99th year Abraham was cir- 
cumcised, in accordance with the dirine com- 
mand, together with Ishmael and all the 
males of his household, as well the slaves 
bom in his house as those purchased fhnn 
the foreigner (Oen. xvii.). The promise that 
Sarah should have a son was repeated in the 
remarkable soene desirobed in ch. xviii. 
Three men stood befbre Abraham as he sat in 
his tent door in the heat of the day. The 
patrlaroh, with tme Eastern boepitality, wel- 
comed the strangers, and bade them rest and 
refresh themselTes. The meal ended, they 
foretold the birth of Isaao and went on their 
way to Sodom. Abraham accompanied them, 
and is represented as an interlocutor in a 
dialogue with Jehorah, in which he pleaded 
in Tain to avert the vengeance threatened to 
the devoted cities of the plain (zviiL 17-88). 
— ^In remarkable oontrast with Abraham's 
Arm fidth with regard to the magnificent 
fortunes of his posterity stands the incident 
which occurred during his temporary resi- 
dence among the Philistines in Qerar, whither 
he had, for some cause, removed .after the 
destruction of Sodom. Sarah's beauty won 
the admiration of AUmeleoh, the king of the 
oountry ; the temporising policy of Abraham 
produced the same results as before; and the 
narrative of ch. xx. is nearly a repetition of 
that in oh. xii. 1 1-30. Abimeleeh's dignified 
rebuke taught him that he was not alone in 
recognising a Ood of Justice.— At length 
Isaac, the bmg-looked for child, was bom. 
His birth was welcomed by all the rc^Joioings 
which could greet the advent of one whose 
future was of such rich promise. Sarah's 
Jealousy, aroused by the mockery of Ishmael 
at the ** great banquet" which Abraham 
made to celebrate the weaning of her son 
(Gen. xxi. 9), demanded that, with his 
mother Hagar, he should be driven out (Gen. 
xxL 10 J. The patriarch reluctantly con- 
sented, oonsoled by the firesh promise that 
Ishmael too should become a great nation. 
But the severest trial of his ftdth was yet to 
omne. For a long period the history is al- 


most silent At length he receives the Strang 
command to take Isaac, his only son, and 
offer him for a bumt-offering at an appointed 
place. Such a bidding, in direct opposition 
to the promptings of nature and the divine 
mandate against the shedding of human blood, 
Abraham hesitated not to obey. His faith, 
hitherto unshaken, supported him in this 
final trial, " accounting that God was able to 
raise up his son, even from the dead, from 
whence also he received him in a figure " 
(Heb. xi. 19). The sacrifice was stayed by 
the angel of Jehovah, the promise of spiritual 
blessing for the first time repeated, and 
Abraham with his son returned to Beersheba, 
and for a time dwelt there (Oen. xxii.). But 
we find him after a few years in his original 
residence at Hebron, for there Sarah died 
(Gen. xxiiL 2), and was buried in the cave of 
Machpelah, which Abraham purchased of 
Ephron the Hittite, for the exorbitant price 
of 400 shekels of silver. The mosque at 
Hebron is believed to stand upon the site of 
the sepulchral cave. — ^The remaining years of 
Abraham's life are marked by but few inci- 
dento. In his advanced age he commissioned 
th9 faithful steward of his house to seek a 
wife for Isaac from the family of his brother 
Nahor, binding him by the most solemn oath 
not to contract an alliance with the daughters 
of the degraded Canaanites among whom he 
dwelt (Gen. xxiv.). After Isaac's marriage 
with Rebeoca, and his removal to Lahai-roi, 
Abraham took to wife Keturah, by whom he 
had six children, Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, 
Midian, Ishbok, and Shuah, who became the 
ancestors of nomadic tribes inhabiting the 
countries south and south-east of Palestine. 
Keturah occupied a position inferior to that 
of a legitimate wife. Her children, like 
Ishmael, were diamissed with presents, and 
settled in the East country during Abraham's 
lifetime, and Isaac was left sole heir of his 
father's wealth. — Abraham lived to see the 
gradual acoomplishmant of the promise in 
the Urth of his grandchildren Jacob and 
Esau, and witnessed their growth to man- 
hood (Oen. XXV. 36). At the goodly age of 
175 he was "gathered to his people," and 
laid beside Sarah in the tomb of Maehpdah 
by his sons Isaac and Ishmael (Gen. xxv 
7-10). — 'From the intimate communion which 
Abraham held with the Almighty, he is dis- 
tinguished by the high title of **the * fHend 
of God" (2 Chr. XX. 7 ; Is. xlL 8; Jam. ii. 
88); and Hl-XhalU, "the friend," is the 
appellation by which he is fluniliarly known 
in the traditions of the Arabs, who have 
given the same name to Hebron, the place ot 
his residence. 
AB'SALOM {father of peao$), third ton of 

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David by Maaohah, daughter of Talmai king 
of OeiAiQr, a Sjriaa district adjoining the 
N.E. firontier of the Holy Land. Absalom 
had a sister, Tamar, who was violated by her 
half-brother Amnon, Darid's eldest son by 
Ahinoam the Jezreelitess. The natoral 
avenger of soeh aa outrage would be Tamar's 
AiU brother Absalom. He brooded over the 
wrong for two years, and then invited all the 
prinecs to a sheep-shearing feast at his estate 
in Baal-haaor, on the borders of Ephraim and 
Benjamin. Here he ordered his servants to 
morder Amnon, and then fled for safety to 
his grandfkther*8 court at Geshnr, where he 
remained for tiiree years. At the end of that 
time he was brought back by an artifice of 
Joab, who sent a woman of Tekoah to ratreat 
the king's interference in an imi^nary cane 
sfanikr to Absalom's. David, however, 
would not see Absalom fbr two more years ; 
but at length Joab brought about a recon- 
ciliation. Absalom now b^an at once to 
prepare for rebellion, urged to it partly by 
his own resQoss wickedness, partly perhaps 
by the fear l«tt Bathsheba's child should sup- 
plant him in the suecession, to which he 
would feel himself entitled as being now 
David's eldest surviving son. Absalom tried 
to supplant his fether by courting popularity, 
standing in the gate, convening with every 
suitor, and lamenting the dilBculty which he 
would find in getting a hearing. He also 
maintainfid a splendid retinue (S Sam. xv. 1), 
and was admired for his personal beauty and 
the luxuriant growth of his hair, on grounds 
similar to those which had made Saul accept- 
able (1 Sam. X. S8). It is probable too that 
the great tribe of Judah had taken some 
oAmoe at David's government, perhaps from 
finding themselves completely merged in one 
united Israd* But whatever the causes may 
have been, Absalom raised the standard of 
revolt at Hebron, the old capital of Judah, 
now supplanted by Jerusalem. The revolt 
was at first completely suocessftil; David fled 
fkum his capital over the Jordan to Mahanaim 
in Oilead. Absalom occupied Jerusalem, and 
by the advice of Ahithophel took poeseasimi 
of David's harem, in which he had left ten 
oooenUnea. This was considered to Imply a 
iDrmal assumption of all his father's royal 
rights (eomp. the eondnet of Adon^ah, 1 K. 
ti. 18 fir.), and was also a fUfllment of 
Nathan's prophecy (S Sam. xiL 11.) But 
David had left Mends who watched over his 
interests. The vigorous counsels of Ahi- 
thophd were afterwards rfjected through the 
crafty advice of Huahai, who insinuated him- 
self into Absalom's confidence to work his 
ruin, and Ahithophel himself; seeing his 
•mfaitioas hopes Ikustrated, went home to 

Giloh, and committed suicide. At last, afler 
being solemnly anointed king at Jerusaloa 
(xix. 10), Absalom crossed the Jordan to 
attack his fkther, who by this time had rallied 
round him a considerable force, whereas had 
Ahithophel's advice been foUowed, he would 
probably have been crushed at once. A 
decisive battle was fought in Oilead, in the 
wood of Ephraim. Here Absalom's forces 
were totally defeated, and as he himself was 
escaping, his long hair was entangled in the 
branches of a terebinth, where he was left 
hanging while the mule on which he was 
riding ran away fhnn under him. He w^ 
despatched by Joab in spite of Che prohibition 
of David, who, loving him to tLe last, had 
desired that his life might be spared. He 
was buried in a great pit in the fbrest, and 
the conquerors threw stones over his grave, 
an old proof of bitter hostility (Josh. vii. 

ACOAD, one of the cities in the land of 
Shinar (Gen. x. 10). Its position Is quite 

AC/CHO (the Ptolbxaib of the Maccabees 
and N. T.), now called Aeea, or more usually 
by Europeans, 8t» Jtan tPAer«t the most im- 
portant sea-port town on the Syrian coast, 
about 80 miles S. of Tyre. It was situated 
on a slightly projecting headland, at the 
northern extremity of that spacious bay, 
which is formed by the bold promontory of 
Carmel on the opposite side. In the division 
of Canaan among the tribes, Accho fell to the 
lot of Asher, but was never wrested ftaai its 
original inhabitants (Judg. i. 81) ; and hence 
it is reckoned by the classical writers among 
the cities of Phoenicia. No farther mention 
is made of it in the O. T. history, but it rose 
to importance after the dismemberment of 
the Macedonian empire. Along with the 
rest of Phoenicia it fell to the lot of Egypt, 
and was named Ptolemais, after one of the 
Ptolemies, probably Soter. It was afterwards 
taken by Antiochus the Great, and attached to 
his kingdom. The only notice of it in the 
N. T. is in connexion with St, Paul's passage 
tnm Tyre to Caesarea (Acts xxi. 7). 

ACEL'DAMA, "the field of blood;" the 
name given by the Jews of Jerusalem to 
a field near Jerusalem purchased by Judas 
with the money which he received for th^ 
betrayal of Christ, and so called fWmi his 
viident death therein (Acts L 19). This is 
apparently at variance with the account of 
St. Matthew (xxviL 8), according to which 
the ** field of blood" was purchased by Ibe 
priests with the 80 pieces of silver, after Ihey 
had been cast down by Judas, as a burial- 
place for strangers, the locality being well 
known at the time as <* the field of the Poff er." 

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And aooordingly eoclesiastioal tradition ap- 
pears, from the earliest times, to have pointed 
out two distinct spots as referred to in the 
two aoooonts. The *' field of blood " is now 
shown on the steep sonthem face of the 
valley or ravine of Hinnom. It was believed 
in the middle ages that the soil of this place 
had the power of very rapidly consuming 
bodies buried in it, and in consequence either 
of this, or of the sanctity of the spot, great 
quantities of the earth were taken away; 
amongst others by the Pisan Crusaders in 
1318 for their Campo Santo at Pisa, and by 
the Empress Helena for that at Rome. 

ACHA'IA signifies, in the N. T., a Roman 
provinoe, which included the whole of the 
Peloponnesus and the greater part of Hellas 
proper with the a4)aoent islands. This pro- 
vince, with that of Macedonia, comprehended 
the whole of Greece: hence Achaia and 
Macedonia are freqnentiy mentioned together 
in the N. T. to indicate all Greece (Acts 
zviii. 13, ziz. 31 ; Rom. zv. 36, vvi, 6 ; 
1 Cor. xvi 16 ; 3 Cor. ii. 1, ix. 3, xL 10 ; 
1 Thess. i. 7, 8). In the time of the em- 
peror Clandius, it was governed by a Pro- 
consul, translated in the A. Y. ** deputy " of 
Achaia (Acts xviU. 13). 

A'CHAN {trovb'lm-) an IsraeUte of the tribe 
of Judah, who, when Jericho and all that it 
contained were accursed and devoted to de- 
struction, secreted a portion of the spoil in 
his tent. For thi& sin Jehovah punished 
Israel by their defeat in the attack upon 
Ai. When Aohan confiBssed his guilt, and 
the booty was discovered, he was stoned to 
deith with his whole fhmily by the people in 
a valley situated between Ai and Jericho, and 
their remains, together with his property, 
were burnt (Jpsh. viL 16-33). From this 
event the valley received the name of Aohor 
(L e. tnmbU). [Aohor]. 

AiCHISH, a Philistine king of Gatti, who 
in the titie to tiie 8401 Psalm is called Abi- 
meleoh. David twice found a refUge with 
him wlien be fled firom SauL On the first 
occasion, being recognised by the servants of 
Aehlsh as one celebrated for his victories over 
the Philistines, he was alarmed for his safety, 
and feigned madness (1 Sam. xxL 10-18). 
[Davu>.] Fhmi Achish he fled to the cave 
of Adnllam. On a second oooasi<m David 
fled to Achish with 600 men (1 Sam. xxvlL 
3), and remained at Gath a year and four 

ACH'MBTHA. [Eobataka.] 

A'CHOR, VALLEY OF, or "valley of 
trouble," the spot at which Achan, the 
** tioubler of Israel," was stoned (Josh. viL 
84, 36). On the N. boundary of Judah (xv. 
T ; also Is. Ixv. 10 ; Hos. U. 15). 

ACH'SAH, daughter of Caleb. Her fktther 
promised her in marriage to whoever should 
take Debir. Othniel, her fether's younger 
brother, took that city, and accordingly re- 
ceived the hand of Achsah as his reward. 
Caleb, at his daughter's request, added to 
her dowry the upper and lower springs, 
which she had pleaded for as peculiarly suit- 
able to her inheritance in a south country 
(Josh. XV. 15-19; Judg. i. 11-15). 

ACH'SHAPH, a city wiUiin the territory 
of Asher, named between Beten and Alamme- 
lech (Jm^. xix. 85) ; originally the seat of a 
Canaanite king (xL 1, xiL 80). 

ACH'ZIB. 1. A city in the lowlands of 
Judah, named with Keilah and Mareshah 
(Josh. XV. 44 ; Mio. i. 14). It is probably 
the same with Chkzxb and Chozkba, which 
see. — 2. A town belonging to Asher (Josh. 
xix. 39), fhnn which the Canaanites were not 
expelled (Judg. L 81) ; afterwards Eodippa. 
It is now e§-Zib, aa the sea-shore, 8 h. 30 m* 
N. of Acre. 

treatise by the author of the third Gospel, 
traditionally known as Luke. The identity 
of the writer of both books is strongly shown 
by their great similarity in style and idiom, 
and the usage of particular words and com- 
pound forms. It is, at first sight, somewhat 
surprising that notices of the author are 
wanting, generally, in the Epistles of St. 
Paul, whom he must have accompanied for 
some years on his travels. But no Episties 
were, strietiy speaking, written by St. Paul 
while our writer was in his company, before 
his Roman imprisonment; for he does not 
seem to have Joined him at Corinth (Actt 
xviiL), where the two Epistles to the Thessa- 
lonians were written, nor to have been with 
him at Ephesus (ch. xix.), whence, perhaps, 
the Epistle to the Galatians was written; 
nor again to have wintered with him at 
Corinth (ch. xx. 8) at the time of his writing 
the EpLstie to the Romans, and, perhi^M, 
that to the Galatians.— The book oommenoes 
with an inscription to one Theophilus, who 
was probably a man of Urth and station. 
But its design must not be supposed to be 
limited to the edification of Theophilus, whose 
name is prefixed only, as was customary then 
as now, by way of dedication. The readers 
were evidentiy intended to be the members 
of the Christian Church, whether Jews or 
Gentiles; for its contents are such as are o^ 
the utmost consequence to the whole Church. 
They are 7%«J^t^Ummt qf th0 promiae of ik» 
Father by the d§aomU qf the Holy Spkit, and 
the reeulte qf that ou^atiring, fty the diaper' 
eion qf the Geepel among Jem and Gentil e e , 
Under theee leading heads all the personal 

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and •abordinate details may be ranged. Im- 
mediately after the Aicension, St. Peter, the 
first of Ae Twelve, designated by oar Lord 
as the Rock on whom the Church was to be 
boilt, the holder of the keys of the kingdom, 
becomes the prime actor under God in the 
founding of the Chureh. He is the centre of 
the first great group of sayings and doings. 
The opening of the door to Jews (oh. ii.) and 
Gentiles (ch. x.) is Ids office, and by him, in 
good time, is aeoompUahed. But none of 
the existing twelve Apostles were, humanly 
speaking, fitted to preach the Gospel to the 
cultivated Gentile world. To be by divine 
grace the spiritual conqueror of Asia and 
Europe, God raised up another instrument, 
tnan among the highly-educated and sealous 
Pharisees. The preparation of Saul of Tarsus 
for the work to be done, the progress, in his 
hand, of that work. Ids Joumeyings, preach- 
ings, and perils, his stripes and imprison- 
meirts, his testifying in Jerusalem and being 
brought to testify in Home,— these ara the 
satjeets of the latter half of the book, of 
which the great central figure is the Apostle 
PanL It seems most probable that the place 
of writing was Bome, and the time about two 
yean firom the date of St. Paul's arrival 
there, as related in oh. xxviii. 80. This 
would give us for the publication the year 
63 A.i>., according to the most probable 
assignment of the date of the arrival of St. 
Paul at ltom » . 

ADAH {omammt, heatOy), 1. The first 
of the two wives of Lamech, by whom were 
bora to him Jabal and Jubal (Gen. iv. 19). 
-^. A Hittitess, one of the three wives of 
Esau, mother of Eliphai (Gen. zxxvi 3, 10, 
13, 16). In Gen. xxvL 84 she is caUed 

AI/AM, the name given in Seripture to the 
first man. It apparently has reference to the 
fnround from whkh he was formed, which is 
called in Hebrew Adamah. The idea of red- 
neu ofeciUmr seems to be inherent in either 
word. The creation of man was the work 
of the sixth day. His formation was the 
ultimate oliiject of the Creator. It was with 
reference to him that all things were de- 
signed. He was to be the "roof and crown" 
of the whole fkbrio of the world. In the first 
nine ehapten of GenesiB thera appear to be 
three distinct histories relating more or less 
to the life of Adam. The first extends Ihm 
Gen. L 1 to ii. 3, the second from iL 4 to iv. 
26, the third from v. 1 to the end of ix. The 
word at the commencement of the two latter 
narratives, which is rendered there and else- 
where g9neratton$i^ toxy also be rendered 
hutorp. The object of the first of these 
sarratives is to record the creatioii ; that of 

the second to give an account of paradise, the 
original sin of man, and the immediate pos- 
terity of Adam; the third contains mainly 
the history of Noah, referring, it would seem, 
to Adam and his descendants principally in 
rdation to that patriarch. The name Adam 
was not confined to the fether of the human 
race, but like howto was applicable to womam 
as well as Mon, so that we find it said in 
Gen. V. 2, '*male and female created He 
them, and called their nsme Adam in the day 
when they wera created.*' The man Adam 
was placed in a garden which the Lord God 
had planted •• eastward in Eden," for the 
purpose of dressing it and keeping it. [Edsm.] 
Adam wsa permitted to eat of the fruit of 
every tree in the garden but one, which was 
called the ** tree of the knowledge of good 
and evil." The prohibition to taste the fruit 
of this tree was enforced by the menace of 
death. There was also another tree which 
was called ** the tree of life." Some suppose 
it to have acted as a kind of medicine, and 
that by the continual use of it our first 
parents, not created immortal, wera pre- 
served from death. While Adam was in the 
garden of Eden, the beasts of the field and 
the fowls of the air wera brought to him to 
be named, and whatsoever he called every 
living creatura that mm the name thereof. 
Thus the power of fitly deiignating objects of 
sense was pos s ess e d by the first man, a feculty 
which is generally considered as indicating 
matura and extensive intellectnal resources. 
Upon the feUura of a companion suitable for 
Adam among the creatures thus brought to 
him to be named, the Lord God caused a deep 
lileep to fell upon him, and took one of Ids 
ribs from him, which He feshioned into a 
woman and brought her to the man. At this 
time they ara both described as being naked 
without the consciousness of shame. Such is 
the Scriptura account of Adam prior to the 
FUL The first man is a true man, with the 
powen of a man and the innocence of a child. 
He is moreover spoken of by St Paul as being 
"the figura of Him that ws» to come," the 
second Adam, Christ Jesus (Bom. v. 14). By 
the subtlety of the serpent, the woman who 
was given to be with Adsm, was beguiled 
into a violation of the one command which 
had been imposed upon them. She took of 
the fruit of the forbidden tree and gave it to 
her husband. The propriety of its name was 
immediately shown in the results which fol- 
lowed : self-consdousness was the flrst-fhdts 
of sin ; their eyes wera opened and they knew 
that they wera naked. Though the curse of 
Adam*8 rabellion of necessity fell upon him, 
yet the very prohibitioii to eat of the tree of 
life after his trans gr es si on was probably a 

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maniiefttation of Divine meruy, because the 
greatest malediction of all wonld have heen 
to have the gift of indestructible life super- 
added to a state of wretchedness and sin. — 
Adam is stated to have lived 930 years. 
His sons mentioned in Scripture are 
Cain, Abel, and Seth: it it implied 
however that he had others. 

AD 'AM, a city on the Jordan ** be- 
side Zaretan," in the time of Joshua 
(Josh. iii. 16). 

AD'AMAH, one of the «* fenced cities*' 
of Naph^li, named between Chinnereth 
and ha-Ramah (Josh. xix. 36). 

ADAMANT, the translation of the 
Hebrew word Sh&mir in E«. iii. 9 and '-^ 
Zech. vii. IS. In Jer. xv}i. 1 it is trans- 
lated " diamond." In these three pas- 
sages the word is the representative of 
some stone of excessive hardness, and 
is used metaphorically. Since the Hebrews 
appear to have been unacquainted with the 
tTXM diamond, it is very probable, fh>m the 
expression in £z. iii. 0, of "adamant harder 
thanJUnt," that by Shdtntr is intended JBrnery, 
A variety of Coruruktm, a mineral inferior only 
to the diamond in hardness. Emery is exten- 
sively used for polishing and cutting gems 
and other hard substances. 

AD'AMI, a place on the border of Naphtali 
(Josh. xix. 88). 

A' DAB, a place on the south boundary of 
Judah (Josh. xv. 8). 

A'DAR. [Months.] 

AD' ASA, a place in Judaea, about 4 miles 
from Bethhoro^ (1 Maoc. vii. 40, 45). 

ADDER. This word is used fbr any 
poisonous snake, and is applied in this 
general sense by the translators of the A. Y. 
They use in a similar way the synonymous 
term tup. The word adder occurs five times 
in the text of the A. Y. (see below), and three 
times in the margin as synonymous with 
ooekatricet vis. Is. xi. 8, xiv. 29, lix. 5. It 
represents four Hebrew words :— 1. *Ac$hiib 
is found only in Ps. cxl. 8, "They have 
sharpened their tongues like a serpent, 
adders* poison is under their lips.'* The 
latter half of this verse is quoted by St. Paul 
ftrom the LXX in Bum. iii. IS. *Ac$hitb may 
be represented by the T^eicoa of Egypt and 
North Africa.— 0.P«<A«n. [Asp.]— 8. T$ephay 
or TV^Aont, occurs five times in the He- 
brew Bible. In Prov. xxiii. 82 it is trans- 
lated adder, and in Is. xi. 8, xiv. 29, Ux. 5, 
Jer. viii. 17, it is rendered coekairiee. From 
Jeremiah we learn that it was of a hostile 
nature, and from the parallelism of Is. xi. 8 
it appears that the l^hofU was considered 
even more dreadful than the Ftthm, — ft. 
ShephtpMn occurs only in Oen. xlix. 17, 

where it is used to characterise the tribe of 
Dan : " Dan shall be a serpent by the way, 
an adder in the path, that biteth the horse's 
heels, 80 that his rider shall (all backward." 

The habit of lurking in the sand and biting 
at the horse's heels, here alluded to, suits the 
character of a well-known species of veno- 
mous snake, and helps to identify it with the 
celebrated homed viper, the asp of Cleopatra 
{Cerastes), which is found abundantly in the 
dry sandy deserts of Egypt, Syria, and 
Arabia. The Cerastes is extremely veno- 
mous; Bruce compelled a specimen to scratch 
eighteen pigeons upon the thigh as quickly 
as possible, and they all died in nearly the 
same interval of time. 

AIVMAH, one of the " cities of the plain," 
always coupled with Zeboim (Gen. x. 19, 
xiv. 2, 8 ; Deut. xxix. 28 ; Hos. xi. 8). 

AD(yNI-BE'ZEK {lord of Batek), king of 
Bezek, a city of the Canaanites. [Bxsks.] 
This chieftain was vanquished by the tribe of 
Judah (Judg. L 8-7), who out off his thumbs 
and grMt toes, and brought him prisoner to 
Jerusalem, where he died. He confessed that 
he had inflicted the same cruelty upon 70 
petty kings whom he had conquered. 

ADONI'JAH (my Lord is Jehovah), the 
fourth son of David by Haggith, bom at 
Hehron, while his fkther was king of Judah 
(2 Sam. iiL 4). After the death of his three 
brothers, Anmon, Chileab, and Absalom, he 
became eldest son; and when Us fkther's 
strength was visibly declining, put forward 
his pretensions to the crown. David promised 
Bathsheba that her son Solomon should in- 
herit the succession (1 K. i. 80), for there 
was no absolute claim of primogeniture in 
these Eastern monarchies. Adonijah's cause 
was espoused by Abiathar and Joab, the 
famous commander of David's army. [Joab.] 
His name and influence secured a large 
number of followers among the captains of 
the royal army belonging to the tribe ot 
Judah (oomp. I K. i. 9, 25) ; and these, to. 

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g«ther with mil the priooa*, except bolomon, 
were entertained bj Adon^ah at a great 
laortfleial feast held ** by the atone Zoheleth, 
which is by En-rogeL" [Ekxoosl.] Nathan 
and Bathsheba, now thoroaghly alarmed, 
apprised David of these proceedings, who 
Immediately gave orders that Solomon should 
be eondneted on the royal mule in solemn 
procession to Oihon, a spring on the W. of 
Jemsalem (8 Chr. xxxii. 80). [Gihox.] 
Here he was anointed and proclaimed king 
by Zadok, and Joyftilly recognised by the 
people. This decisiTC measure struck terror 
into the opposite party, and Adon^ah fled to 
sanctuary, but was pardoned by Solomon on 
condition that he should **show himself a 
worthy man,*' with the threat that "if 
wickedness were ibund in him he should die" 
(L 53). The death of Darid quickly fol- 
lowed on these erents ; and Adoni^ah begged 
Bathsheba, who as ** king's mother '* would 
now hftTe special dignity and influence [Asa], 
to procure Bolonwn's consent to his marriage 
with Abiahag, who had been the wife of 
DaTld ia his old age (1 K. i. 8). This was 
regarded as equiTalent to a fi-esh attempt 
on the throne [Absalom ; Abksb] ; and 
therefore Bokmun ordered him to be put to 
death by Benaiah, in accordance with the 
terms of his prerioos pardon. 

ADONT&AM (1 K. ir. 6 ; by an unusual 
eontraction Adorax, S Sam. zx. 34, and 
1 K. xiL 18 ; also HAnoRAX, 3 Chr. x. 18), 
chief receiTer of the tribute daring the reigns 
of DaTld (8 6am. xx. 84), Solomon (1 K. 
It. 6), and Rehoboam (1 K. xiL 18). This ' 
last monarch sent him to collect the tribute 
tram, the rebellions Israelites, by whom he 
was stoned to death. 

AJXyNI-ZBTDEK {iord qf ju»tice), the 
Amorite king of Jerusalem who organised a 
league with four other Amorite princes against 
Joshua. The confederate kings baring laid 
siege to Oibeoc, #o«hna marched to the relief 
of his new allies and put the besiegers to 
flight. The flTC kings took refuge in a cave 
at Makkedah, whence they were taken and 
slain, their bodies hung on trees, and then 
buried in the place of their concealment 
(Josh. X. 1-37). 

ADOPTION, an exp r es si on metaphorically 
used by St. Panl in relbrence to the preeent 
and prospectitie priTfleges of C3iristian« 
(Kom. TiiL 15, 38 ; GaL iv. 5 ; Eph. i. 5). 
He probably alhidss to the Roman custom of 
adoption, by which a person, not haying 
children of his own, might sdopt as his son 
one bom of other parents. The eifeot of it 
wan that the adopted chiki was entitled to 
the name and taera prioata of his new father, 
and ranked as his heir-at-law: while the 

father on his part was entitled to the pro- 
perty of the son, and exercised towards him 
all the rights and pririleges of a fether. In 
short the relationship was to all intents and 
purposes the same as existed between a 
natural fether and son. The selection of a 
person to be adopted implied a decided pre- 
ference and lore on the part of the adopter : 
and St. Paul aptly transfers the well-known 
feelings and customs connected with the act 
to illnstrate the position of the Christianised 
Jew or Gentile. The Jews themselres were 
unacquainted with the process of adoption : 
indeed it would Iultb been inconsistent with 
the regulations of the Mosaic law affecting 
the inheritance of property: the instances 
occasionally adduced as referring to the cus- 
tom (Gen. XT. 8, xtI. 3, xzx. 5-0) are eri- 
dently not cases of adoption proper. 

ADOBA'IM, a fortified dty buUt by Reho- 
boam (3 Chr. xi. 0), in Judah. ^ Adoraim is 
probably the same place with Adora (1 Mace, 
xiii. 30), unless that be Dor, on the sea- 
coast below Carmel. Robinson identifies it 
with Dtlro, a " large Tillage '* on a rising 
ground west of Hebron. 

ADORATION. The acts and postures by 
which the Hebrews expressed adoration bear 
a great similarity to those still in use among 
Oriental nations. To rise up and suddenly 
prostrate the body was the most simple 

A^kmUoo. Modern Egyptmo. (Lmm.) 

method; but, generally speaking, the pros- 
tration was conducted in a more formal 
manner, the person falling upon the knee 
and then gradually inclining the body until 
the forehead touched the ground. Such 
prostration was usual in the worship of Je- 
hoTah (Gen. xriL 3 ; Ps. xct. 6). But it 
was by no means exduslTely used for that 
purpose ; it was the formal mode of reoeiTing 
Tisitors (Gen. xtUI. 3), of doing obeisance to 
one of superior station (3 Sam. xIt. 4), and 
of Ahowing respect to equals (1 K. iL 19). 

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OccatioiLally it was repeated three times (1 
Sam. XX. 41), and even seven times (Gen. 
xxxiii. 3). It was accompanied by such acts 
as a kiss (Ex. xriii. 7), laying hold of the 
knees or feet of the person to whom the 
adoration was paid (Matt xxriii. 9), and 
kissing the ground on which he stood (Ps. 
IxxlL 9 ; Mic. TiL 17). Similar adoration 
~ was paid to idols (1 K. xix. 18) : sometimes 
however prostration was omitted, and the 
act consisted simply in kissing the hand to 
the object of reverence (Job xxxL S7), and 
in kissing the statue itself (Hos. xiii. 2). 

ADRAM'MELECH. 1. The name of an 
idol introduced into Samaria by the colonists 
trom Sepharvaim (3 K. xvii. SI). He was 
worshipped with rites resembling those of 
Molech, children being burnt in his honour. 
The first part of the word probably means 
Hre. Adrammelech was probably the male 
power of the sun, and Amammslbch, who is 
mentioned with Adrammelech as a oom- 
pani(m-god, the female power of the sun. — 
8. Boa of the Assyrian king Sennacherib, 
who, together with his brother Shareser, 
murdered their finther in the temple of Nis- 
roeh at Nineveh, after the Ikilure of the As- 
syrian attack on Jerusalem. The parricides 
escaped into Armenia (2 K. xix. 87 ; 2 Chr. 
xxxii. 21 ; Is. xxxvU. 88). The date of this 
event was b.c. 6 80. 

ADR.iMTT^UM, a seaport in the pro- 
vinoe of Asia [Asia], situated in the district 
anciently called Ae^is, and also Mysia (see 
Acts xvi. 7). Adramyttium gave, and still 
gives, its name to a deep gulf on this coast, 
opposite to the opening of which is the island 
of Lesbos. [MxTTLKNs.] It has no Biblical 
interest, except as illustrating St. Paul's 
voyage from Caeearea in a ship belonging to 
this place (Acts xxviL 2). Ships of Adra- 
myttium must have been fkequent on this 
eoiast, for it was a place of considerable 
traffic The modem Adramyti is a poor 
tillage, but it is still a place of some trade 
and shipbuilding. 

A'DBIA, more properly A'DRIAS. It is 
important to fix the meaidng of this word as 
used in Acts xxvii. 27. The word seems to 
have been derived fh>m the town of Adria, 
near the Po ; and at first it denoted the part 
of the Gulf of Venice which Is in that ndgh- 
bourhood. Afterwards the signification of 
the name was extended, «o as to embrace the 
whole of that gulf. Subsequently it obtained 
a much wider extension, and in the apostolic 
age denoted that natural division of the 
Mediterranean which had the ooasts of Sicily, 
Italy, Greece, and AlHca for its boundaries. 
This definition Is explicitly given by almost 
a contemporary of St. Paid, the geographer 


Ptolemy, who also says that Crete is bounded 
on the west by Adrias. Later writers state 
that Malta divides the Adriatic sea fhnn the 
Tyrrhenian sea, and the isthmus of Corinth 
the Aegean fhnn the Adriatic. It is through 
ignorance of these fiscts, or through the want 
of attending to them, that writers have drawn 
an argument fh>m this geographical term in 
favour of the false view which places the 
apostle's shipwreck in the Gulf of Venice. 

A'ORIEL, son of Barsillai, to whom Saul 
gave his daughter Merab, although he had 
previously promind her to David (1 Bam. 
xviiL 19). His five sons were amongst the 
seven descendants of Saul whom David sur- 
rendered to the Gibeonites in satisflwtion finr 
the endeavours of Saul to extirpate them 
(2 Sam. xxL 8). 

ADUL'LAM, Apoer. Odollax, a dty of 
Judah in the lowland or Shefelah (Josh. 
XV. 85) ; the seat of a Canaanite king (Josh, 
xii. 15), and evidently a place of great anti- 
quity (Gen. xxxviii. 1, 12, 20). Fortified by 
Rehoboam (2 Chron. xi. 7), it was <me of the 
towns reoccupied by the Jews after their re- 
turn tram Babylon (Neh. xL SO), and still a 
city in the times of the Maccabees (2 Mace. xiL 
88). — ^AduUam was probably near Deir Dub^ 
bdn, 5 or 6 miles N. of Eleutheropolis. The 
limestone cliih of the whole of that locality 
are pierced with extensive excavations, some 
one of which is doubtless ihe *' cave of Adul- 
1am," the reftige of David (I Sam. xxii. 1 ; 
2 Sam. xxiiL 18 ; 1 Chr. xi. 15). 

ADULTERY. The parties to this crime 
were a married woman and a man who was 
not her husband. The toleration of poly- 
gamy, indeed, renders it nearly impossible to 
make criminal a similar ofTenoe committed 
by a married man with a woman not his 
wife. The Mosaic penalty was that both the 
guilty parties should be stoned, and it applied 
as well to the betrothed as to the married 
woman, provided she were ftree (Deut xxii. 
22-24). A bondw(Mnan so offending was to 
be scourged, and the man was to make a 
trespass oflkning (Lev. xix. 20-22). At a 
later time, and when, owing to Gentile 
example, the marriage tie became a looser 
bond of union, public feeling in regard to 
adultery changed, and the penalty of death 
was seldom or never Inflicted. Thus, in the 
case of the woman brought under our Lord's 
notice (John viii.), it is likely that no one 
then thought of stoning her in ftiot, though 
there remained the written taw ready for the 
purpose of the caviller. It is likely also that 
a divorce, in which the adulteress lost her 
dower and rights of maintenance, fto., was 
the usual remedy, suggested by a wish to 

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avoid trfir**** and the excitement of com- 
mlteratton ftir eriine. The expreiitnn in St. 
Matthew (L 10) **to make her a pubUe 
example**' probehly means to bring the caae 
befbre the local Sanhedrim, whioh wae the 
nmal eoone, bat which Joeeph did not pro- 
poeeto take, preferring repo d in t ioa, becaoae 
that CQiald be managed prirately. The 
tuaona trial by the waters of Jealooey (Num. 
T. 11-89), wae probably an andent eostom, 
wfakh Moaea ibond deeply leated, and which 
ia said to be paralleled by a fDrm of ordeal 
eaDed the •'red water" in Western Africa. 
The fcnns of Hebrew Justice all tended to 
Umit the applieation of this test. When 
adoHery ceased to be capital, as no donbt it 
did, and diToroe became a matter of mere 
eonrenienoe, it wonld be absurd to suppose 
that this trial was eontinoed. And when 
adnltery became common, it woold hate been 
impious to expect the miracle whioh it sap- 

ADUlfMIM, " Tiw oonre otto »• or " or," 
oae. of the landmarks of the boundary of 
Benjamin, a rising ground or pass "over 
against OUgal,'' and " on the south side of 
the * torrent ' " (Josh. xr. 7, xriiL 17), which 
is the position still occupied by the road 
leading up firom Jericho and the Jordan 
TaUey to Jerusalem, on the south flue of the 
gorge of the Wady KalL The pass is still 
infested by robbers, as it was in the days of 
our Lord, of whose parable of the Good 
Samaritan this is the scene. 

AE'GTPT. [Earn.] 

AE'NON, a place '*near to Salim," at 
which John baptized (John iiL 28). It was 
eridently west of the Jordan (comp. iii. S2, 
with Se, and with L S8), and abounded in 
water. This is indicated by the name, whioh 
is merely a Greek Tenioa of a Chaldee word, 
signiiying "springs." Aenon is given in the 
Onmmastieon as 8 miles south of Scythopolis 
** near Salem and the Jordan." 



AFFINITT. [Maxriaos.] 

AG'ABXJS, a Christiaa prophet in the 
aposU^ age, mentioned in Acts xi. S8 and 
xxL 10. He predicted (AcU xL 28) that a 
iSBunine would take plaoe in the reign of 
Claudius "throughout aU the world." As 
Greek and Roman writers used "the world " 
of the Greek and the Boman world, so a 
Jewish writer would use it naturally of the 
Jewish world or Palestine. Joaephus men- 
tions a femine whioh preralled In Judaea in 
the reign of Claudins, and swept away many 
of the inhabitants. This, in all probability, 
is the famine to which Agabus refers. 

A'GAG, possibly the title of the kings of 

Amalek, like Pharaoh of Egypt. One king 
of this name is mentioned in Num. xxiv. 7, 
and another in 1 Sam. xr. 8, 0, 20, 82. The 
latter was the king of the AmaleUtes, whom 
Saul spared, together with the beet of the 
spoil, although it was the well-known will of 
Jehovah that the Amalekites should be 
extirpated (Ex. xviL 14 ; Deut. xxv. 17). 
For this act of disobedience Samuel was com- 
missioned to declare to Saul his rejection, 
and he himself sent tor Agag and out him in 
pieoee. [Samvxl.] — Haman is called the 
AoAoira in Esth. iiL 1, 10, viiL 8, 6, The 
Jews consider him a descendant of Agag the 
Amalekite, and hence account for the hatred 
with which he pursued their race. 


AGATE is mentioned four times in the 
text of the A. Y. ; vis. in Ex. xxviiL 19, 
xxxix. 12 ; Is. Uv. IS ; Es. xxviL 16. In 
the two former passages, where it is re- 
preeented by the Hebrew word $hM, it is 
spoken of as forming the second stone in the 
third row of the high priest's breastplate ; in 
each of the two latter plaoes the original 
word is eadddt by which, no doubt, is in- 
tended a different stone. [RiniT.] — Our 
English agate derives its name firom the 
Achates, on the banks of which, according to 
Theophrastns and Pliny, it was first ftmnd ; 
but as agate$ are met with in almost every 
country, this stone was doubtiess firom the 
earliest times known to the Orientals. It is 
a silioious stone of the quarts funily. 

AGE, OLD. In early stages of dvilisa- 
tion, when experience is the only source of 
practical knowledge, old age has its special 
value, and consequentiy its special honours. 
A ftirther motive was superadded in the case 
of the Jew, who was taught to consider old 
age as a reward for piety, and a signal token 
of God's fkvour. For these reasons the aged 
occupied a prominent plaoe in the social and 
political system of the Jews. In privaU life 
they were looked up to as the depositaries of 
knowledge (Job xv. 10) : the young were 
ordered to rise up in their presence (Lev. 
xlx. 82) : they allowed them to give their 
opinion first (Job xxxiL 4) : they were 
taught to regard grey hairs as a "crown of 
glory" and as the "beauty of old men" 
(Prov. xvi. 81, XX. 29). The attainment of 
old age was regarded as a special blessing 
(Job V. 26), not only on account of the pro- 
longed ei^oyment of life to the individual, 
but also because it indicated peaceAil and 
prosperous times (Zech. viiL 4 ; 1 Mace xiv. 
9; Is.lxv. 20). In ^tid/io aflkirs age carried 
weight with it, especially in the infkney of 
the state : it f<nrmed under Moses the main 
qnaliilcatfen of those who acted as the re- 

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presentatives of the people in all matters of 
dlffleulty and deliberation. The old men or 
Elders thus became a class, and the title 
gradually ceased to convey the notion of age, 
and was osed in an official sense, like Patres, 
Senatores, and other similar terms. [Eldkbs.] 
Still it would be but natural that such an 
office was generally held by men of advanced 
age (1 K. xii. 8). 

AGRICULTURE. This, though promi- 
nent in the Scriptural narrative concerning 
Adam, Cain, and Noah, was little cared for 
by the patriarchs. The pastoral life was the 
means of keeping the sacred race, whilst yet 
a family, distinct from mixture and locally 
unattached, especially whilst in Egypt. 
When, grown into a nation, they conquered 
their fixture seats, agriculture supplied a 
similar check on the foreign intercourse and 
speedy demoralisation, especially as regards 
idolalry, which commerce would have caused. 
Thus agriculture became the basis of the 
Mosaic commonwealth. Taken in connexion 
with the inalienable character of inheritanoet, 
it gave each man and each family a stake in 
the soil, and nurtured a hardy patriotism. 
"The land is Mine" (Lev. xxv. 28) was a 
dictum which made agriculture likewise the 
basis of the theooratio relation. Thus every 
family felt its own life with intense keenness, 
and had its divine tenure which it was to 
guard from alienation. The prohibition of 
culture in the sabbatical year formed, under 
this aspect, a kind of rent reserved by the 
Divine Owner. Landmarks were deemed 
sacred (Deot. xix. 1 i), and the inalienability 
of the heritage was ensured by its reversion 
to the owner in the year of Jubilee ; so that 
only so many years of occupancy could be 
sold (Lev. xxv. 8-I6, 28-S5). The prophet 
Isaiah (v. 8) denovmoes the contempt of such 
restrictions by wealthy grandees, who sought 
to ** add field to field," erasing ftunilios and 
depopulating districts. 

Bain. — The abundance of water in Pales- 
tine, firom natural sources, made it a 
contrast to rainless Egypt (Deut viii. 7, xL 
8-12). Rain was commonly expected soon 
after the autumnal equinox. The common 
scriptural expressions of the "early" and 
the " latter rain " (Deut xL 14 ; Jer. v. 24 ; 
Hoe. vL 8; Zech, x. 1; Jam. v. 7) are 
scarcely confirmed by modem experience, 
the season of rains being unbroken, though 
perhaps the ihll is more strongly marked at 
the beginning and the end of it. 

Oropt. — ^The cereal crops of constant men- 
tion are wheat and barley, and more rarely 
ryt; and millet (I). Of the two former, to- 
fether with the vine, olive, and fig, the use 
of irrigation, the plough and the harrow, 

mention is made in the book of Job (xxxi. 40 { 
XV. 88; xxij. 6; xxix. 19; xxxix. 10). 
Two kinds of cummin (the black variety- 
called "fitches," Is. xxviiL 27), and such 
podded plants as beans and lentiles, may be 
named among the staple produce. 

Ploughing and Sowing. — ^The plough was 
probably very light, one yoke of oxen usually 
sufficing to draw it. Mountains and steep 
places were hoed (Is. vii. 25). New ground 
and fallows, the use of which latter was 
familiar to the Jews (Jer. iv. 8 ; Hos. x. 12), 
were cleared of stones and of thorns (Is. v. 
2) early in the year, sowing or gathering 
from " among thorns " being a proverb for 
slovenly husbandry (Job v. 5 ; Prov. xxiv. 
80,81). SowiBg also took place witAoti/ pre- 
vious ploughing, the seed, as in the parable 
of the sower, being scattered broadcast, and 
ploughed in aflonDordt, The soil was then 
brushed over with a light harrow, often of 
thorn bushes. In highly irrigated spots the 
seed was trampled in by eatUe (Is. xxxii. 20), 
as in Egypt by goats. The more formal rou- 
tine of heavy western soils must not be made 
the standard of such a naturally fine tilth as 
that of Palestine generally. During the rains, 
if not too heavy, or between their two periods, 
would be the best time for these operations ; 
thus 70 days befbre the passover was the time 
prescribed for sowing for the " wave-sheaf," 
and probably, therefore, for that of barley 
generally. The oxen were urged on by a 
goad like a spear (Judg. iiL 81). The 
custom of watching ripening erope and 
threshing fioors against theft, or damage, 
is probably aadent. Thus Boax slept on 
the floor (Ruth iii. 4, 7). Barley ripened a 
week or two befbre wheat, and as fine harvest 
weather was certain (Prov. xxvi. 1 ; 1 8am. 
xiL 17 ; Am. iv. 7), the crop chiefly varied 
with the quantity of timely rain. The pro- 
portion of harvest gathered to seed sown was 
often vast, a hundredfold is mentioned, but 
in such a way as to signify that It was a 
limit rarely attained (Gen. xxvi. 12 ; Matt, 
xiii. 8). Sowing a field with divers seeds 
was forbidden (Deut. xxli. 0). 

Heaping and thrething. — ^The wheat, ftc., 
were reaped by the sickle, or pulled up by the 
roots. They were bound in sheav es a pro- 
cess prominent in Scripture. The sheaves or 
heaps were carted (Am. ii. 18) to the floor— 
a circular spot of hard ground, probably, as 
now, from SO to 80 or 100 feet in diameter. 
Such fioors were probably permanent, and 
became well known spots (Gen. L 10, 11 ; 
2 Sam. xxiv. 16, 18). On these the oxen, 
&o., forbidden to be muxxled (Dent xxv. 4), 
trampled out the grain, as we find represented 
on tiie ^Tptian monuments. At a later time 

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the Jews uaed a threshing sledge called morag 
(Is. xlL 15 ; 2 Sam. zxiv. 22 ; 1 Chx.xxi. 23), 
probably resembling the n^/y, still employed 
in Egypt — a stage with three rollers ridged 
with iron, which, aided by the drlTer's weight, 
crushed oat, often ii^uring, the grain, as well 
as cut or tore the straw, which thus became 
fit for fodder. Lighter grains were beaten 
out with a stick (Is. xxvlii. 27). The use 
of animsl manure is proTed frequent by 
soch recurring expressions as ** dung on the 
foee of the earth, field," dec. (Ps. Ixxxiii. 10 ; 
2 K. ix. 87 ; Jer. vilL 2, &c.). 

_„ the heap ; c 

(WilkiuoB, JlHUt.) 

IFinnotptfi^.— The " shorel " and •' fan »' 
(Is. XXX. 24), the precise diflTerenoe of which 
is doubtftd, indicate the process of winnow- 
ing — a conspicuous part of ancient husbandry 

friDBoirtaf witb wooden Aanim (WUkiiiHa, Thibm.) 

(Ps. xxxT. 6 ; Job xxL 18 ; Is. XTil. 13), 
and important, owing to the slovenly thresh- 
ing. Evening was the favourite time (Ruth 
iii. 2) when there was mostly a breese. The 
** fan " (Matt. iii. 12) was perhaps a broad 
shovel which threw the grain up against 
the wind. The last process was the shaking 

in a sieve to separate dirt and revise (Am. 
ix. 9). 

Fields and floors were not oomn^only en- 
closed ; vineyards mostly were, with a tower 
and other buildings (Num. xxii. 24; Ps. 
Ixxx. 13 ; Is. V. 5 ; Ifatt. xxL 88 ; oomp. 
Judg. vi. 11). Banks of mud from ditches 
were also used* — ^With regard to occupancy, 
a tenant might pay a fixed money rent (Cant. 
viiL 11), or a stipulated share of the fruits 
(2 Sam. ix. 10 ; Matt. xxL 84), often a half 
or a third ; but local custom was the only 
rule. A paseer-by might eat any quantity of 
com or grapes, but not reap or carry off fruit 
(Deut. xxiii. 24, 25; Matt. xii. 1).— The 
rights of the comer to be left, and of glean^ 
ing [Coum; Oixaxxko], formed the poor 
man's claim on the soil for support. For his 
benefit, too, a sheaf forgotten in carrying to 
the fioor was to be left ; so also with regard 
to the vineyard and the olive-grove (Lev. 
xix. 9, 10 ; Deut. xxiv. 19). Besides there 
seems a probability that every third year a 
second tithe, besides the priests*, was paid 
for the poor (Deut. xiv. 28, xxvi 12 ; Am. 
iv. 4 ; Tob. L 7). 

AGRIP'PA. [Hzaon.] 

A'OUR, the son of Jakeh, an unknown 
Hebrew sage, who uttered or ooUected the 
sayings of wisdom recorded in Prov. xxx. 

A'HAB. 1. Son of Omri, seventh king of 
Israel, reigned b.c. 919-896. He married 
Jeaebel, daughter of Ethbaal king of Tyre ; 
and in obedience to her wishes, caused a 
temple to be built to Baal in Samaria itself, 
and an oracular grove to be consecrated to 
Astarte. (See 1 K. xviii. 19.) How the 
worship of God was restored, and the idola- 
trous priests slain, in consequence of " a sore 
famine in Somaria," is related under Eluah. 
One of Ahab's chief tastes was for splendid 
architecture, which he showed by building 
an ivory house and several cities. Desiring 
to add to his pleasure-grounds at Jezreel the 
vineyard of his neighbour Naboth, he pro- 
posed to buy it or give land in exchange for 
it ; and when this was refused by Naboth, a 
false accusation of blasphemy was brought 
against him, and not only was he himself 
stoned to death, but his sons aim, as we learn 
from 2 K. ix. 26. Thereupon El^ah declared 
that the entire extirpation of Ahab's house 
was the penalty appointed for his long course 
of wickedness, now crowned by this atrocious 
crime. The execution, however, of the sen- 
tence was delayed in consequence of Ahab's 
deep repentance (1 K. xxi.). — Ahab under- 
took three campaigns against Benhadad II. 
king of Damascus, two defensive and one 
offensive. In the first, Benhadad laid siege 
to Samaria, but was remised with great loss 

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(1 K. XX. 1-21). Nextyear Benhadad again 
faiTaded larael hj way of Aphek, on the E. of 
Jordan. Yet Ahab*t Tloto^ was so complete 
that Benhadad himself fell into his hands ; 
bat was released (contrary to the will of God 
as announced by a prc^ihet) on condition of 
restoring all the cities of Israel which he held, 
andmaking*'street8''for Ahabin Damascus; 
' that is, admitting into his ei^iital permanent 
Hebrew commissioners, in an independent 
position, with spedal dwellings tor themselres 
and their retinues, to wattih OTer the com- 
mercial and political intereetsof Ahab and his 
subjeota (1 K. xx. 8S.S4). After this great 
success Ahab enjoyed peace for three years, 
when he attacked Ramoth in Oilead on the 
east of Jordan, in coi^unction with Jehoaha- 
phat king of Judah, which town he claimed 
as belonging to IsraeL But Ood's blessing 
did not rest on the expedition, and Ahab was 
told by the prophet Micaiah that it would UJX. 
Ahab took the precaution of dlsgnisjilg him- 
self, so as not to offer a conspicuous mark to 
the archers of Benhadad ; but he was slain by 
a "certain man who drew a bow at a ren- 
ture." When he was brought to be buried 
in Samaria, the dogs licked up his blood as a 
wrrant was washing his chariot ; a partial 
fulfilment of EUJah*s prediction (1 K. xxi. 
10), which was more literally accomplished 
In the case of his son (2 K. ix. 26). S. A 
lying prophet, who daoeiTcd the captire 
Israelites in Babylon, and was burnt to death 
by Nebuchadneasar (Jer. xxix. 91). 

AHABUB'BUS, the name of one Median 
and two Persian kings mentioned in the O. T. 
The fbUowing is a list of the Medo-Pcisian 
kings ttma Cyaxares to Artaxerxea Longi- 
manus, according to their ordinary classical 
names. The Scriptural names coi^ectured to 
correspond to them are added in italics. — 1. 
Cyaxares, king of Media, son of Phraortea, 
grandson of Deloces and conqueror of Nine- 
veh, began to reign b.0. 684 : Akatnenu, 
2. Astyages his son, last king of Media, b.c 
594 : Darim tfui Med«. 8. Cyrus, son of his 
daughter Mandane and Csmbyses, a Persian 
noble, first king of Persia, 559 : CyriM. 4. 
Cambyses his son, 529 : AKamurtu, 5. A 
Magiim usurper, who personated Smerdis, the 
younger son of Cyrus, 521 : Artaxerxe$, 6. 
Darius Hystaspis, raised to the throne on the 
overthrow of the Magi, 521 : Darius. 7. 
Xerxes his son, 485 : Ahatuenu. 8. Arta- 
xerxes Longinlanus (Macrocheir), his son, 
465-495 : Artaxenm.-^l. In Dan. ix. 1, 
Ahasnerus i» said to be the fkther of Darius 
the Mede. Now it is almost certain that Cy- 
axares is a form of Ahasuerus, gredsed into 
Axares with the prefix Cy or Kal. The son 
of this Cyaxares wsa Astyages, and It is no 

improbable conjecture that Darius the Mede 
was Astyagea, set over Babylon as viceroy by 
his grandson Cyrus, and allowed to live there 
in royal state. [DAnnra.] This first Ahasn- 
erus, then, is Cyaxares, the conqueror of 
Nineveh. And, in accordance with this view, 
we read in Toblt xiv. 15 that Nineveh waa 
taken by Nabuchodonoeor and Assuems, i, «. 
Cyaxares. — 0. In Ear. iv. 6 the enemies of 
the Jews, after the death of Cyrus, desiroua 
to fhistrate the building of Jerusalem, send 
accusations against them to Ahasuerus king 
of Persia. This must be Csmbyses. He waa 
plainly called after his grandfather, who waa 
not of royal race, and therefore it is very 
likely that he also aasomed the kingly name 
or title of Cyaxarea, which had been borne by 
his most illustrious ancestor. — 8. The third la 
the Ahasnerus of the book of Esther. Hav- 
ing divorced his queen Yashti for reAuing to 
appear in public at a banquet, he married* 
four years afterwards, the Jewess Esther, 
cousin and ward of MordeeaL Five years 
after this, Haman, one of his counsellors, 
having been slighted by Mordecai, prevailed 
upon the king to order the destruction of all 
the Jews in the empire. But before the day 
appointed for the massacre, Esther and Mor- 
decai overthrew the influence which Haman 
had exercised, and so completely changed his 
fwlings in the matter, that they induced him 
to put Haman to deaUi, and to give the Jews 
the right of self-defence. This they used so 
vigorously, that they killed several thousands 
of their opponents. This Ahasuerus is pro- 
bably Xerxes (the names being identical) : 
and this conclusion is fortified by the resem- 
blance of character, and by certain chrono- 
logical indications. As Xerxes scourged the 
sea, and put to death the engineers of his 
bridge because their work was injured by a 
storm, so Ahasuems repudiated his queen 
Yashti because she would not violate the de- 
corum of her sex, and ordered the massacre 
of the whole Jewish people to gratify the 
malice of Haman. In the third year of th« 
reign of Xerxes was held an assembly to ar- 
range the Oredan war. In the third year of 
Ahasuerus was held a great feast and as- 
sembly in Shushan the palace (Esth. i. 8). 
In the seventh year of his reign Xerxes re- 
turned defeated fhim Greece, and consoled 
himself by the pleasures of the haram. In 
the seventh year of his reign "fldr young 
virgins were sought" for Ahasuems, and he 
replaced Yashti by marrying Esther. The 
tribute he ** laid upon the land and upon the 
isles of the sea" (Esth. x. 1) may well have 
been the result of the expenditure and ruin 
of the Oredan expedition. 
AH'AYA, a place (Ear. viiL 15), or a river 

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(Till. 21), on the banks of which Ezra ool- 
leoted the Beoond expedition which returned 
with him from Babylon to Jenualem. Per- 
haps it is the modem BU^ can the Euphrates, 
doe cast of Damasens. 

A'HAZ, elerenth king of Jndah, son of Jo- 
tham, reigned 741-736. At the time of his 
accession. Resin king of Damasoos and Pekah 
king of Israel had recently formed a leagae 
against Jndah, and they proceeded to lay siege 
to Jerasalem. Upon this Isaiah hastened to 
gire adTiee and eneooragement to Ahas, and 
it was probably owing to the spirit of energy 
and religioas derotion which he poured into 
his counsels, that the allies f&tled in their 
attaek on Jerusalem (Is. vil. riHL ix.). But 
the allies inlUoted a most serere ii\Jury on 
Jndah by the capture of Elath, a flourishing 
port on the Bed Sea; while the Philistines 
invaded the W. and 8. (S K. zri. ; S Chr. 
zrriiL). The weakminded and hdpless Ahai 
sought deliverance from these numerous 
troubles by appealing to Tiglath-pileser, king 
of Assyria, who ftreed him from his most 
formidable enemies by invading Syria, taking 
Damascus, killing Bexin, and depriving Israel 
of its Northern and tnms-Jordanlc districts. 
But Ahas had to purchase this help at a costly 
price: he became tributary to Tiglath-pileser, 
sent him all the treasures of the Temple and 
his own palace, and even appeared before him 
in Damascus as a vassaL He also ventured 
to seek for safety in heathen ceremonies; 
making his son pass through the fire to Mo- 
leeh, consulting wizards and necromancers 
(Is. vllL 10), sserifldng to the Syrian gods, 
introducing a foreign altar fhmi Damascus, 
and probably the worship of the heavenly 
bodies fhmi Assyria and Babylon ; and** The 
altars on the top (or roof) of the upper cham- 
ber of Ahas " (8 K. xxlii. 13) were connected 
with the adonUion of the stars. 

AHAZI'AH. 1. Son of Ahab and Jeaebel, 
eighth king of Israel, reigned b.o. 896-895. 
After the battle of Bamoth in Gilead, in 
which Ahab perished [Aiiab], the vassal king 
of Moab refiued Us yearly tribute of 100,000 
lambs and 100,000 rams with their wool 
(oomp. Is. xvL 1). Before Ahaxiah could 
take measures for enforcing his claim, he was 
seriously injured by a fUl through a lattice 
in his palaee at Samaria. In his health he 
bad worshipped his mother's gods, and now 
be sent to inquire of the oracle of Baalsebub 
b the Philistine dty of Ekron whether he 
dumld recover his health. But EUJah, who 
now for the last time exercised the prophetio 
oflioe, rebuked him for this impiety, and an- 
ooonocd to him his approaching death. The 
only other recorded transaction of his reign, 
his endeavour to Join the king of Judah in 

8«. D.B. 

trading to Ophir, is related under Jbhosha- 
PHAT (1 K. xxiL 49-58 ; 3 K. i. ; S Chr. xx. 
Sft.S7).-~3. Fifth king of Judah, son of Je- 
horam and AthaUah (daughter of Ahab), and 
therefore nephew of the preceding Ahaxiah, 
reigned one year, b.o. 884. He is called 
AxABiAB, 3 Chr. nil. 6. probably by a copy- 
ist's error, and Jkhoahas, 2 Chr. xxi. 17. 
He was 38 years old at his accession (3 K. 
viii. 86 ; his age, 43 in 8 Chr. xxU. 3, is also 
a copyist's error). Ahasiah was an idolater, 
and he allied himself with his uncle Jehoram 
king of Israel, brother and successor of the 
preceding Ahakah, against Haxael, the new 
king of Syria. The two kings were, however, 
defeated at Bamoth, where Jehoram was 
severely wounded. The revolution carried 
out in Israel by Jehu under the guidance of 
Elisha broke out while Ahariah was visiting 
his uncle at Jexreel. As Jehu approached 
the town, Jehoram and Ahaxiah went out to 
meet him ; the former was shot through the 
heart by Jehu, and Ahaxiah was pursued and 
mortally wounded. He died when he reached 

AHI'AH or AHI'JAH. 1. Son of Abitub, 
grandson of Phinehas, and great-grandson of 
Eli, succeeded his father as high-priest in the 
reign of Saul (1 Sam. xiv. 8, 18). Ahiah is 
probably the same person as Ahimeleoh the 
son of Ahitub; though he may have been his 
brother. 8. A prophet of ShJloh (1 K. xiv. 
2), henee called the Shilonite (xi. 39), in the 
days of Solomon and of Jeroboam king of 
Israel, of whom we have two remarkable 
prophecies extant: the one in 1 K. xi. 31-39, 
addressed to Jeroboam, announcing the rend- 
ing of the ten tribes fhnn Solomon; the 
other in 1 K. xiv. 6-16, delivered in the 
prophet's extreme old age to Jeroboam's wife, 
in which he foretold the death of Abijah, the 
king's son, who was sick, and the destruction 
of Jeroboam's house on account of the images 
which he had set up. Jeroboam's upeeck 
concerning Ah^ah (I K. xiv. 3, 8) shows the 
estimation in which he held lus truth and 
prophetic powers (comp. 3 Chr. ix. 29). 

AHI'JAH. [AfliAH.] 

AHI'KAM, son of Shaphan the scribe, an 
influential officer at the court of Joeiah, 
was one of the delegates sent by Hilkiah 
to consult Hnldah (2 K. xxU. 13-14). In 
the reign of Jehoiakim he suocessftilly used 
his influence to protect the prophet Jeremiah 
(Jer. xxvi. 34). He was the fother of Oeda- 
liah. [OsDAUAH.] 

AHIH'AAZ, son of Zadok, the high-priest 
in Darid's reign, and celebrated for his swift- 
ness of foot. During Absalom's rebellion he 
carried to Darid the important intelligence 
that Ahithophel had counselled an immediate 

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attack upon David and his followers, and that, 
consequently, the king must cross the Jordan 
without the least delay (3 Sam. xx. 24-37, 
xvii. 16-23). Shortly afterwards he was the 
first to bring to the king the good news of 
Absalom's defeat, suppressing his knowledge 
of the death of his son, which was announced 
soon afterwards by another (2 Sam. xviii. 

AHI'HAN, one of the three giant Anakim 
who inhabited Mount Hebron (Num. ziii. 
32, 88), seen by Caleb and the spies. The 
whole race were cut off by Joshua (Josh. xL 
21), and the three brothers were slain by the 
tribe of Judah (Judg. L 10). 

AHIM'ELECH, son of Ahitnb (1 Sam. 
xxVL 11, 12), and high-priest at Nob in the 
days of SaiU. He gave David the shew- 
bread to eat, and the sword of Goliath ; and 
for so doing was, upon the accusation of 
Doeg the Edomite, put to death with his 
whole house by Saul's order. Abiathar alone 
escaped. [Abiathab.] 

AHIN'OAM. 1. The daughter of Ahimaax 
and wife of Saul (1 Sam. xiv. SO).— 3. A 
native of Jezreel who was married to David 
during his wandering life (1 Sam. xxv. 43). 
She lived with him and his other wife Abi- 
gail at the court of Aohish (xxvii. 8), was 
taken prisoner with her by tiie Amalekites 
when they plundered Ziklag (xxx. 5), but 
was rescued by David (18). She is again 
mentioned as living with him when he was 
king of Judah in Hebron (2 Sam. IL 3)» and 
was the mother of his eldest son Amnon 

AHITH'OPHEL {brother of footUhnms)^ a 
native of Oiloh, was a privy councillor of 
David, whose wisdom was highly esteemed, 
though his name had an exactly opposite 
signification (2 Sam. xvi. 28). He was the 
grandfather of Bathsheba (comp. 2 Sam. xi. 
8 with xxitt. 84). When Ahithophel Joined 
the oonq>iracy of Absalom, David prayed 
Jehovah to turn his counsel to foolishness 
(xv. 81), alluding possibly to the significa- 
tion of his name. David's grief at the trea- 
chery of his confidential fHend firand ex- 
pression in the Messianic prophecies (Ps. xlL 
9, Iv. 12-14). — In order to show to the 
people that th^ !>reaoh between Absalom and 
his father was irreparable, Ahithophel per- 
suaded him to take possession of the royal 
harem (3 Sam. xvi. 21). David, to counter- 
act his counsel, sent Hushai to Absalom, 
Ahithophel had recommended an immediate 
pursuit of David ; but Hushai advised delay, 
his object being to send intelligence to David, 
and to give him time to collect his forces for 
a decisive engagement. When Ahithophel saw 
that Hushai's advice prevailed, he despaired 

of success, and returning to his own home 
** put his household in order and hanged him- 
self " (xvii. 1-28). 

AHI'TUB. 1. Father of Ahimelech, or 
A14jah, the son of Phinehas, and grandson of 
Eli, and therefore of the family of Ithamar 
(1 Sam. xiv. 8, xxii. 9, 11).— 2. Son of 
Amariah, and fkther of Zadok the high-priest 
(1 Chr. vi. 7, 8 ; 2 Sam. viiL 17), of the 
house of Eleasar. 

AH'OLAH, and AHO'LIBAH, two sym- 
bolical names, are described as harlots, the 
former representing Samaria, and the latter 
Judah (Es. xxiii.). 

AHOLIBA'MAH, one (probably the second) 
of the three wives of Esau. She was the 
daughter of Anah, a descendant of Seir the 
Horite (Qen. xxxvi. 2, 25). In the earlier 
narrative (Gen. xxvi. 84) Aholibamah is 
called Judith, daughter of Beeri the Hittite. 
It appears that her proper personal name was 
Judith, and that Aholibamah was the name 
whieh she received as the wife of Esau and 
foundress of three tribes of his descendants. 

A'l {heap of rutru), a city lying east of 
Bethel and "beside Bethaven " (Josh. vU. 2, 
viiL 9). It was the second dty taken by 
Israel after the passage of the Jordan, and 
was " utterly destroyed " (Josh. viL 8-6, viii., 
ix. 8, X. 1, 2, xli. 9). 

AI'JALON, •• a place of deer or gazeUes." 
1. A city of the Kohathites (Josh. xxL 24 ; 
1 Chr. vi. 69), originally aUotted to the tribe 
of Dan (Jloeh. xix. 42; A. V. "AJalon"), 
which tribe, however, was unable to dis- 
possess the Amorites of the place (Judg. i. 
85). A^alon was one of the towns fortified 
by Behoboam (2 Chr. xi. 10), and the last 
we hear of It is as being in the hands of the 
Philistines (2 Chr. xxviii. 18 ; A. V. " AJa- 
lon"). Being on the very fh>ntier of the 
two kingdoms, we can understand how 
A^alon should be spoken of sometimes (1 Chr. 
vL 69, comp. with 66) as in Ephraim, and 
sometimes (2 Chr. xL 10 ; 1 Sam. xiv. 81) as 
in Judah and Benjamin. It is represented by 
the modem T^fo, a little to the N. of the 
Jafh road, about 14 miles out of Jerusalem. 
— 3. A place in Zebulun, mentioned as the 
burial-plaoe of Elon, one of the Judges (Judg. 
xii. 12). 

AI'JELETH SHA'HAR (L e. the hind of the 
mominif doion), found once only in the Bible, 
in the title of Ps. xxii. It probably describes 
to the musician the melody to which the psalm 
was to be played, — " a Psalm of David, ad- 
dressed to the music-master who presides 
over the band called the Morning Hind." 

AIN. 1. One of the landmarks on the 
eastern boundary of Palestine (Num. nuiiv. 
11). It is probably 'Ain el^A^f, the main 

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aoorce of the Orontes. — 2. One of the south- 
ernmoet oitiles of Jadah (Joeh. xy. 82), after- 
wards allotted to Simeon (Josh. xix. 7 ; 1 Chr. 
It. 32) and giren to the priests (Josh. xzi. 16). 

A'JALON. [AuAix>K.] 

AKRAB'BIM, "tbb asgxmtof," and"THx 
ooiNo 17P to;" also "VjlaixB'ACuabbtu** 
( = *'the soorpion-pass"). A pass between 
the eoQth end of the Dead Sea and Zin, 
forming one of the landmarks on the soath 
botindary at once of Judah (Josh. xt. 8) and 
of the Holj Land (Num. xxxIy. 4). Also 
the boundary of the Amorites (Jodg. L 36). 
As to the name, soorpions abound in (he whole 
of this diitriet. 

ALABASTER oecors in the N. T. only in 
the notioe of the alabtuUr-box of ointment 
which a woman brought to our Lord when 
He sat at meat in the house of Simon the 
leper at Bethany, the oontents of which she 
poured on the head of the Saviour (Matt. 
xxTi. 7 ; Mark xir. 3 ; Luke viL 87). The 
ancients considered alabaster to be the best 
material in which to preeerre their oint- 
ments. In Mark xir. 3, the wcmian who 
brought "the alabaster-box of ointment of 
spikenard" is said to break the box before 
pouring out the ointment, which probably 
only means breaking the eeal which kept the 
nee of the perfume from eraporating. 

Th« iMcHption 

AL'AMOTH (Ps. xItI. title; 1 Chr. xt. 
SO), a word of exceedingly doubtfhl meaning, 
some interpreting it to mean a musical in- 
strument, and others a melody. 

ALEXAITDER m., king of Maoedon, sur- 
named m ammiT, the son of Philip and In the prophetic visions of Daniel the em- 
Olympias, was bom at PeUa, b.o. 856, and iUem by which Alexander U typified (a he- 

succeeded his father b.c. 886. Two years 
afterwards he crossed the Hellespont (b.o. 
834) to carry out the plans of his father, and 
execute the mission of Greece to the civilised 
world. The battle of the Granicus was fol- 
lowed by the rabjugation of western Asia; 
and in the following year the fate of the East 
was decided at Issus (b.c. 833). Tyre and 
Oaaa were the only cities in western Syria 
which offered Alexander any resistance, and 
these were reduced and treated with unusual 
severity (b.c. 382). Egypt next submitted 
to him; and in b.c 831 he founded Alex- 
andria, which remains to the present day 
the most characteristic monument of his life 
and work. In the same year he finally de- 
feated Darius at Gangamela ; and in b.c. 330 
his unhappy rival was murdered by Bessus, 
satrap of Bactria. The next two years were 
occupied by Alexander in the consolidation 
of his Persian conquests and the reduction of 
Bactria. In b.c 327 he crossed the Indus, 
penetrated to the Hydaspes, and was there 
forced by the discontent of his army to turn 
westward. He reached Susa, b.c 825, and 
proceeded to Babylon, b.c. 824, which he 
chose as the capital of his empire. In the 
next year (b.c. 328) he died there in the 
midst of his gigantic plans; and those who 
inherited his conquests left his designs un- 
achieved and unattempted (cf. Dan. vii. 
6, viii. 5, xi. 3). — ^The famous tradition 
of the visit of Alexander to Jerusalem 
during his Phoenician campaign, which 
is related by Joeephus, has been a fit- 
ful source of controversy. The Jews, 
it is said, had provoked his anger by 
refusing to transfer their allegiance to 
him when summoned to do so during 
the siege of Tyre, and after the reduction 
of Tyre and Oaxa he turned towards 
Jerusalem. Jaddui^ (Jaddus) the high- 
priest (Neh. xii. 11, 22) went out to 
meet hhn, clad in his robes of hyacinth 
and gold, and accompanied by a train 
of priests and citixens arrayed in white. 
Alexander was so moved by the solemn 
spectacle thafr he did reverence to the 
holy name inscribed upon the tiara of 
the high-priest; and when Parmenio 
expressed surprise, he replied that '* he 
had seen the god whom Jaddua repre- 
sented in a dream at Dium, encou- 
raging him to cross over into Asia, 
and promising him success.*' After this it 
is said that he visited Jerusalem, offered 
sacrifice there, heard the prophecies of Da- 
niel which foretold his victory, and con- 
ferred important privileges upon the Je%B. — 
In the 

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ffO€tt) saggtHts the notions of strength and 
speed ; and the universal extent (Dan. Tiii. 5, 
. . . Ji^om the west on the face of ths whole 
earth) and marveUous rapidity of his con- 
quests (Dan. /. e.f he touched not the ground) 
are brought forward as the characteristics of 
his power, which was directed by the strongest 
personal impetuosity (Dan. viii. 6, m the fury 
of his power) . He ruled with great dominion, 
and did according to his will (xi. 3), " and 
there was none that could delirer ... out 
of his hand" (viU. 7). 

Oola of LjmhnViiiM. King of Thnwe, reiiroNirthifr 
Alexaadar the Ortat u a young Jopltor ' 

ALEXAN'DER BA'LAS was, according to 
some, a natural son of Antiochos IV. Epi- 
phanes, but he was more generally regarded 
as an impostor who falsely assumed the con- 
nexion. He claimed the throne of Syria, in 
152 B.O., in opposition to Demetrius Soter, 
and gained the warm support of Jonathan, the 
leader of the Jews (1 Mace. ix. 78). In 150 
B.O. he completely routed the forces of Deme- 
trius, who himself fell in the retreat (1 Mace. 
X. 48-50). After this Alexander married 
Cleopatra, the daughter of Ptolemy VI. Philo- 
metor. But his triumph was of short dura- 
tion. After obtaining power he gave himself 
up to a life of indulgence ; and when Deme- 
trius Nicator, the son of Demetrius Soter, 
landed in Syria, In 147 B.C., the new pre- 
tender found powerftil support (1 Maco. x. 
67 ff.). In the following year Ptolemy de- 
serted Alexander, who was defeated (1 Mace, 
xi. 15), and fled to Abae in Arabia, where he 
was murdered, b.c. 146 (1 Mace xi. 17). 
The narratire in 1 Maoc. shows dearly the 
partiality which the Jews entertained for 
Alexander; and the same fieeling was ex- 
hibited afterwards in the seal with which 
they supported his son Antiochus. [Aimo- 

ALEXAN'DER. 1. Son of Simon the 
Gyrenian, who was compelled to bear the 
eross for our Lord (Mark xt. 21).— S. One of 
the kindred of Annas the high-priest (Acts 
It. 6).— 8. A Jew at Ephesus, whom Us 
countrymen put forward during the tumult 

raised by Demetrius the silTemnith (Aeu 
xix. 33), to plead their cause with the mob. 
— 4. An Ephesian Christian, reprobated by 
St. Paul in 1 Tim. i. 30, as having, together 
with one Hymenaeus, put fhmi him ftdth and 
a good conscience, and so made shipwreck 
concerning the (kith. This may be the same 
with — 5. AuEXANDBB the coppersmith, men- 
tioned by the same apostle (2 Tim. ir. 14) as 
having done him many mischiefs. 

ALEXAN'DRIA (3 Maco. Ui. 1 ; Acts xviu. 
24, vi. 9), the Hellenic, Roman, and Chris- 
tian capital of Egypt, was founded by 
Alexander the Great, ».c. 332, who 
himself traced the ground-plan of the 
city. The work thus begun w«s con- 
tinued after the death of Alexander by 
t he Ptolemies. Under the despotism of 
the later Ptolemies the trade of Alex- 
andria declined, but its population and 
\realth were enormous. Its import- 
ance as one of the chief corn-ports of 
llome secured for it the general fkvour 
of the first emperors. Its population 
Qoi was mixed fhmi the first. According to 
Joeephus, Alexander himself assigned 
to the Jews a place in his new city. 
Their numbers and importance were rapidly 
increased under the Ptolemies by firesh immi- 
grations and untiring industry. The Septua- 
gint translation was made for their benefit, 
under the first or second Ptolemy. Philo esti- 
mates the number of the Alexandrine Jews in 
his time at little less than 1,000,000 ; and adds, 
that two of the five districts of Alexandria were 
called " Jewish districts," and that many Jews 
lived scattered in the remaining three. Julius 
Caesar and Augustus confirmed to them the 
privileges which they had enjoyed before, and 
they retained them, with various interrup- 
tions, during the tumults and persecutions of 
later reigns. According to the common 
legend, St. Mark first "preached the Gospel 
in Egypt, and founded the first Church in 
Alexandria." At the beginning of the 2nd 
century the number of Christians at Alex- 
andria must have been very large, and the 
great leaders of Gnosticism who arose there 
(Basilides, Valentinus) exhibit an exaggera- 
tion of the tendency of the Church. 

ALGUM or ALMUG TREES ; the former 
occurring in 2 Chr. ii. 8, ix. 10, 11, the latter 
in 1 K. X. 11, 12. There can be no question 
that these words are identical. From 1 K. 
X. 11, 12, 2 Chr. ix. 10, 11, we learn that 
the ahnug was brought isi great plenty from 
Ophir for Solomon's Temple and house, an(! 
for the construction of musical instruments. 
It is probable that this tree is the red 
sandal-wood, which is a native of India and 
Ceylon. The wood is very heavy, hard, 

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and line grained, and of a beauoM garnet 

AIXEOOBY, a flgore of apeeoli, irliieb has 
been defined by Bishop Maxih, in aocordanoe 
vith its etymology, as " a representation of 
one thing irhioh is intended to exdte the re- 
presentation of another thing ;" the first re- 
preeentation being consistent with itself; but 
requiring, or ospable of sdmitting, a moral 
or spiritual interpretation orer and aboTe its 
literal sense. In erery allegory there is a 
twofold sense; the immediate or historie, 
whieh Is nndentood fhmi the words, and the 
ultimate, which is oonoemed witii the things 
signified by the words. The allegorieal in- 
terpretatkm is not d the words, bat of the 
things signified by them ; and not <mly may, 
bat aetoaUy does, coexist with the literal in- 
terpxetatioo in erery allegory, whether the 
narrattre in which it is oonyeyed be of things 
possible or real. An illastration of this may 
be seen in GaL ir. 24, where the apostle glres 
an allegorical interpretation to the histOTieal 
narratiTe of Hagar and Sarah ; not treating 
that aarratiTC as an allegory in itself, as our 
A. V. would lead us to (uppose, but drawing 
from it a deeper sense than is conveyed by 
the frn ^ *^ 1**»* rep r ese ntation. 

ALLELU^ so written in Ber. zix. 7, 
fidL, or more properly Hallxlvjab, ** praise 
ye Jehovah,'* as it is fbund in the margin of 
Ps. ctr. M, CT. 45, cri., cxi 1, cxii. 1, 
cxiiL 1 (comp. Ps. oxiiL 9, oxt. 18, cxri. 19, 
cxTiL 2). The literal meaning of ** Halle- 
li^|ah " sofiltelently i nd i cates tiie character of 
the Psalms in which it occurs, as hymns of 
praise and thanksgiving. They are all found 
in the last book of the collection, and bear 
marks of being intended for use lathe temple- 
service; the words **praiBe ye Jehovi^i" 
being taken up by the tail chorus of Levites. 
In the great hymn of triumph in heaven over 
the destruction of Babylon, the jostle in 
vision heard the multitude in chorus like the 
vokse of mighty thunderlngs burst forth, 
" Alleluia, for the Lord God (Mnnipotent 
rdgneth," reqionding to the voice which 
came out (tf the throne saying ** Praise our 
God, all ye his servants, and ye that fear him, 
both small and great" (Bev. xix. 1-6). In 
this, as in the offering of incense (Bev. viii.), 
there is evident allusion to the service of the 
temple, as the apostte had often witnessed it 
in its fiading grandeur. 

ALLIANCES. On the first establishment 
of the Hel»ews in Palestine no connexions 
were formed between them and the surround- 
ing nations. But with the extension of their 
power under the kings, tiiey were brought 
more into contact with foreigners, and alli- 
ances became essential to the security of their 

commerce. Solomon concluded two important 
treaties exclusively for commercial purposes , 
the first with Hinun, king of Tyre, originally 
with the view of obtaining materials and 
workmen for the erection of the Temple, and 
afterwards for the supply of ship-buUders and 
saUors (1 K. v. 2-12, ix. 27) : the second 
with a Pharaoh, king of Egypt ; by this he 
secured a monopoly of the trade in horses 
and other products of that country (1 K. x. 
28, 29). After the division of the kingdom 
the alliances were of an offensive and defen- 
sive nature. When war broke out between 
Amaaiah and Jeroboam IL a coalition was 
formed between Bexin, king of Syria, and 
Pekah on the one side, and Ahas and Tic^ath« 
pileser, king of Assyria, on the other (2 K. 
xvi/5-9). By this means an ^>ening was 
afforded to the advances of the Assyrian 
power ; and the kizigdoins of Israel and 
Judah, as they were successively attacked, 
sought the alliance of the Egyptians, who 
were strongly interested in matntajnlng the 
independence of the Jews as a barrier against 
the encroachments of the Assyrian power 
(2 K. xvlL 4, xix, 9, 86 ; Is. xxx. 2). On 
the rertoration of independence Judas Mac- 
cabeus sought an alliance with the Bomans 
as a counterpoise to the neighbouring state 
of Syria (1 Haec. viii.). Treaties of a 
friendly nature were at the same period con- 
cluded with the Lacedaemonians (1 Mace 
xiL 2, xiv. 20) . — The formation of an alli- 
ance was attended with various religious 
rites: a rictim was slain and dirided into 
two parts, between which the contracting 
parties passed (Gen. xv. 10). That this 
custom was maintained to a late period 
appears firom Jer. xxxiv. 18-20. Generally 
speaking the oath alone is mentioned in the 
contracting of alliances, either between na- 
tions (Josh. ix. 15) or individuals (Gen. 
xxvi. 28, xxxi. 63 ; 1 Sam. xx. 17 ; 2 K. 
xi. 4). The event was celebrated by a feast 
(Gen. I. c; Ex. xxiv. 11 ; 2 Sam. iii. 12, 
20). Salt, as symbolical of fidelity, was used 
on these occasions. Occasionally a pillar or 
a heap of stones was set up as a memorial of 
the alliance (Gen. xxxi. 52). Presents wei-e 
also sent by the party soliciting the alliance 
(1 K. XV. 18 ; Is. xxx. 6 ; 1 Mace. xv. 18). 
The fidelity of the Jews to their engagements 
was conspicuous at all periods of their history 
(Josh. ix. 18), and any breach of covenant 
was visited with very severe punishment 
(2 Sam. xxi. 1 ; Ex. xvii. 16). 

AL'LON, a large strong tree of some de- 
scription, probably an oak. The word is 
found in two names in the topography of 
Palestine. — 1. Allon, more aocuratclv Elon, 
a place named among the cities of Naphtali 

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(Josh. xix. S3). Probably the more correct 
construction is to take it irith the following 
word, f. e. " the oak bj Zaanannim,*' or 
" the oak of the loading of tents," as if de- 
riring its name flrom some nomad tribe fre- 
quenting the spot. [Elom.] — 8. Al'lon- 
ba'chvth ("oak of weeping"), the tree 
under which Rebekah*s nurse, Deborah, was 
buried (Gen. xxxv. 8). 

AL'MON-DIBLATHA'IM, one of the Utest 
stations of the Israelites, between Dibon-gad 
and the mountains of Abarim (Num. xxxiii. 
46, 47). It is probable that Almon-dibla- 
Uiaim is identical with Beth-diblathaim. 

iS found in Gen. xliil. II ; Ex. xxt. 88, 84, 
sxxTiL 19, 20 ; Num. xvii. 8 ; Eoeles. xii. 5; 
Jer. L 11, in the text of the A. V. It is inva- 
riably represented br the same Hebrew word 
fahSMjt which sometimes stands for the 
whole tree, sometimes for the fruit or nut. 
The almond-tree, whose soientiflc name is 
Amygdalut eommimUt is a native of Asia and 
North Africa, but it is cultivated in the 
milder parts of Europe. The height of the 
tree is about 12 or 14 feet ; the flowers are 
pink, and arranged for the most part in pairs ; 
the leaves are long, ovate, with a serrated 
margin, and an acute point The covering 
of the fhiit is downj and succulent, enclosing 
the hard shell which contains the kernel. 
It is enrious to observe, in eonnexion with 
tiie almond-bowls of the golden candlestick, 
that, in the language of lapidaries, Almond§ 
are pieces of rock-crystal, even now used in 
adorning branch-eandlesticks. 

ALMS. The duty of alms-giving, especi- 
ally in kind, conelstbig chiefly in portions to 
be left designedly fhim produce of the fleld, 

the vineyard, and the oliveyard (Lev. xix. 

9, 10, xxiiL 22; Deut. xv. 11, xxiv. 19, 
xxvi. 2-18 ; Ruth ii. 2), is strictiy enjoined 
by the Law. Every third year also (Deut. 
xiv. 28) each proprietor was directed to 
share the tithe of his produce with " the 
Levite, the stranger, the fatherless, and the 
widow." The theological estimate of alms- 
giving among the Jews is indicated in the 
following passages: — Job xxxi. 17; Prov. 
X. 2, xi. 4 ; Esth. ix. 22 ; Ps. cxU. 9 ; Acts 
ix. 86, the case of Dorcas ; x. 2, of Cornelius; 
to which may be added, Tob. iv. 10, 11, xiv. 

10, 11 ; and Ecdus. iii. 80, xl. 24. And the 
Talmudists went so far as to interpret righU- 
ou$n»u by almsgiving in such passages as 
Gen. xviii. 19 ; Is. Uv. 14 ; Ps. xviL 15.— 
The Pharisees were lealous in almsgiving, 
but too ostentatious in their mode of per- 
formance, for which our Lord finds fauli 
with them (Matt. vi. 2). — ^The duty of re- 
lieving the poor was not neglected by the 
Christians (Matt. vi. 1-4 ; Luke xiv. 18: 
AcU XX. 85 ; Gai. ii. 10). Every Christian 
was exhorted to lay by on the first day oi 
each week some portion of his profits, to be 
applied to the wants of the needy (Acts xi. 
80 ; Rom. xv. 25-27 ; 1 Cor. xvL 1-4). It 
was also considered a duty specially incum- 
bent on widows to devote themselves to such 
ministrations (1 Tim. v. 10). 

ALOES, LION ALOES (in Heb. ^lA^m, 
AMl6ih), the name of a costly and sweet- 
smelling wood which is mentioned in Num. 
xxiv. 6, Ps. xiv. 8, Prov. viL 17, Cant. iv. 

14, John xix. 89. It is usually identified 
with the Aquilaria Affalhehum, a tree which 
supplies the agallochum, or aloes-wood of 
commerce, much valued in India on account 
of its aromatic qualities for purposes (tf ftmii- 
gation and for incense. This tree grows to 
the height of 120 feet, being 12 feet in girth. 
It is, however, uncertadn whether the Ahdtim 
or AhSlSth is in reality the aloes-wood of 
commerce; it is quite possible that some 
kind of odoriferous oedar may be the tree 
denoted by these terms. 

AL'PHA, the first letter of the Greek 
alphabet, as Omega is the last. Its signi- 
ficance is plainly indicated in the context, 
** I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and 
the end, the first and the last" (Rev. xxU. 

15, i. 8, 11, xxi. 6), which may be compared 
with Is. xli. 4. Both Greeks and Hebrews 
employed the letters of the alphabet as 

ALPHABET. fWaiTiifo.] 

ALPHAE'US, the father of the Apostle 
James the Less (Matt. x. 8; Mark iii. 18 ; 
Luke vi. 15 ; AeU L 18), and husband oi 

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AqaOjuta Agmnoeham. I 

that Mary who, with the mother of Jenu and 
others, was standing bj the eross daring the 
eradflxion (John xix. 25). [Mart.] In 
this latter place he is called Clopas (not, as 
in the A. Y., Cleophas). 

ALTAR. (A.) The flrst altar of which 
we hare any acooont is that boi. or 
Noah when he left the ark (Gen. Yiii. 
SO). In the early times altars were 
nsoall J boot in certain spots hallowed 
by religions associations, «. p. where 
God appeared (Gen. xii. 7, xiii. 18, 
zxTi. S9, zxxT. 1). Generally of 
coarse they were erected ibr the offer, 
ing of sacrifice; bat in some instances 
they appear to have been only memo- 
rials. Altars were most probably ori- 
ginally made of earth. The Law of 
Moaes allowed them to be made either 
of earth or onhewn stones (Ex. xx. 
24, 25). In later times they were 
freiqoently boilt on high places, espe- 
oially in idolatroos worship (Dent. 
xiL 2).— (B.) The Law of Moses di- 
reeled that two altars should be made, 
the 0B« the Altar of Bumt«il!ering 

(called also simply the Altar), and the other 
the Altar of Incemie.— I. The Altar of Bomt- 
offering. It differed in construetioa at diflier- 
ent times. (1.) In the Tabemade (Ex. xxyii. 
1 ff. xxxTiiL 1 ff.) itwaseomparatlTely small 
and portable. In shape it was sqnare. It was 
fire cnbits in length, the same in breadth, 
and three cubits high. It was made of planks 
of shittim (or acacia) wood oyerlaid with 
brass. The interior was hollow (Ex. xxvii. 
8). At the four comers were four projec- 
tions called horns, made, like the altar itself 
of shittim-wood overlaid with brass (Ex. 
xxvii. 2). They probably projected upwards ; 
and to them the victim was bound when 
at)oat to be sacrificed (Ps. exviii. 27). On 
the occasion of the consecration of the priests 
!Ex. xxix. 12) and the offering of the sin- 
offering (Lev. iv. 7 ff.) the blood of the vio- 
:im was sprinkled on the horns of the altar. 
Round the altar, midway between the top 
and bottom, ran a projecting ledge (A. v. 
**oompa8s"), on which perhaps the priests 
stood when they officiated. To the outer 
edge of this, again, a grating or net- work of 
brass was affixed, and reached to the bottom 
of the altar, which thus presented the ap- 
pearance of being larger below than above. 
At the four comers of the net-work were 
four brasen rings, into which were inserted 
the staves by which the altar was carried. 
These staves were of the same materials as 
the altar itself. As the priests were for- 
bidden to ascend the altar by steps (Ex. xx. 
26), it has been conjectured that a slope of 
earth led gradually up to the ledge flrom 
which they officiated. The place of the altar 
was at " the door of the tabernacle of the 
congregation" (Ex. xl. 29). — (2.) In Solo- 
mon's Temple the altar was considerably 
larger in its dimensions. Like the former it 

of Borat Ofhrlng. From Sunnhailus' Uitlma. 

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was square; but the length and breadth 
were now twenty cubits, and the height ten 
(2 Chr. iY. 1). It differed, too, in the 
material of which it was made, being entirely 
of brass (1 K. vUi. 64 ; 2 Chr. vii. 7). It 
had no grating: and instead Y>f a single 
gradual slope, the ascent to it was probably 
made by three saccessive platforms, to each 
of which it has been supposed that steps led, 
as in the figure annexed. — (8.) Tb^ altar of 
burnt-offering in the second (Zerabbabers) 
temple. Of this no description is giyen in 
the Bible. We are only told (Ezr. iii. 2) 
that it was built before the foundations of 
the Temple were laid. According to Josephus 
it was placed on the same spot on which that 
of Solomon had originally stood. — (4.) The 
altar erected by Herod, which is thus de- 
scribed by Josephus : — " In ftront of the 
Temple stood the altar, 15 cubits in height, 
and in breadth and length of equal dimen- 
sions, Tis. 50 cubits ; it was built foursquare, 
with horn-like comers projecting ttom it; 
and on the south side a gentle accliTity led 
up to it. Moreorer it was made without any 
iron tool, neither did iron eyer touch it at 
any time." According to Ley. yi. 12, 13, a 
perpetual fire was to be kept burning on ^e 
altar. This was the symbol and token of 
the perpetual worship of Jehoyah. — ^n. The 
Altar of Incense, called also the golden altar 
to distinguish it flrom the Altar of Burnt- 
offering, which was called the bra$en altar 
(Ex. xxxviii. 80).— (a.) That in the Taber- 
nacle was made of aoacia-wood, oyerlaid with 
pure gold. In shape it was square, being a 
cubit in length and breadth, and 2 cubits In 

Sappoasd tvna of th* Alur of 

height. Like the Altar of Burnt-offering it 
had horns at the four comers, which were of 
one piece with the rest of the altar. Its ap- 
pearance may be illustrated by the preceding 
figure. This altar stood in the Holy Place, 
" before the yail that is by the ark of the testi- 
mony " (Ex. XXX. 6, xl. 5)— (6.) The Altar 
in Solomon's Temple was similar (1 K. yii. 
48; 1 Chr. xxyiii. 18), but was made of 
cedai oyerlaid with gold. — (c.) The Altar of 
Incense is mentioned as haying been remoyed 
fh>m the Temple of Zerubbabel by Antiochus 
Epiphanes (1 Mace. i. 21). Judas Macca- 
baeus restored it, together with the holy 
yessels, &o. (1 Mace. iy. 49). — C. Other 
altars. (1.) Altars of brick. There seems 
to be an allusion to such in Is. Ixy. 3. (2.) 
An Altar to an Unknown God. What altar 
this was has been the subject of much discus- 
sion. St. Paul merely mentions in his speech 
on the Areopagus that he had himself seen 
such an altar in Athens. As to the origin of 
these altars, we are told by Diogenes Laertius 
that in the time of a plague, when the 
Athenians knew not what god to propitiate 
in order to ayert it, Epimenides caused black 
and white sheep to be let loose fh>m the 
Areopagus, and whereyer they lay down, to 
be offered to the respectiye diyinities. It 
was probably on this or similar occasions that 
altars were dedicated to an Unknown God, 
since they knew not what god was offended 
and required to be propitiated. 

AL-TAS'CHITH, found in the introductory 
yerse to the four following Psalms, lyii., 
lyiii., lix., Ixxy. Literally rendered, the 
import of the words is " destroy not," pro- 
bably the beginning of some song or poem to 
the tune of which those psalms were to be 

AMAL'EKITES, a nomadic tribe, which 
occupied the peninsula of Sinai and the wil- 
derness intenrening between the southern 
hill-ranges of Palestine and the border of 
Egypt (Num. xiii. 29 ; 1 Sam. xy. 7, xxyli. 
8). Arabian historians represent them as 
originally dwelling on the shores of the 
Persian Gulf, whence they were pressed west- 
wards by the growth of the Assyrian empire, 
and spread oyer a portion of Arabia at a 
period antecedent to its occupation by the 
descendants of Joktan. The physical cha- 
racter of the district which the Amalekites 
occupied necessitated a nomadic life, which 
they adopted to iu fuUest extent, taking their 
families yrith them eyen on their military 
expeditions (Judg. yi. 5). Their wealth con- 
sisted in flocks and herds. Mention is nude 
of a " town ** (1 Sam. xy. 5), but their towns 
could haye been litUe more than stationi^ or 
noniadic enclosures. The kings or ohieftoius 

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were perhaps distiogolshed bj the hereditary 
title Agftg (Num. xxiv. 7 ; 1 Sam. xt. 8). 
The Amalekites first came in contact with 
the Israelites at Bephidim, hot were signally 
deiteated (Ex. XTiL). In union with the 
Canaanites they again attacked the Israelites 
oi) the borders of Palestine, and defeated them 
near Hormah (Norn. xir. 45). Saul under- 
took an expedition against them, overrunning 
their whole district from Harilah to Shur, 
and inilicting an immense loss upon them 
(1 8am. XT.). Their power was thenceforth 
broken, and.they degenerated into a horde of 
■bandit. Their destruction was completed 
by DaTid (I Sam. xxvii., xxx.). 

Alt' ANA, apparently a mountain in or 
near Lebanon (Gant. ir. 8). It is commonly 
anumed that this is the mountain in which 
the river Abana (2 K. ▼.12) has its source, 
bat in the absence of farther research in the 
Lebanon this is mere assumption. 

AM' ASA. Son of Ithra or Jether, by 
Abigail, David's sister (2 Sam. xviL 25). 
He Joined Absalom in his rebellion, and was 
by him appointed commander-in-chief in the 
place of Joab, by whom he was totally de- 
feated in the forest of Ephraim (2 Sam. xviiL 
6). When Joab incurred the displeasure of 
David for killing Absalom, David forgave 
the treason of Amasa, recognized him as his 
nephew, and appointed him Joab's successor 
(xix. 18). Joab afterwards, when they were 
both in pursuit of ttie rebel Sheba, pretending 
to salute Amasa, stabbed him with his sword 
(XX. 10), which he held concealed in his left 

AMAZI'AH, son of Joash, and eighth king 
of Jttdah, reigned b.c. 887-809. He suc- 
ceeded to the throne at the age of 25, on the 
murder of his fkther, and punished the mur- 
derers. In order to restore his kingdom to 
the greatness of Jehosbaphat*s days, he made 
war on the Edomites, defeated them in the 
valley of Salt, south of the Dead Sea, and 
took their capital, Selah or Petra. Flushed 
with this sueeess he had the foolish arrogance 
to challenge Joash, king of Israel, to battle. 
But Judah was completely defeated. Ama- 
xiah himself was taken prisoner, and con- 
veyed by Joash to Jerusalem, which opened 
its gates to the conqueror. Amaxiah lived 
15 years after tiie death of Joash ; and in 
the 29th year of his reign was murdered 
by conspirators at lAohlsh, whither he had 
retired for safety trom Jexusalem (2 Chr. 
XXV. 27). 

AMBASSADOR. The earliest examples of 
■mbassartors employed occur in the cases of 
Edom, Moab, and the Amorites (Num. xx. 
14, xxL 21 ; Judg. xi. 17-19), afterwards in 
that of the IVaudulaiit Gibeonites (Joah. ix. 4, 

&c.), and in the instances of civil strifb 
mentioned Judg. xi. 12, and xx. 12. They 
are alluded to more fluently during and 
after the contact of the great a4}aoent mon- 
archies of Syria, Babylon, Ac., with those of 
Judah and Israel, as in the invasion of Sen- 
nacherib. They were usually men of high 
rank. In the case quoted the chief captain, 
the chief cup-bearer, and chief of the eunuchs, 
were met by delegates of similar dignity from 
Hesekiah (2 K. xviiL 17, 18 ; see also Is. 
xxx. 4). Ambassadors are Ibund to have 
been employed, not only on occasions of 
hostile challenge or insolent menace (2 K. 
xiv. 8 ; 1 K. XX. 2, 6), but of friendly com- 
pliment, of request for alliance or other aid, 
of submissive deprecation, and of curioos 
inquiry (2 E. xiv. 8, xvL 7, xviiL 14; 
2 Chr. xxxiL 81). . 

AHBEB (Heb. eha$hntal) occurs only in 
Ex. i. 4, 27, viii. 2. It is usually supposed 
that the l^brew word ehathmal denotes a 
metal, and not the fossil resin called amber. 

A'MEN, Uteraliy, " true ; '» and, used as a 
substantive, "that which is true," "truth" 
(Is. Ixv. 16) ; a .word used in strong ^emsc- 
verations, fixing as it were the stamp of truth 
upon the assertion which it accompanied, 
and making it binding as an oath (comp. 
Num. ▼. 22). According to the Rabbins, 
" Amen ** involved the ideas of swearing, ac- 
ceptance, and truthfulness. In the synagogues 
and private houses it was customary for the 
people or members of the family who were 
present to say " Amen ** to the prayers which 
were ofRered by the minister or the master of 
the house, and the custom remained in the 
early Christian Church (Matt. vi. 13 ; 1 Cor. 
xiv. 16). And not only public prayers, but 
those oflRered in private, and doxologies were 
appropriately concluded with " Amen " 
(Rom. ix. 5, xL 86, xv. 88, xvi. 27 ; 2 Cor. 
xiii. 13, &c.). 

AMETHYST (Heb. achlSmdh). Mention 
is made of this precious stone, which formed 
the third in the third row of the high-priest's 
breastphite, in Ex. xxviii. 19, xxix. 12, 
" And the third row a ligture, an agate, and 
an amethyst." It occurs alao in the N. T. 
(Rev. xxi. 20) as the 12th stone which 
garnished the foundations of the wall of the 
heavenly Jerusalem. Commentators gener- 
ally are agreed that the amethyst is the stone 
indicated by the Hebrew word, an opinion 
which is abundantly supported by the ancient 

AMMIN'ADAB. Son of Ram or Aram, 
and father of Nahshon, or Naasson (as it is 
written. Matt i. 4 ; Luke iU. 82), who was 
the prince of the tribe of Jndah, at the first 
UTunbering of Israel in the second year of 

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tho Exodus (Num. i. 7, U. 8 ; Ruth ir. 19, 
20; 1 Chr. L 10]. He wu the fourth 
generatioii after Judah, the patriarch of his 
tribe, and one of the ancestors of Jxsus 

AMMIN'ADIB. In Cant. tI. 12, it is un- 
certain whether we ought to read. Am- 
minadib^ with the A. V., or my willing people, 
as in the margin. 

OF AMMON, a people descended ftrom Ben- 
Ammi, the son of Lot by his younger daughter 
(Gen. xix. 88 ; comp. Ps. Ixxxifi. 7, 8), as 
Moab was by the elder ; and dating firom the 
destruction of Sodom. The near relation 
Detween the two peoples indicated in the 
story of their origin continued throughout 
:beir existence (comp. Judg. x. 6 ; 2 Chr. 
£x. 1 ; Zeph. ii. 8, fto.). Indeed, so close 
was their union, and so near their identity, 
Uiat each would appear to be occasionally 
Fpoken of under the name of the other. Un- 
dke Moab, the precise position of the terri- 
tory of the Ammonites \b not ascertainable. 
In the earliest mention of them (Deut. ii. 20) 
-hey are said to have destroyed the Rephaim, 
whom they called the Zamzummim, and to 
have dwelt in their place, Jabbok bebig their 
border (Num. xxl. 24 ; Deut. iL 37, iiL 16). 
"Laud" or «* country" is, howerer, but 
rarely ascribed to them, nor is there any 
reference to those habits and circumstances 
of civilisation, which so constantly recur in 
the allusions to Moab (Is. xt., xtL; Jer. 
xlriii.). On the contrary, we find every- 
where traces of the fierce habits of marauders 
in their incursions (1 Sam. xi. 2 ; Am. L 18), 
and a very high d^ree of crafty cruelty to 
their foes (Jer. xlL 6, 7 ; Jud. vii. 11, 12). 
It appears that Moab was the settled and 
civilised half of the nation of Lot, and that 
Ammon formed its predaUnry and Bedouin 
section. On the west of Jordan they never 
obtained a footing. The hatred in which the 
Ammonites were held by Israel is stated to 
have arisen partly firom their opposition, or, 
rather, their denial of assistance (Deut. xxiii. 
4), to the Israelites on their approach to 
Canaan. But whatever its origin the ani- 
mosity continued in force to the latest date. 
The last appearances of the Ammonites in the 
biblical narrative are in the books of Judith 
(v. vi. viL) and of the Maccabees (1 Mace. 
▼. 6, 80-48), and it has been already re- 
marked that their chief characteristios— close 
alliance with Moab, hatred of Israel, and 
cunning cruelty — ore maintained to the end. 
The tribe was governed by a king (Judg. 
xL 12, ftc. ; 1 Sam. xU. 12 ; 2 Sam. x. 1 ; 
Jer. xl. 14) and by " princes " (2 Sam. x. 8 ; 
1 Chr. xix. S). It has been conjectured that 

Nahash (1 Sam. xi. 1 ; 2 Sam. x. 2) was the 
official title of the king as Pharaoh was of 
the Egyptian monarchs ; but this is without 
any sure foundation.— The divinity of the 
tribe was Molech, generally named in the 
O. T. under the altered form of MUcom — 
" the abomination of the children of Ammon ;" 
and occasionally as Malcham. In more than 
one passage under the word rendered " their 
king " in the A. Y. an allusion is intended to 
this idol. [MoLKCH.] 

AM'NON. Eldest son of David by Ahinoam 
the Jesreelitess, born in Hebron while his 
father's royalty was onjy acknowledged in . 
Judan. He dishonoured his half-sister 
Tamar, and was in consequence murdered by 
her brother (2 Sam. xiii. l-29.i 

A'MON, an Egyptian divinity, whose name 
occurs in that of No Amon iNah. iii. 8), in 
A. V. ** populous No," or Thebes, also called 
No. [No.j The Greeks called this divinity 
Ammon. The ancient Egyptian name is 
Amen. Amen was one of the eight gods of 
the first order, and chief of the triad o! 
Thebes. He was worshipped at that cit}* as 
Amen-Ra, or ** Amen the sun." 



A'MON. King of Jiidah, son and successor 
of Manasseh, reigned two years from B.C. 
642 to 640. Following his father's example, 
Amon devoted himself wholly to the service 
of false gods, but was killed in a conspiracy. 
The people avenged him by putting all the 
conspirators to death, and secured the suc- 
cession to his son Josiah. To Amon's reign 
we must refer the terrible picture which the 

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prophet Zephanifth gives of the moral and 
religioos state of Jerasalem. 

dwellera on the sommits— monntaineers — 
one of the chief nations who possessed the 
land of Canaan before its conquest by the 
Israelites. In the genealogical table of Gen. 
X, **the Amorite " is glren as the fourth sen 
oC Canaan, with " Zidon, Heth [Hittite], the 
Jeboaite,'' fte. As dwelling on the derated 
portions of the oonntry, they are contrasted 
with the Canaanites, who wera the dwellera 
in the lowlands ; and the two thus formed 
the main broad dirisions of the Holy Land 
fNunu ziiL 29 ; and see Josh. t. 1, x. 6, 
xL8; Dent. L 7, 20, "mountain of the A.;'' 
44). In the Tery earliest times (Oen. xir. 7) 
they ara oeenpying the barren heights west 
of the Dead Sea, at the place wUoh afterwards 
bora the name of Engedi. From this point 
tbey stretched west to Hebron, whera Abram 
was then dwelling under the "oak-grove" 
of the three brothers, Aner, Eshool, and 
Manure (Gen. zIt. IS; eomp. xffl. 18). At 
die date of the invasion of the country, Sthon, 
dieir then king, had taken the rich pasture- 
land south of the Jabbok, and had driven the 
Moabites, its Ibrmer possessors, across the 
wide chasm of the Amon (Num. xxi. 18, 26), 
which thenceforward formed the boundary 
between the two hostUe peoples (Num. nd. 
18). This rich tract, bounded by the Jabbok 
on the north, the Amon <m the south, Jordan 
on the west, and ** the wilderness" on the 
east (iudg. xL 21, 22), was, perhaps, In the 
most speeial sense the " land of the Amorites" 
(Num. xxL 31 ; Josh. xiL 2, 8, xiiL 9 ; 
Judg. xi. 21, 22) ; but their posses si ons ara 
distinctly stated to have extended to the very 
foot of Hermon (Deut. ilL 8, iv. 48), em- 
bracing "all GUead and all Bashan" (iiL 10), 
vith the Jordan valley on the east of the 
river (iv. 49). After the conquest of Canaan 
nothing is heard in the Bible of the Amorites, 
except the occasional mention of their name 
among the early inhabitants of the country. 

A'MOB. A native of Tekoa in Judah, about 
six miles 8. of Bethlehem, originally a shep- 
herd and dresser of lyeomore-trees, who was 
called by God's Spirit to be a prophet, although 
not trained in any of the regular prophetio 
•chooU (L 1, vii. 14, 18). He traveUed tram 
Judah into the northern kingdom of Israel 
or Ephraim, and there exercised his ministry, 
apparently not for any long time. His date 
cannot be later than the 15th year of Usxiah's 
reign (b.c. 808) ; for he tells us that he pro- 
phesied "in the reigns of Uxsiah king of 
Judah, and Jeroboam the son of Joash king 
of Israel, two yeara before the earthquake." 
But his ministry probably took place at an 

earlier period, perhaps about the middle of 
Jeroboam's reign. The book of the prophe* 
des or Amos seems divided into four prin- 
dpal portions dosely connected together. 
(1) From L 1 to ii. 8 he denounces the sins 
of the nations bordering on Israd and Judah, 
as a preparation for (2), in which, from ii. 4 
to vi. 14, he describes the state of those two 
kingdoms, espedaUy the former. This is 
foUowed by (8) vlL l.-ix, 10, in which, after 
reflecting on the previous prophecy, he re- 
lates his vidt to Bethel, and sketches the im- 
pending punishment of Israd which he pre- 
dicted to Amaxiah. After this in (4) he rise* 
to a loftier and mora evangelical strain, look- 
ing forward to the time when the hope at 
the Messiah's kingdom will be fhlflUed, and 
His people forgiven and established in the 
enjoyment oi God's blessings to all eternity. 
The chief peculiarity d the style consists in 
the number of alludons u> natural objects 
and agricultural occupations, as might be ex- 
pected from the early lifb of the author. See 
L 8, iL 18, iiL 4, 5, iv. 2, 7, 9, v. 8, 19, vi. 
12, viL 1, ix. 8, 9, 18, 14. The references 
to it in the N. T. ara two : v. 25, 26, 27 it 
quoted by St. Stephen in Acta viL 42, 48, 
and ix. 11 by St. James in Acta xv. 16. 

A'MOZ, fiftther of the prophet Isaiah, and, 
according to Babbinical tradition, brother of 
Amasiah king of Judah (2 K. xix. 2, 20, xx. 
1 ; 2 Chr. xxvL 22, xxxii. 20, 82 ; Is. L 1, 
iL 1, xliL I, zx. 2, xxxvlL 2, 21, xxxviii. 1). 

AMPHIP'OLIS, a dty of Macedonia, 
through which Paul and Silas passed on their 
way from Fhilippi to Thessalonioa (Acta 
xvlL 1). It was distant 88 Boman miles 
from FhilippL It stood upon an eminence 
on the left or eastern bank of the river Stry- 
mon. Just below ito egress txam the lake Cer- 
dnitis, and at the distance of about three 
miles tram the sea. Ito dto is now occupied 
by a village called ITeokMrio, in Turkish 
JenUKmit or " New Town." 

AM'RAM. A Levita of the flunUy of the 
Kohathites, and father of Moses, Aaron, and 
Miriam (Ex. vL 18, 20 ; Num. ill. 19 ; 1 Chr. 
vL 2, 8, 18). He is caUed the "son" of 
Kohath, but it is evident that in the gene- 
alogy several generations must have been 
omitted ; for tram Joseph to Joshua ten ge- 
nerations ara recorded, while tram Levi to 
Moses thera ara but three. 

AM'RAPHEL, perhaps a Hamite king of 
Shinar or Babylonia, who Joined the victo- 
rious inourdon of the Elamita Chedorlaomer 
against the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah 
and the cities of the pldn (Oen. xlv.). 

AMULETS wera ornaments, gems, scrolls, 
Ac., worn as preservatives against the power 
of enchantments, and generdly in»crlbed 

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with mystic forms or charaoters. Tho word 
does not occur in the A. Y., but the ** ear- 
rings " in Gen. xxxt. 4 were obviously con- 
nected with idolatrous worship, and were 
probably amulets taken from the bodies of the 
slain Shechemites. They are subsequently 
mentioned among the spoils of Midian (Judg. 
viU. 24). Again, in Hoe. ii. 13, "decking 
herself with earrings" is mentioned as one 
of the signs of the ** days of Baalim." The 
** earringA " in Is. iii. 20 were also amulets. 

A'NAH, the son of Zibeon, the son of Seir 
the Horite (Oen. xxxvi. 20, 24), a "duke" 
or prince of his tribe, and father of Aholi- 
bamah, one of the wives of Esau (Gen. xxxvi. 
2, 14, 25). There is no reason to suppose 
that he \b other than the same Anah who 
found the "hot springs" (not "mules," as 
in the A. Y.) in the desert as he fed the asses 
of Zibeon his father, though Bunsen considers 
him a distinct personage, the son of Seir and 
brother of Zibran. 

AN'AKIM, a race of giants, descendants 
of Arba (Josh. xv. IS, xxL 11), dwelling in 
the southern part of Canaan, and particularly 
at Hebron, which from their progenitor re- 
ceived the name of ** city of Arba." Besides 
the general designation Anakim, they are va- 
riously called sons of Anak (Num. xilL 33), 
descendants of Anak (Num. xiiL 22), and 
sons of Anakim (Deut i. 28). These desig- 
nations serve to show that we must regard 
Anak as the name of the race rather than 
that of an individual, and this is confirmed 
by what is said of Arba, their progenitor, 
that he " was a great man among the An- 
akim" (Josh. xiv. 15). The race appears to 
have been divided icto three tribes or fami- 
lies, bearing the names Sheshai, Ahiman, 
and Talmai. Though the warlike appearance 
of the Anakim had struck the Israelites with 
terror in the time of Moses (Num. xiiL 28 ; 
Deut. ix. 2), they were nevertheless dl^os- 
sessed by Joshua, and utterly driven ttom 
the land, except a small remnant that found 
refUge in the Philistine cities, Gaza, Gath, 
and Ashdod (Josh. xL 21, 22). Their chief 
city Hebron became the poes^uion of Caleb, 
who is said to have driven out fhnn it the 
three sons of Anak mentioned above, that is 
the three families or tribes of the Anakim 
(Josh. XV. 14 ; Judg. L 20). After this time 
they vanish flrom history. 

ANAlCMELECH, one of the idols wor- 
shipped by the colonists introduced into Sa- 
maria fh)m Sepharvaim (2 K. xvii. 31). He 
was worshipped with rites resembling those of 
Molech, chUdreo being burnt in his honour, 
and is the companion-god to Abramiuclbch. 
As Adrammelech is the male power of the sun, 
JO Anammeleoh is the female power of the sun. 

ANANI'AS. 1. A high-priest in Acta xxlii. 
2-5, xxiv. 1. He was the son of Nebedaeus, 
succeeded Joseph son of Camydus, and pre- 
ceded Ismael son of Phabi. He was nomi- 
nated to the office by Herod king of Chalcis, 
in AJ). 48 ; was deposed shortly before Felix 
left the province, and assassinated by the 
sicarii at the be^nning of the last Jewish 
war. — 0. A disciple at Jerusalem, husband 
of Sapphira (Acts v. 1-11). Having sold his 
goods for the benefit of the church, he kept 
back a part of the price, bringing to the 
apostles the remainder, as if it were the 
whole, his wife also being privy to the scheme. 
St. Peter denounced the fhiud, and Ananias 
fell down and expired. — 3. A Jewish disciple 
at Damascus (Acts ix. 10-17), of high repute 
(Acts xxii. 12), who sought out Saul during 
the period of blindness and dejection which 
followed his conversion, and announced to 
him his ftiture commission as a preacher of 
the GospeL Tradition makes hLn to have 
been afterwards bishop of Damascus, and to 
have died by martyrdom. 

ANATS'EMA, which literally means a 
thing suspended, is the equivalent of the 
Hebrew word signifying a thing or person 
dwoted. Any o1)Jeet so devoted to Jehovah 
was irredeemable : if an inanimat>e object, it 
was to be given to the priests (Num. xviiL 
14) ; if a living creature or even a man, it 
was to be slain (Lev. xxvii. 28, 29). The 
word anathema ftrequently occurs in St. Paul's 
writings, and is generally translated aeevr»ed. 
Many expositors have regarded his use of it 
as a technical term for Judicial excommuni- 
cation. That the word was so used in the 
early Church there can be no doubt, but an 
inramination of the passages in which it oc- 
curs shows that it had acquired a more 
general sense as expressive either of strong 
feeling (Bom. ix. 3) or of dislike and con- 
demnation (1 Cor. xiL 3, xvi. 22 ; GaL i. 9). 

AN'ATHOTH, a priesto* city, belonging to 
the tribe ci Benjamin, with '* suburbs " (Josh. 
xxL 18 ; 1 Chr. vi. 60). Anathoth lay on or 
near the great road from the north to Jeru- 
salem (Is. X. 30), and is placed by Eusebius 
and Jerome at 3 miles firom the dty. Its 
position has been discovered by Bobinson at 
Andta, on a broad ridge 1^ hofir N.N.E. 
fhnn Jerusalem. The cultivation of the 
priests survives in tilled fields of grain, with 
figs and olives. There are the remains of 
walls and strong foundations, and the quar- 
ries still supply Jerusalem with building 

AN'DREW, one among the first called of 
the AposUes of our Lord (John i. 40 ; Matt, 
iv. 18) ; brother (whether elder or younger 
is uncertain) of Simon Peter (ibid.). He wac 

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of BeUiiaida, «nd had been a diadple of John 
the Baptist. On hearing Jeans a second time 
designated bj him as the Lamb of Ood, he 
left his former master, and, in eompany with 
another of John's disciple^ attached himself 
to our Lord. By his means his brother Simon 
was brooght to Jesus (John i. 41). The ap- 
parent discrepancy in Matt. iv. 18 ff., Mark 
i. 16 ff., where the two appear to hare been 
called together, is no real one; St. J<din 
relating the first introduction of the brothers 
to Jesos, the other Evangelists their formal 
call to foHow Him in his ministry. In the 
catalogue of the Apostles, Andrew appears, 
In Matt. X. 2, Luke tI. 14, second, next after 
hiik brother Peter ; but in Mark iii. 16, Acts 
L IS, fourth, next after the three, Peter, 
James, and John, and in company with 
Philip. And this appears to hsTo been his 
real place of dignity among the Apostles. 
The traditions about him are yarious. Eu- 
sebius makes him preach In Scythia ; Jerome 
and Theodoret in Aohaia (Greece); Nice- 
phorus in Asia Minor and Thrace. He 1b 
said to hare been crucified at Patrae in Achaia. 
Some aneient writers speak of an apocryphal 
Acts of Andrew. 

ANDRONrcUS. 1. An oifioer left as Tiee- 
roy (2 Maoc. It. 81) in Antiooh by Antiochus 
Epiphanes during his absence (b.c. 171). At 
the instigation of Menelaus, Andronions put 
to death the high-priest Onias. This murder 
excited general indignati<m ; and on the re- 
turn of Antiochus, Andronious was publicly 
degraded and executed (2 Maoc. iv. Sl-88). — 
8. Another officer of Antiochus Epiphanes 
who was left by him on Oarizim (2 Maoc t. 
23), probably in occupation of the temple 
there. — 8. A Christian at Bome, saluted by 
St. Paul (Rom. xvi. 7) together with Junias. 

ANGELS. By the word "angels" («'.«. 
** menengers" of God) we ordinarily under- 
stand a race of spiritual beings, of a nature 
exalted tax above that of man, although in- 
finitely renwred f^om that of God, whose 
office is ** to do Him serrtee in heaven, and 
by His appointment to succour and defend 
men on earth." I. ScripturM tue cf the 
word, — There are many passages in which 
the expression the "angel of God," "the 
angel of Jehovah," is certainly used for a 
manifestation of God himself. This is espe- 
cially the case in the earlier books of the Old 
Testament, and may be seen at once by a 
comparison of Gen. xxiL 11 with 12, and of 
Ex. iii. 2 with 6 and 14 ; where He, who is 
called the " angel of Jehovah " in one verse, 
is called '*God," and even "Jehovah" in 
those which foUow, and accepts the worship 
due to God alone. It is to be observed also, 
that, side by side with these expressions, we 

read of God's being manifested in the ferm of 
man ; as to Abraham at Mamre (Gen. xviii. 
2, 22, oomp. xix. 1), to Jacob at Penuel 
(Gen. xxxii. 24, SO), to Joshua at Gilgal 
(Josh. V. 18, 15), fto. It U hardly to be 
doubted that both sets of passages refer to 
the same kind of manifestation of the Divine 
Presence. The inevitable inference is that 
by the " Angel of the Lord " in auoh passages 
is meant He, who is firom the beginning the 
"Word," «. «. the Manifester or Revealer of 
God. Besides this, which is the highest ap- 
plication of the word " angel," we find the 
phrase used of any messengers of God, such 
as the prophets (Is. xUL 19 ; Hag. i. 18 ; 
Mai. iii. 1), the priests (Mai. iL 7), and the 
rulers of the Christian churches (Rev. i. 
20)— n. Jfatun o/ on^sXf.— Little is said of 
their nature as distinot fhnn their office. 
They are termed "spirits" (as in Heb. L 
14) ; but it is not asserted that the angeli/^ 
nature is incorporeaL The contrary seems 
expressly implied by the words in which our 
Lord declares, that, after the Resurrection, 
men shall be "Uke the angels" (Luke xx. 
86) ; because (Phil. iiL 21) their bodies, as 
well as their spirits, shall have been made 
entirely like His. The angels are revealed 
to us as beings, such as man might be and 
will be when the power of sin and death is 
removed, partaking in their measure of the 
attributes of God, Truth, Purity, and Love, 
because always beholding His fhoe (Matt. 
xviiL 10), and therefore being "made like 
Him" (1 John iiL 2). This, of course, im- 
plies flniteness, and therefore (in the strict 
sense) " imperfection " of nature, and con- 
stant progress, both moral and int^ectual, 
through all eternity. Such imperfection, con- 
trasted with the infinity of God, is expressly 
ascribed to them in Job iv. 18 ; Matt. xxiv. 
36 ; 1 Pet i. 12. The finiteness of nature 
implies capacity of temptation ; and accord- 
ingly we hear of "fallen angels." Of the 
nature of their temptation and the circum- 
stances of their fidl, we know absolutely 
nothing. All that is certain is, that they 
" left their first estate," and that they are 
now "angels of the devil" (Matt. xxv. 
41 ; Rev. xii. 7, 9), partaking therefore of 
the falsehood, undeanness, and hatred, which 
are his peciiliar characteristics (John viii. 44). 
On the other hand, the title especially as- 
signed to the angels of God, that of the " holy 
ones" (see Dan. iv. 13, 28, viii. 18 ; Matt. xxv. 
81), is precisely the one which is given to 
those men who are renewed in Christ's image, 
but which belongs to them in actuality and 
in perfection only hereafter. (Comp. Heb. ii. 
10, V. 9, xii. 23.)>-nL Offiw of the ongtU, 
—Of their office in heaven, we have, of 

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oourse, only vague prophetic glimpsefi 
(as in 1 K. xxii. 19 ; Is. vi. 1-8 ; Dan. 
Yii. 9, 10 ; Rev. ri. 11, &c.), which 
show us nothing but a never-ceasing 
adoration. Their office towards man 
is far more fully described to us. 
They are represented aa being, in the 
widest sense, agents of God's Provi- 
dence, naturcU and supernatural^ to 
the body and to the soul. More par- 
ticularly, however, angels are spoken 
of as ministers of what is called 
supernatural Providence of God; as 
agents in the great scheme of the 
spiritual redemption und sanctifica- 
tion of man, of which the Bible is the 
record. During the prophetic and 
kingly period, angels are spoken of 
only as ministers of God in the ope- 
rations of nature. But in the cap- 
tivity angels are revealed in a fresli 
light, as watching, not only over 
Jerusalem, but also over heathen 
kingdoms, under the Providenoe, and 
to work out the designs, of the Lord. 
(See Zech. passim, and Dan. iv. 13, 
28, z. 10, 13, 20, 21, Ac.) The In. 
carnation marks a new epoch of an- 
gelic ministration. " T%e Angel of 
Jehovah," the Lord of all created 
angeis, having now descended ftom heaven 
to earth, it was natural that His servants 
should continue to do Him service there. 
The New Testament is the history of the 
Church ^ Cfhristf every member of which is 
united to Him. Accordingly, the angels are 
revealed now, as **mini8taing spirits" to 
each individual member of Christ for His 
spiritual guidance and aid (Heb. i. 14). In 
one word they are Christ's ministers of grace 
now, as they shall be of Judgment hereafter 
(Matt xiii. 39, 41, 49, xvi. 27, xxiv. 81, &c.). 
That there are degrees of the angelic nature, 
fallen and unfallen, and special titles and 
agencies belonging to each, is dearly de- 
ohired by St. Paul (Eph. L 21 ; Rom. viii. 88), 
but what their general nature is, it is useless 
to speculate. 

ANISE. This word occurs only in Matt. 
zziiL 28. It is by no means a matter of 
certainty whether the anise {Pimpinella ani~ 
mm, Lin.) or the dill {Anethum graoeolen*) 
is here intendiKl, though the probability is 
more in favour of the latter plant. 

ANKLET. This word does not occur in 
the A. v., bat anklets are refBrred to in Is. 
iii. 16, 18, 20. They were fastened to the 
ankle-band of each leg, were as common as 
bracelets and armlets, and made of much the 
same materials; the pleasant Jingling and 
tinkling which they made ae they knocked 

DHL (iliMaiifM gravetkni.'i S«e art ' Aniw 

against each other, was no doubt one of the 
reasons why they were admired (" the bravery 
of their tinkling ornaments"). They are 
still worn In the East. 

AN 'N A. A *' prophetess " in Jerusalem at 
the time of our Lord's presentation in the 
Temple (Luke iL 86). She was of the tribe 
of Asher. 

AN'NAS, the son of one Seth, was ap- 
pointed high-priest in the year a.d. 7, by 
Quirlnus, the imperial governor of Syria- 
but was obliged by Valerius Gratus, procu- 
rator of Judaea, to give way to Ismael, son 
of Fhabi, at the beginning of the reign of 
Tiberius, a.d. 14. Ismael was succeeded by 
Eleasar, son of Annas ; then followed, after 
one year, Simon, eon of Camithus, and then, 
after another year (about a.d. 25), Joseph 
Caiaphas, son-in-law of Annas (John zviii. 
18). But in Luke iii. 2, Annas and Caiaphas 
are both called high-priests, Annas being 
mentioned first. Our Lord's first hearing 
(John zviii. 13) was before Annas, who then 
sent him bound to Caiaphas. In Acts iv. 6, 
Annas is plainly called the high-priest, and 
Caiaphas merely named with others of his 
fkmUy. Some maintain that the two, Annas 
and Caiaphas, were together at the head of 
the Jewish people,T-Caiaphas as actoal high- 
priest, Annas as president of the Sanhedrim. 
Others again suppose that Annas held the 

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oAee of tagan, or sabttitute of the higb- 
pricBt. He lived to old sge, having had five 
flons high-priesta. 

ANOINTING in Holy Scripture ia either 
I. Material, with oil, or IL Spiritual, with 
the Holy Ohoet. — ^I. Matkual. — 1. Ordi^ 
nary. Anointing the body or head with oU 
waa a eommon practice with the Jews, aa 
with other Oriental nationa (Dent. xzviiL 
40; Kath iiL S; Mic vi. 15). Abetinenee 
ttxxa it was a sign of mooming (3 Sam. xir. 
S ; Dan. x. 8 ; Matt tL 17). Anointing the 
head with oQ or ointment seems also to have 
been a mark of respect sometimes paid by a 
host to his guests (Luke yii. 46 and Ps. 
xxiiL 5).— S. Ogieial, It was a rite of inan- 
goration into each of the three typical offices 
of the Jewish oommonwealth. (a) Frop\§U 
were oecasionally anointed to their office 
(1 K. xix. 16), and are called messiahs, or 
anointed (1 Chr. xyL 23 ; Ps. ct. 15). (5) 
FrinU, at the first institntlon of the Le- 
vitioal priesthood, were all anointed to their 
oAees, the sons of Aaron as well as Aaron 
himself (Ex. xL 15 ; Num. iiL 3) ; bat after- 
wards, anointing seems not to have been re- 
peated at the consecration of ordinary priests, 
bat to hare been especially reserved for the 
high-priest (Ex. xxix. 29 ; Lev. xvi. 32) ; so 
that ** the priest that is anointed'* (Lev. iv. 
8) ia generally thought to mean the high- 
priest, {e) Kmg$. Anointing was the prin- 
cipal and divinely-appointed ceremony in the 
inauguration of the Jewish kings (1 Sam. ix. 
16, x. 1 ; 1 K. L 34, 39). The rite was some- 
times performed more than once. David was 
thrice anointed to be king. After the sepa- 
ration Into two kingdoms, the kings both of 
Judah and of Israel seem still to have been 
anointed (2 K. ix. 3, xi. 12). (<0 Jmrnj- 
wioU oltf^eU also were anointed with oil in 
token of their being set apart for religious 
service. Thus 'Jacob anointed a pillar at 
Bethel (Gen. xxxL 13) ; and at the introduc- 
tion of the Mosaic economy, the tabemade 
and aU its ftxmiture were consecrated by 
anointing (Ex. xxx. 26-28). — 8. JSceleti- 
€Mtical. Anointing with oil in the name of 
the Lord ia prescribed by St. James to be 
used together with prayer, by the eldera of 
the church, fbr the rec o very of the sick 
(James v. 14). Analogoua to this is the 
anointing with oH practised by the twelve 
(Mark vi. 13).— IL SnsrruAL.— 1. In the 
O. T. a Deliverer is promised under the title 
of Messiah, or Anointed (Ps. ii. 2 ; Dan. ix. 
21, 26) ', and the nature of his anointing is 
described to be spiritual, with the Holy 
Ghost (Is. Ixi. 1 ; see Luke iv. 18). In the 
5. T. Jeaoa of Naareth is shown to be the 
Mnsiah, or Christ, or Anointed of the Old 

Testament (John i. 41 ; Acts ix. 22, xvii. 2, 
3, xviii. 4, 28) ; and the historical fact of hia 
being anointed with the Holy Ghost is as- 
serted and recorded (John i. 82, 33 ; Acts iv. 
27, X. 38). 2. Spiritual anointing with the 
Holy Ghost is oondterred also upon Christians 
by God (2 Cor. L 21), and ttej are described 
aa having an unction from the Holy One, by 
which they know all things (1 John ii. 
20, 27). 

ANT (Heb. MmdlSh). This insect is men- 
tioned twice in the O. T. : in Prov. vi. 6, 
XXX. 25. In the former of these passages 
the diligmee of this insect is instanced by the 
wise man as an example worthy of imitation ; 
in the second passage the ant*s wisdom 
is especially alluded to, for these imiects, 
** though they be little on the earth, are ex- 
ceeding wise.** It is well known that the 
ancient Greeks and Romans believed that 
the ant stored up food, which it collected in 
the summer, ready for the winter's consump- 
tion; but this is an error. The European 
species of ants are all dormant in the winter, 
and consequently require no food ; and the 
observations of modem natnraliste seem 
almost conclusive that no ants lay up for 
fbtnre consumption. 

ANTICHRIST. This term is employed by 
the Apostle John alone, and is defined by 
him in a manner which leaves no doubt as to 
its intrinsic meaning. With regard to its 
application there is less certainty. In the 
first passage (1 John ii. 18) in which it occurs 
the apostle makes direct reference to the 
false Christs, whose coming, it had been fore- 
told, should mark the last days. "Little 
children, it is the last time : and aa ye have 
heard that the Antichrut cometh, even now 
have there been many AntUMsU ; whereby 
we know that it is the last time.** The allu- 
sion to Matt xxiv. 24 was clearly in the 
mind of the Syriao translator, who rendered 
Afitiehritt by "the fklse Christ" In ver. 
22 we find, " he is the AtUichriat that deiiieth 
the FAther and the Son ;" and still more po- 
sitively, "every spirit that confesseth not 
that Jesus Christ is come in the fiesh" is of 
AMiiekritt (oomp. 2 John 7). From these 
emphatic and repeated definitions it has been 
•uppoeed that the object of the apostle in his 
first epistle was to combat the errors of Ce- 
rinthns, the Docetae, and the Gnostics on the 
sul^eot of the Incarnation. The AnUichruU^ 
against which he warned the churches of 
Asia Minor as being already in the world, 
had been of their own number ; " they went 
out from us, but they were not of us "(1 John 
ii. 19) ; and the manner in which they are 
referred to implies that the name waa already 
CuniUar to those to whom the epistle was 

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ftddressed, through the apostles' oral teach- 
ing (2 These, ii. 5). The coining of Anti- 
christ was believed to be foretold ia the 
" vile person " of Daniel's prophecy (xi. 31), 
which receired its first accomplishment in 
Antiochns Epiphanes, bnt of which the com- 
plete fhlfllment was reserved for the last 
times. He is identified with " the man of 
sin, the son of perdition " (2 Thess. ii. 3), 
who should be revealed when he "who 
now letteth " was removed ; that is, accord- 
ing to the belief of the primitive church, 
when the Roman order of things 
ceased to be. This interpretation 
brings Antichrist into close connexion 
with the gigantic power of evil, sym- 
bolised by the "beast" (Rev. xiU.), 
who received his power from the 
dragon (i. e, the devil, the serpent of 
Genesis), continued for forty and two 
months, and was invested with the 
kingdom of the ten kings who de- 
stroyed the harlot Babylon (Rev. xvii. 
12, 17), the city of seven hUls. The 
destruction of Babylon is to be fol- 
lowed by the rule of Antichrist for a 
short period (Rev. xvii. 10), to be in 
his turn overthrown in '* the battle of 
that great day of God Almighty" 
(Rev. xvi. H) with the false prophet 
and all his followers (Rev. xlx.). The 
personality of Antichrist is to be in- 
ferred as well ftooi the personality of 
his historical precursor, as fhnn that 
of Him to whom he stands opposed. 
Such an interpretation is to be pre- 
ferred to that which regards Anti- 
christ as the embodiment and per- 
sonification of all powers and agencies 
inimical to Christ, or of the Antichristian 
might of the world. But the language of the 
apostles is intentionally obscure, and this ob- 
scurity has been rather deepened than re- 
moved by the conflicting interpretations of 
expositors. All that the dark hints of the 
apostles teach us is, that they regarded Anti- 
christ as a power whose iiuBuenoe was be- 
ginning to bo felt even in their time, but 
whose full development was reserved till the 
passing away of the principle which hindered 
it, and the destruction of the power sym- 
bolised by the mystJtal Babylon. 

AN^riOCH. l.In8TaiA. The capital of 
the Greek kings of Syria, and afterwards the 
residence of the Roman governors of the pro- 
vince which bore the same name. This metro- 
polis was situated where the chain of Lebanon, 
running northwards, and the chain of Taurus, 
running eastwards, are brought to an abrupt 
meeting. Here the Orontes breaks through 
the mountains ; and Antioch was placed at a 

bend of the river, partly on an island, partly 
on the level which forms the left bank, and 
partly on the steep and craggy ascent of 
Mount Silpins, which rose abruptly on the 
south* In the immediate neighbourhood was 
Daphne, the ecebrated sanctuary of Apollo 
(2 Maoo. iv. S8) ; whence the city was some- 
times called AwTiocH by Daphitx, to distin- 
guish it from other cities of the same name. — 
No city, after Jerusalem, is so intimately 
connected with the history of the apostolio 
church.— The chief interest of Antioch, how- 

Oat* of St Paul, AiiUodi. 

ever, is connected with the progress of Chris- 
tianity among the heathen. Here the first 
Gentile church was founded (Acts xi. 20, 
21) ; here the disciples of Jesus Christ were 
first called Christians (xi. 26). It was ftom 
Antioch that St. Paul started on his three 
missionary Journeys. The city w«s founded 
in the year 800 b.c, by Seleueus Nicator. 
Jews were settled there from the first in 
large numbers, were governed by their own 
ethnaroh, and allowed to have the same poli- 
tical privileges with the Greeks. Antioch 
grew under the successive Seleudd kings, 
till it became a city of great extent and of 
remarkable beauty. Some of the most mag- 
nificent buildings were on the island. One 
feature, which seems to have been charao- 
teristio of the great Syrian dties, — a vast 
street with colonnades, intersecting the whole 
from end to end— was added by Antioohus 
Epiphanes. By Pompey it was made a free 
dty, and such it continued till the time of 

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AntoBinos.Piiu. The early Emperon raised 
there «oaie large and important etructurcs, 
■uch as aqueducts, amphitheatres, and haths. 
Herod the Great contrihuted a road and a 
eolonnade. — 8. In Pisivia (Acts xiii. 14, xir. 
19, 21 ; 2 Tim. iii. 11), on the borders of 
Phrygia, oorresponds to Talobateht which is 
distant from JJt^ther six hours over the 
mountains. This citj, like the Syrian An- 
tioch, was founded by Seleucus Nlcator. 
Under the Romans it became a eclonia, and 
was also called Caesarea. 

AXn'OCHUS II., king of Syria, snmamed 
the Ooil, succeeded his &ther Antiochus Soter 
in B.C. 261. D^iriag the earlier part of his 
reign he was engaged in a fierce war with 
Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, in the 
coarse of which Parthia and Bactria revolted 
and became independent kingdoms. At length 
(a.c. 250) peace was made, and the two mon- 
arehs "joined themselves together" (Dan. 
xL 6), and Ptolemy ("king of the south") 
gave his daughter Berenice in marriage to 
Antiochus ('«the king of the north"), who 
set aside his former wife, Laodioe, to receive 
her. After some time, on the death of Pto- 
lemy (B.C. 247), Antiochus recalled Laodice 
and her children Seleucus and Antiochus to 
oonrt. Thus Berenice was ;* not able to re- 
tain her power ;" and Laodice, in jealous fear 
lest she might a second time lose her as- 
cendancy, poisoned Antiochus (him "that 
strengthened her," i, §, Berenice), and caused 
Berenice and her infant son to be put to 
death, b.c. 246 (Dan. xL 6). 

ANTroCHUS Uln sumamed ths Great, 
grandson of the preceding, succeeded his 
brother Seleucus Keraunos, who was assassi- 
nated after a short reign in b.c 22S. He 
prosecuted the war against Ptolemy Philo- 
pator with vigour, and at first with success. 
In B.C. 218 he drove the Egyptian forces to 
Sidon, conquered Samaria and Ollead, and 
wintered at Ptolemais, but was defeated next 
year at Raphia, near Gaza (b.c. 217), with im- 
mense lots, and in consequence made a peace 
with Ptolemy, in which he ceded to him the 
disputed provinces of Ooele-Syria, Phoenicia 
and Palestine (Dan. xi. 11, 12). During 
the next thirteen years Antiochus was en- 
gaged in strengthening his position in Aftla 
Minor, and on the firontiers of Parthia, and 
by his successes gained his surname of the 
Great, At the end of this time, b.c. 205, 
Ptolemy Philopator died, and left his king- 
dom to his son PtoL Epiphanes, who wa6 
only five years old. Antiochus availed him- 
self of the opportunity which was offered by 
the weakness of a minority and the unpopu- 
larity of the regent, to unite with PhUip III. 
of Maoedon for the purpose of conquering 

6a. O. B» 

and dividing the Egyptian dooinions. He 
succeeded in occupying the three disputed 
provinces, but was recalled to Asia by a war 
which broke out with AtUlus, king of Per- 
gamus ; and his ally Philip was himself em- 
broiled with the Romans. In consequence 
of this diversion, Ptolemy by the aid of 
Soopas, again made himself master of Jeru- 
salem, and recovered the territory which he 
had lost. In b.o. 198 Antiochus reappeared 
in the field and gained a decisive victory 
near the sources of the Jordan; and after- 
wards captured Soopas and the remnant of 
his forces who had taken refuge in Sidon. 
His further designs against Egypt were frus- 
trated by the intervention of the Romans. 
From Ee^t Antiochus turned again to Asia 
Minor, and after various sucoesses in the 
Aegaaan crossed over to Greece, and by the 
advice of Hannibal entered on a war with 
Rome. His victorious course was checked at 
Thermopylae (b.c. 191), and after subsequent 
reverses he was finally defeated at Magnesia 
in Lydia, b.c 190. In b.c. 187 he attacked 
a rich temple of Belus in Elymais, and was 
slain by the people who rose in its defence.^ 

Heed of 

tlL {Vnm a ooId.) 

lustriotu), was the youngest son of Antiochus 
the Great. He was given as a hostage to the 
Romans (b.c. 188) after his fhther's defeat at 
Magnesia. In b.c 175 he was released by 
the intervention of his brother Seleucus, who 
substituted his own son Demetrius in his 
place. Antiochus was at Athens when Se- 
leucus was assassinated by Heliodorus. He 
took advantage of his position, and, by the 
asiiigtanco of Eumenes and Attains, easily ex- 
pelled Heliodorus who had usurped Uie crown, 
and himself " obtained the kingdom by fiat- 
teries" (Dan. xi. 21) to the exclusion of hU 
nephew Demetrius (Dan. ^iii. 7). The acces- 
sion of Antiochus was immediately followed 
by desperate efforts of the UcUenizing party 
at Jerusalem to assert their supremacy. Jason, 
the brother of Onias III., the high-priest, 
persuaded the king to transfer the high- 

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priesthood to bim, and at the same time 
bought permiflsion (2 Mace. !▼. 9) tb carry 
out his design of habituating the Jews to 
Greek customs (2 Mace. iv. 7, 20). Three 
yean afterwards, Menelaus, of the tribe of 
BciOamin, supplanted Jason by offering the 
king a larger bribe, and was himself ap- 
pointed high-priest (2 Mace. ir. 28-26). An- 
tioohus undertook four campaigns against 
Egypt, B.C. 171, 170, 169, 168, with greater 
sueoeea than had attended his predecessor, 
and the complete conquest of the country was 
prerented only by the interference of the 
Romans (Dan. xi. 24 ; 1 Mace. i. 16 ff. ; 
2 Maoo. T. 11 ff.). On his return f^m his 
seoond Egyptian campaign (b.o. 170) ha at- 
tacked Jerusalem. The Temple was plun- 
dered, a terrible massacre took place, and a 
Phrygian governor was left with Menelaus 
m oharge of the city (2 Maoe. t. 1-22 ; 1 
Maoe. i. 20-28). Two years afterwards, at 
the close of the fourth expedition, Antioohus 
detached a force under ApoUonius to occupy 
Jerusalem and fortify it (1 Maeo. ir. 61, v. 
8 ff. ; Dan. xi. 41). The decrees then fol- 
lowed which have rendered his name in- 
fkmous. The Temple was desecrated, and 
the obeerranoe of the law was forbidden 
(1 Maoo. i. 54). Ten days afterwards an 
offering was made upon the altar to Jupiter 
Olympius. At Jerusalem all opposition ap- 
pears to have ceased ; but Mattathias and his 
sons organised a resistance, which preserred 
iuTiolate the name and fUth of Israel. Mean- 
while Antiochus turned his arms to the East, 
towards Parthia and Armenia (Dan. xi. 40). 
Hearing not long afterwards of the riches of 
a temple of Nanaea in Elymais, hung with the 
gifts of Alexander, he resolved to plunder it. 
The attempt was defeated; and though he 
did not fall like his father in the act of sacri- 
lego, the event hastened his death. He re- 
tired to Babylon, and thence to Tabae in 
Persia, where he died b.o. 164, having first 
heard of the successes of the Maccabees in 
restoring the Temple-worship at Jerusalem 
(] Maoo. vL 1-16 ; eomp. 2 Maoo. i. 7-17 !). 

M—d of AmkidwM IV. B|)lph— M (FMmaeote.) 

ANTI'OCHUS v., EU'PATOR {qf ncblt 
deaeent), succeeded his father Antiochus TY. 
B.C. 164, while still a child, under the guar- 
dianship of Lysias (1 Mace. iii. 32, vi. 17), 
though Antiochus had on his death-bed as- . 
signed this office to Philip his own foster- 
brother (1 Mace. vi. 14, 15, 55 ; 2 Mace. ix. 
29). Shortly after his accession he marched 
against Jerusalem with a large army to re- 
lieve the Syrian garrison, which was hard 
pressed by Judas Maccabaeus (1 Maoe. tI. 
19 ff.). He repulsed Judas at Bethsacharia, 
and took Bethsura (Bethsur) after a vigorous 
resistance (1 Maoe. vi. 81-50). But when 
the Jewish foroe in the Temple was on the 
point of yielding, Lysias persuaded the king 
to conclude a hasty peace that he might ad- 
vance to meet Philip, who had returned firom 
Persia and made himself master of Antioch 
(1 Maeo. vi. 51 ff.). Philip was speedUy 
overpowered ; but in the next year (b.o. 162) 
Antioehns and Lysias fell into the hands of 
Demetrius Soter, the son of Seleueus Philo- 
pator, who caused them to be put to death 
(1 Maoe. vU. 2-4 ; 2 Maoe. xiv. 1, 2). 

Hand of Antlodiiu YL (From a ocAa.) 

ANTI'OCHUS VI. was the son of Alex- 
ander Balas and Cleopatra. After his ftither's 
death (146 B.C.) he remained in Arabia; but 
though stiU a chUd (1 Maoo. xL 54), he was 
soon afterwards brought forward (o. 145 
B.o.) as a elaimant to the throne oif Syria 
against Demetrius Nicator by Tryphon or 
Diodotos (1 Maoo. xi. 89), who had been an 
offioer of his father. Tryphon succeeded in 
gaining Antiooh (1 Maoo. xL 56) ; and after- 
wards the greater part of Syria submitted to 
the young Antiochus. He afterwards defeated 
fhe troops of Demetrius at Hasor (1 Mace. 
xL 67) near Gadesh (ver. 78) : and repulsed 
a second attempt which he made to regain 
Palestine (1 Msec. xii. 24 ff.). Tryphon 
having now, with the assistanoe of Jonathan 
the high-priest, gained the sapreme power in 
the name of Antiochus, no longer ooneealed 

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his design of utorping the erown. As a flnt 
■Cep he took Jonathan hy treachery and put 
hfan to death, b.c. 14S (1 Mace xU. 40); and 
afterwards mordered the yoong king, and 
Meended the throne (1 Maoc. xiii. 81). 

in PamphyUa), king of Syria, iras the second 
ecm of Demetrius I. When his brother, De- 
metrins Nioator, was taken prisoner (e. 141 
B.C.) by Mithridatee I. (Arsaces YI., i Maoc. 
xir. 1) king of Parthia, he married his wife 
Oeopatra and obtained possession of the 
throne (1S7 B.C.), lutTing expelled the nsorper 
Tryphon (1 Mace. xt. 1 IT.). At first he 
made a Tery advantageous treaty with Stanon, 
hlgh-prlest of the Jews, bat wlien he grew 
independent of his help, he withdrew the 
concessions which he had made, and demanded 
the sorrender of the fortresses which the 
Jews held, or an eqoivalent in money (1 Mace. 
XT. S6 ff.). As Simon was unwilling to yield 
to his demands, he sent a foroe under Cende- 
baeus against him, who occupied a fortified 
position at Cedron (t 1 Maoc xr. 41), nesr 
Aaotus, and harassed the surroundingeountry. 
After the defisat of Cendebaeus by the sons of 
Simoik and the destruction of his works 
(1 Mmo. xYi. 1-10), Antiochus laid dege to 
Jenisslem, but granted honourable terms to 
John Hyreanus (b.c. 1S3), who had made a 
Tigoroos resistance. In a campaign against 
the Parthians he was entirely defeated by 
Fhraortee XL (Arsaces VU.), and fell in the 
batUe e. b.c 127^. 

AN^riPAS. [HxROD.] 

ANTIPATRIS, a town to which the sol- 
diers conveyed St. Paul by night on their 
march (Acts xxiiL SI). Its ancient name 
was Gapharsaba ; and Herod, when he rebuilt 
the city, changed it to Antipstris, in honour of 
Idsfsther Antipater. The village ZVy-AiAa 
stin retains the ancient name of Antipatris. 

APES (Heb. kSphfm) are mentioned in 1 K. 
X. 33, and 3 Chr. ix. 31. There can be little 
doubt but that the apes were brought tma the 
seme country which supplied ivory and pea- 
cocks, both of which are common in Ceylon ; 
and Sir E. Tennent has drawn attention to 
the (hct that the Tamil names for apes, ivory, 
and peacoc k s, are identical with the Hebrew. 

APHAR^CITES, the names of certain 
tribes, edoniea ttoai which had been planted 
in Samaria by the Assyrian leader Asnapper 
(Ect. iv. 9, V. 6). The first and last are re- 
garded as the same. Whence these tribes 
came is entirely a matter of conjecture. 

A'PHEK, tiie name of several places in 
Palestine.— 1. A royal city of the Osnaanites, 
the king of which was killed by Joshua (Josh. 
xiL 18), pffobablj the same as Afsbkah in 

Josh. XV. 5S.— ft. A city, apparently ia the 
extreme north of Asher ^Josh. xix. 80), from 
which the Oanaanites were not ^ectod ( Judg. 
i. 81 ; though here it is Aphik). This is pro- 
bably the same place as Aphek (Josh. xiii. 4), 
on the extreme north ** border of the Aroo- 
ritea," identified with the Aphaca of classical 
times, the modem J/ka. — S. A place at 
which the Philistines encamped while the 
Israelites pitched in Eben-eser, before the 
fktal battle in which the sons of £U were 
killed and the ark taken (1 Sam. iv. 1). This 
would be somewhere to the N.W. of; and at 
no great distance fhMn Jerusalem.— 4. The 
scene of another encampment of the Philis- 
tines, before an encounter not less disastrous 
than that Just named, — the defeat and death 
of Saul (1 Sam. xxix. 1). It is possible that 
it may be the same place as the preceding. — 
6. A city on the military road from Syria to 
Israel (1 K. xx. 36). It is now found in 
Fik, at the head of the Wadf Ftky 6 miles 
east of the Sea of Galilee. 


APOGltTPHA. The coUeotion of Books 
to which this term is popularly applied in- 
cludes the following (the order given is that 
in which they stand in the English version) : 
—I. 1 Esdras; H. 3 Esdras; III. Tobit; 
IT. Judith ; T. The rest of the chapters of 
the Book of Esther, which are found neither 
in the Hebrew nor in the Chaldee ; YI. The 
Wisdom of Solomon ; YII. The Wisdom of 
Jesus the Son of Siraoh, or Ecclesiasticus ; 
VIII. Baruch ; IX. The Song of the Three 
Holy Children ; X. The History of Susanna ; 
XI. Tlie Historrof the destruction of Bel and 
the Dragon; XII. The Prayer of Manasses, 
king of Judah; XIU. 1 Maccabees; XIV. 
3 Macca b ees. The primary meaning of Apo- 
eiyphOf "hidden, secret," seems, towards 
the close of the 3nd century, to have been 
Hssoeisted with the signification ** spurious," 
and ultimately to have settled down into the 
latter. The separate books of this collection 
are treated of in distinct Articles. Their re- 
lation to the canonical books of the Old Tes- 
tament is discussed under Cakon . 

APOLLOln A, a dty of Macedonia, through 
which Paul and Silas passed in their way 
fh>m Philippi and Amphipolis to Thessalonica 
(Acts xvIL 1). According to the AntotUne 
Itinerary, it was distant SO Roman miles 
flrom Amphipolis, and 87 Roman miles fhnn 

APOLXOS, a Jew flrom Alexandria, elo- 
quent (which may also mean learned) and 
mighty in the Scriptures : one instructed in 
the way of the Lord, according to the im^ 
peribct view of the disdples of John the 
Baptist (Acts xvlU. 3ft), but on his coming 
D 3 

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to £phe«iu daring a temporary absence of 
St. Paul, A.D. 54, more perfectly taught by 
Aqnila and Priscilla. After this he became 
a preacher of the Gospel, first in Aehaia and 
then in Corinth (AcU zviil. 27, xU. 1), 
where he watered that which Pan! had 
planted <1 Cor. iiL 6). When the apostle 
wrote his first Epistle to the Corinthians, 
ApoUos was with or near him (1 Cor. xri. 
12), probably at Ephesos in a.d. 57 : we 
hear of him then that he was unwilling at 
that time to Journey to Corinth, but would 
do so when he should hare convenient time. 
He is mentioned but once more in the N. T., in 
Tit iii. 18. After this nothing is known of him. 
Tradition makes him bishop of Caesarea. It 
has been supposed by some that ApoUos was 
the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews. 

APOL'LTON, or, as it is UteraUy in the 
margin of the A. Y. of Rer. ix. 11, " a de- 
stroyer," is the rendering of the Hebrew word 
Abadson, ** the angel of the bottomless pit." 
The angel ApoUyon is ftirther described as 
the king of the locusts which rose troax the 
smoke of the bottomless pit at the sounding 
ot the filth trumpet From the oocurrence 
of the word in Ps. IxxxrilL 11, the Babbins 
have made Abaddon the nethermost of the 
two regions into which they divide the lower 
world. But that in Ber. ix. 11, Abaddon is 
the angel and net the abyss, is perfectly 
erident in the Greek. There is no authority 
for connecting it with "the destroyer" 
alluded to in 1 Cor. x. 10. 

APOSTLE (one sent forth), in the N. T., 
originally the official name of those Twelre 
of the disciples whom Jesus chose to send 
forth first to preach the Gosp^ and to be 
with Him during the eonrse of his ministry 
on earth. The word also appears to have 
been used in a non-offloial sense to designate 
a much widw circle of Christian messengers 
and teachers (see 2 Cor. TiiL 23 ; PhiL U. 
25). It is only of those who were officially 
designated Apostles that we treat in this 
artide. The original qualification of an 
Apostle, as stated by St Peter, on the occasi o n 
of electing a successor to the traitor Judas, 
was, that he should have been personally 
acquainted with the whole ministerial course 
of our Lord, firom his baptism by John till 
the day when he was taken up into Heaven. 
The Apostles were trom the lower ranks of 
life, simple and uneduca t ed ; some of them 
were related to Jesus according to the flesh ; 
tame had previously been disciples of John 
the Bapttst. Our Lord chose them early in 
his public career, though it is uncertain 
precisely at what time. Some of them had 
certainly partly attached themselves to Him 
before ; but after their call as Apostles they 

appear to have been continuously with Him, 
or in his service. They seem to have been 
all on an equality, both during and after the 
ministry of Christ on earth. Early in our 
Lord's ministry. He sent them out two and 
two to preach repentance, and perform 
miracles in his name (Matt x. ; Luke ix.). 
This their mission was of the nature of a 
solemn call to the children of Israel, to whom 
it was confined (Matt x. 5, 6). The Apostles 
were taiXj warned by their Master of the 
solemn nature and the danger of their calling 
(Matt X. 17). They accompanied Him in 
his journeys of teaching and to the Jewish 
feasts, saw his wonderful works, heard his 
discourses addressed to the people, and made 
inquiries of Him on religious matters. They 
recognised Him as the Christ of God (Matt, 
xvi. 16 ; Luke ix. 20), and ascribed to Him 
supernatural power (Luke ix. 54) ; but in 
the recognition of the spiritual ti*aching and 
mission of Christ, they made very slow pro- 
gress, held back as they were by weakness 
of apprehenuon and by national prejudices. 
Even at the removal of our Lord trom the 
earth they were yet weak in their know- 
ledge (Luke xxiv. 21 ; John xvL 12), though 
he had for so long been carefully preparing 
and instructing them. And when that hap- 
pened of which He had so often forewarned 
them — his apprehension by the chief priests 
and Pharisees — they all forsook Him and fled 
(Matt xxvi. 56). They left his burial to 
oi^e who was not of their number and to 
the women, and were only convinced of his 
resurrection on the very plainest proofe ftir- 
nished by himself. On the Feast of Pente- 
cost, ten days after our Lord's ascension, the 
Holy Spirit came down on the assembled 
church (Acts ii.) ; and trom that time the 
Apostles became altogether different men, giv- 
ing witness with power of the life and death 
and resurrection of Jesus as He had declared 
they should (Luke xxiv. 48 ; Acta L 8, 22, 
U. 82, iii. 15, v. 82, xiiL 81). First of aU the 
mother-church at Jerusalem grew up under 
their hands (Acts ilL-viL), and their superior 
dignity and power were universally acknow- 
ledged by the rulers and the people (Acts 
V. 12 ff.). Even the persecution which arose 
about Stephen, and put the first check on the 
spread of the Gospel in Judaea, does not 
seem to have brought peril to the Apostles 
<Acts viiL 1). Their first mission out of 
Jerusalem was to Samaria (Acts viii. 5-25), 
where the Lord himself had, during his 
ministry, sown the seed of the GoepeL Here 
ends, properly speaking (or rather perhaps 
with the general visitation hinted at in Acu 
ix. 81), the first period of the Apostles' 
agency, during which its oentre is Jerusalem, 

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and the prominent flgore it that of St. Peter. 
— The centre of the second period of the 
apoetolic ageney is Antlooh, -where a chnroh 
soon iras built up, consisting of Jews and 
Gentiles ; and the central figure of this and 
of the snbeequent period is St. Paul. The 
third apostolic period is marked by the almost 
entire disappearance of the TwelTc fhim the 
sacred narratiTe, and the exdusiTe agency 
of St. Paul, the great apostle of the Gentiles. 
Of the missionary irork of the rest of tlie 
Twelve, we know absolutely ncUiing firom the 
sacred narratiTe. — ^As regards the apogtolic 
qffiee, it seems to hare been pre-eminently 
that of founding the churches, and upholding 
them by supematoral power specially bestowed 
for that purpose. It ceased, as a matter of 
course, with its first holders : all continua- 
tion of it, ftom the very conditions of its ex- 
istence (cf. 1 Cor. ix. 1), being impossible. 

APPEAL. The principle of appeal was 
recognized by the Mosaic law in the esta- 
blishment of a central court under the pre- 
sidency of the Judge or ruler for the time 
being, before which all cases too difficult for 
the local courts were to be tried pent. xvii. 
S-9). According to the abore regulation, 
the appeal lay in the time of the Judges to 
the Judge ( Judg. It. 6), and under the mon- 
archy to the king, who appears to hare 
deputed certain persons to inquire into the 
fiiets of the case, and record his decision 
thereon (3 8am. xr. 8). Jehoshaphat dele- 
gated his Judicial authority to a court per- 
manently established for the purpose (2 Chr. 
xix. ft). These courts were re-established 
by Ezra (Ear. tU. S5). After the institution 
of the Sanhedrim the final appeal lay to them. 
St. Paul, as a Roman ciUsen, exercised a 
right of appeal firom the Jurisdiction of the 
local court at Jerusalem to the emperor 
(Acts xxT. II). Since the procedure in the 
Jewish courts at tiutt period was of a mixed 
and undefined character, he availed himself 
of his undoubted privilege to be tried by the 
pure Roman law. 

• AP'Pn FOR'UM, a Veil-known station on 
the Appian Way, the great road which led 
from Rome to tiie neighbourhood of the Bay 
of Naples (Acts xxviiL 18). Them is no 
difllculty in identifying the site with some 
ruins near TVepofUL [Tmtn Tavk&ks.] 

APPLE-TREE, APPLE (Heb. tapp(l(uk). 
Mention of the ^iple-tree occurs in the A. Y. 
In Cant iL 8, viii. 5, and Joel L 19. The 
fhiit of this tree is alluded to in Prov. xxv. 
11, and Cant. ii. 6, vU. 8. It is a difficult 
matter to say what is the specific tree denoted 
by the Hebrew word iapp^UuK, Most modem 
writers maintain that it is either the quince 
or the dtron. The quince has some plausible 
arguments in its Aivour. Its fragrance was 

held in high esteem by the ancients. The 
quince was sacred to Yenus. On the other 
hand. Dr. Royle says, ** The rich colour, 
Aragrant odour, and handsome appearance of 
the citron, whether in fiower or in f^it, are 
particularly suited to the passages of Scrip- 
ture mentioned above.^ But neither the 
quince nor the citron nor the apple appears 
fWy to answer to all the Scriptural allu- 
sions. The oran§€ would answer all the de* 
mands of the Scriptural passages, and orange- 
trees are found in Palestine ; but there does 
not appear sufficient evidence that this tree 
was known in the earlier times to the in- 
habitants of Palestine. The question of identi- 
fication, therefore, must still be left an open 

AQ'UILA, a Jew whom St. Paul found at 
Corinth on his arrival ft*om Athens (Acts 
xviii. 3). He was a native of Pontus, but 
had fied, with his wife Priadlla, tr^m Rome, 
in consequence of an order of Claudius com- 
manding all Jews to leave the city. He be- 
came acquainted with St. Paul, and they 
abode together, and wrought at their com- 
mon trade of mazing the Cilidan tent or haii^ 
doth. On the departure of the Apostle ftrom 
Corinth, a year and six months after, Prisdlla 
and Aquila accompanied him to Ephesvs. 
There tiiey remained, and there they taught 
Apolloe. At what time fhey became Chris- 
tians is uncertain. 

AR, or AR OF MOAB, one of the chief 
places of Moab (Is. xv. 1 ; Num. xxi. 28). 
In later times the place was known as Areo- 
polls and Rabbath-Moab. The site is still 
called Baiba; it lies about half-way betwedi 
K*rak and the Wadf Mqf'eb^ 10 or 11 miles 
from each, the Roman road passing through it. 

AR'ABAH. Although this word appears 
in the A. Y. in its original shape only in 
Josh. xviiL 18, yet in the Hebrew text it U 
of fluent occurrence. It indicates more 
particularly the deep-sunken valley nr trendi 
which forms the most striking among ths 
many striking natural features of Pidestine, 
and which extends with great unifoimity of 
formation from the slopes of Hermon to the 
Elanitic Gulf {Ov^ of Akabah) of the Red 
Sea ; the most remarkable depression known 
to exist on the surface of the globe. Through 
the northern portion of this extraordinart 
fissure the Jordan rushes through the lakes 
of Huleh and Gennesareth down its tortuous 
course to the deep chasm of the Dead Sea. 
This portion, about 160 miles in length, is 
known amongst the Arabs by the name of eU 
Ohor, Tht southern boundary of the Ghor 
is the wall of diifb which crosses the valley 
about 10 miles south of the Dead Sea. From 
their summits, southward to the Gulf of 
Akabah, the valley changes its name, or, it 

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would be more accurate to say, retains its 
old name of IFtufy eUArabah, 

ARA'BIA, a country known in the 0. T. 
nnder two designations : — 1. The Eoii 
Country (Gen. xxt. 6) ; or perhaps ths JStut 
(Gen. X. 80 ; Num. xxiiL 7 ; Is. IL 6) ; and 
Land nf the »cm» of the Boat (Gen. xxix. 1) ; 
Gentile name, Sons af the East (Jndg. tL 3, 
tU. 12 ; 1 K. It. 80 ; Job i. 8 ; Is. zL 14 ; 
Jer. xliz. 28 ; Ex. xxt. 4). From these pas- 
sages It appears that the Land of the Eatt 
and 8en$ of ihe Eatt indicate, primarily, the 
country east of Palestine, and the tribes de- 
scended firom Ishmael and f^om Keturah; 
and that this original signification may haTe 
become gradually extended to Arabia and its 
inhabitants generally, though without any 
strict limitation. 2. *Ardb and ^Arab^ whence 
Arabia (2 Chr. U. 14 ; Is. xxi. 18 ; Jer. 
XXT. 24; Es. xxTii. 21). This name seems 
to haTe the same geographical reference as 
the fbrmer name to the country and tribes 
east of the Jordan, and chiefly north of the 
Arabian peninsula. — ^Arabia may be diTided 
into Ardbia Froper^ containing the whole 
peninsula as Car as the limits of the northern 
deserts; Northern Arabia, constituting the' 
great desert of Arabia ; and Wettem Arabia^ 
the desert of Petra and the peninsula of SirnH, 
or the eountry that has been called Arabia 
Petraea. I. Arabia Proper, or the Arabian 
peninsula, consists of high table-land, declin- 
ing towards the north; its most elcTated por- 
tions being the chain of mountains running 
nearly parallel to the Red Sea, and the terri- 
tory east of the southern part of this chain. 
So Cur as the interior has been explored, it 
consists' of mountainous and desert tracts, 
relieTod by large districts under cultiTation, 
weU peopled, watered by wells and streams, 
and enjoying periodical rains. The most 
fertile tracts are those on the south-west and 
south.~II. Northern Arabia, or the Arabian 
Desert, is a high, undulating, parched plain, 
of which the Euphrates forms the natural 
boundary ftrom the Persian Gulf to the 
frontier of Syria, whence it is bounded by 
the latter eountry and the desert of Petra on 
the north-west and west, the peninsula of 
Arabia forming its southern limit It has 
few oases, the water of the wells is generally 
either brackish or unpotable, and it is Tisited 
by the sand-wind called 8amoom» The in- 
habitants were known to the anoients as 
** dwellers in tenU" (comp. Is. xiiL 20 ; 
7er. xlix. 31 ; Esek. xxxTiU. 11} ; and they 
extended from Babylonia on the east (oomp. 
Num. xxiii. 7 ; 2 Chr. xxL 16 ; Is. iL 6, 
XiiL 20), to the borders of Egypt on the 
west. These tribes, principally descended 
firom Ishmael and fhmi Keturah, haTe always 
iDd a wandering and pastoral life. They 

conducted a considerable trade of merchan- 
dise of Arabia and India f^m the shores of 
the Persian Gulf (Ex. xxTii. 20-24), whenee 
a chain of oases still forms cantTan-stations ; 
and they likewise traded firom the western 
portions of the peninsula. The latter traffic 
appears to be fluently mentioned in con- 
nexion with Ishmaelites, Keturahites, and 
other Arabian peoples (Gen. xxxTiL 25, 28 ; 
1 K. X. 15, 25 ; 2 Chr. ix. 14, 24 ; Is.lx. 6 ; 
Jer. tL 20) : it seems, howcTer, to haTe 
been chiefly in the hands of the inhabitants 
of Idumaea.— IIL Wettem Arabia includes 
the peninsula of Sinai [Sutai], and the desert 
of Petra, corresponding generally with the 
limits of Arabia Petraea. The latter name is 
probably deriTcd tnm that of its ohief city ; 
not from its stony character. It was in the 
earliest times inhabited by a people whose 
genealogy is not mentioned in the BiUe, the 
Horites or Horim (Gen. xIt. 6, xxxtI. 20, 
21, 22, 29, 80 ; Deut. ii. 12, 22). [Hoains.] 
But it was mostly peopled by descendants of 
Esau, and was generally known as the land 
of Edom, or Idumaea [Edom] ; as well as by 
its older appellation, the desert of Seir, or 
Mount Seir [Sxoi]. The common wigin of 
the Idumaeans fh>m Esau and Ishmael is 
found in the marriage of the former with a 
daughter of the latter (Gen. xxTiiL 9, xzxtL 
8). The Nabathaeans succeeded to the Idu- 
maeans. — InhabitamU, — 1. The descendants 
of JoKTAM occupied the principal portions of 
the south and south-west of the peninsula, 
with colonies in the interior. In Genesis 
(x. 80) it is said, " and their dwelling was 
from Meaha, as thou goest unto Sephar, a 
mount of the East (Kedem)," The principal 
Joktanite kingdom, and the chief state of 
ancient Arabia, was that of the Temen, 
founded (acoording to the Arabs) by Yaarub, 
the son (or descendant) of Kahtin (Joktan). 
This was the Biblical kingdom of Sheba. Its 
rulers, and most of its people, were descend- 
ants of Sebi (» Sheba), whence the classical 
Sabaei, The dominant family was ^>p«rently 
that of Himyer, son (or descendant) of SebA.. 
A member of this family founded the more 
modem kingdom of the Himyerites. NatiTe 
tradition seems to proTO that the latter ap- 
pellation represented the former only shortly 
before the Christian era. The rule of 
the Himyerites (whence the Someritae of 
classical authors) probably extended OTer 
the modem Yemen, HadramOwt, and Mahreh, 
Their kingdom lasted until a.]>. 525, when it 
fell before an Abyssinian iuTasion. The other 
chief Joktanite kingdom was that of the 
H^lx, founded by Jurhum, the brother of 
Taamb, who left the Yemen and settled in 
the neighbourhood of Mekkeh, This king- 
dom, situate in a less fertile district than the 

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Yemen, end engaged in conflict with abori- 
ginal tribes, nerer attained the importance 
of that of the couth. — 2. The Ishmaxutsb 
appear to hare entered the peninsula from 
the north-west That they hare spread OTcr 
the whole of it (with the exception of one or 
two distriots on the south coast), and that 
the modern nation is predominantly Ish- 
maeUte, is ssseiled bj the Arabs. They ex- 
tended northwards ttoai the H\jis into the 
Arabian desert, where they mixed with 
Keturahitee and other Abrahamio peoples: 
and westwards to Idnmaea, where they 
mixed with Edomites, Ac The tribes sprung 
from Ishmael have always been goTcmed by 
petty ohieb or beads of Ikmilies (sheykhs 
and emeers) : they have generally f<dlowed 
a patriarchal life, and hare not <niginated 
UngdomA, though they hsTcin some instances 
soeceeded to thoee of the Joktauites, the 
principal one of these being that of £1- 
fleereh. With referenoe to the Ishmaelites 
generally, there is doubt as to the wide 
extension giren to them l^ Arab tradition. 
— 3. Of the descendants of Kbtuxah the 
Arabs say little. They appear to hare settled 
chiefly north ef the peninsula in Deeert 
Arabia, from Palestine to the Persian Gulf. — 
4. In Northern and Western Arabia are other 
peoples which, ttam their geographical posi- 
tion and mode of life, are sometimes clnssed 
with the Arabs. Of these are Amaudc, the 
descendants of Esau, kc — Bttigum, The 
most ancient idolatry of the Arabs we must 
concl ude to have been fetishism, of which 
there are striking proofs in the sacred trees 
and stones of historical times, and in the 
worship of the hearenly bodies, or Sabaeism. 
Magianism, an importation from Chaldaea 
and Persia, must be reckoned among the 
religions of the Pagan Arabs ; but it nerer 
had Tery numerous followers. Christianity 
was introduced into Southern Arabia towards 
the dose of the 2nd century, and about a 
century later it had made great progress. It 
ilourished chiefly in the Yemen, where many 
churches were built. Judaism was propa- 
gated in Arabia, prindpally l^ Karaites, at 
the oaptiTity, but it was intxoduced befbre 
that time : it became rery preralent in the 
Yemen, and in the HUis, especially at Khey- 
bar and El-Med^eneh, where there are said 
to be stiU tribes of Jewish extraction. — 
Lan g ua g e, Arabic, the language of Arabia, 
is the most dereloped and the richest of the 
8hemitic languages, and the onXj one of 
which we hare an extensiTe literature : it is, 
therefore, of great importance to the study of 
Hebrew. Of its eariy phases we know no- 
thing; while we haTC archaic monuments 
of the Himyeritio (the ancient language of 
•oathem Arabia), tbongk we cannot flx their 

precise ages. It is probable that in the Hth 
or 13th cent. B.O., the Shemltic languages 
diflbred much less than in after times. But 
it appears ttom 2 K. xvilL 2G, that in the 
8th cent. b.o. only the educated classes among 
the Jews understood Aramaic. With these 
eridences before us, we think that the Him- 
yeritio is to be regarded as a sister of the 
Hebrew, and the Arabic (commonly so called) as 
a sister oi the Hebrew and Aramaic, or, m •<« 
elameal phant, as a descendant of a siBter of 
theee two, but that the Himyeritic is mixed 
with an African language, and that the other 
dialects of Arabia are in like manner, though 
in a much less degree, mixed with an African 
language. — The muinmers and €u$toms of the 
Arabs are of great ralue in illustrating the 
Bible. Mo one can mix with this people 
without being constantly and forcibly re- 
minded either of the early patriarchs or of 
the settled Israelites. We may instance their 
pastoral life, their hospitality, their universal 
respect Ibr age (comp. Lev. xix. 32), their 
funiliar deference (comp. 2 K. v. IS), their 
superstitious regard for the beard. — ^Befer- 
ences in the Bible to the Arabs themselves 
are still more clearly illustrated by the man- 
ners of the modem people, in their predatory 
expeditions, their mode of warfkre, their 
caravan Journeys, ftc. — Commerce. Direct 
mention of the commerce of the south does 
not appear to be made in the Bible, but it 
seems to have passed to Palestine principally 
through the northern tribes. The Joktanite 
people of fouthem Arabia have always been, 
in contradistinotion to the Ishmaelite tribes, 
addicted to a seafaring life. The latter were 
caravan-merchants; the former, the chief 
traders of the Bed Sea, carrying their com- 
merce to the shores of India, as well as to 
the nearer coasts of Africa. 

ABA'BIANS, the nomadic tribes inhabit- 
ing the country to the east and south of 
Palestine, who in the early times of Hebrew 
history were known as IsbmaeHtes and de- 
scendants of Keturah. 

A'RAD, a royal city of the Canaanites, 
named with Hormah and Libnah (Josh. xii. 
14). The wilderness of Judah was to " the 
south of Arad" (Judg. L 16). It may be 
identified with a hill, 7W *Ardd, an hour 
and a half N.E. by £. from MUk (Moladah), 
and 8 hours firom Hebron. 

A'RAM, the name by which the Hebrews 
designated, generally, the country lying to 
the north-east of Palestine; the great mass 
of that high table-land which, rising with 
sudden abruptness from the Jordan and the 
very margin of the lake of Gcnnesareth, 
stretches, at an elevation of no less than 2000 
feet above the level of the sea, to the bankf 
of the Euphrates itself; contrasting stronglj 

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with the low land bordering on the Medi- 
terranean, the " land of Canaan," or the low 
country (Gen. zxxi. 18, xxxiii. 18, fto.). 
Throughout the A. V. the word is, with only 
e very few exceptions, rendered, as in the 
Vulgate and LXX.,— Stria. In the later 
history we meet with a number of small 
nations or kingdoms forming parts of the 
general land of Aram :^1. Aram-Zobah, or 
simply Zobah (1 8am. xIt. 47 ; 2 Sam. viii. 8 ; 
1 Chr. xTiii. xix.). [Zobah.] 2. Aram 
beth-rehob (2 8am. x. 6), or Rehob (x. 8). 
[Rkhob.] 8. Aram.maachah (1 Chr. xix. 6), 
or Maachah only (8 Sam. x. 6). [Maaghah.] 
4. Geshur, ".In Aram ** (2 Sam. xt. 8), usu> 
dly named in oonnexion with Maachah 
(Deut iU. 14; Josh. xiiL 11, 13, &c.). 
[GssHVR.] 5. Aram-Dammesek (Damascus) 
(2 Sam. Till. 5, 6 ; 1 Chr. xTiiL 5, 6). The 
whole of these petty states are spoken of 
ooUectiTely under the name of *'Aram" 
(2 Sam. X. 18), but as Damascus increased 
in importance it gradually absorbed the 
smaller powers (1 K. xx. 1), and the name 
of Aram was at last applied to it alone (Is. 
▼ii. 8 ; also 1 K. xL 24, 25, xt. 18, Ac). 
In three passages Aram would seem to denote 
Aisyria (2 K. xviii. 26; Is. xxxtL 11 ; Jer. 
xxxT. 11). — ^8. Another Aram is named in 
Qen. xxiL 21, as a son of Kemuel, and de- 
scendant of Nahor. 

AR'ARAT, a mouatainons district of Asia 
mentioned in the Bible in oonnexion with the 
following erents : — (1.) As the resting-place 
of the Ark after the Deluge (Gen. TiiL 4) : 
(2.) as the asylum of the sons of Sennacherib 
(2 K. xix. 87 ; Is. xxxvii. 88 ; A. V. has 
**the land of Armenia*') : (8.) as the ally, 
and probably the neighbour, of Minni and 
Ashchenai (Jer. 11. 27). [Arxxhia.] The 
name Ararat was unknown to the geographers 
of Greece and Rome, as it still is to the 
Armenians of the present day : but that it 
was an indigenous and an ancient name for 
a portion of Armenia, appears flrom fhe state- 
ment of Moaes of Chorene, who gives Araratia 
nn the designation of the central province. 
In its Biblical sense it is descriptive generally 
of the Armenian highlands— the lofty plateau 
which overlooks the plain of the Araxes en 
the N., and of Mesopotamia on the 8. Vari- 
ous opinions have been put forth as to the 
spot where the Ark rested, as described in 
Gen. viiL 4; but Berosus the Chaldaean, 
oontemporary with Alexander the Great, 
fixes the spot on tiie mountains of JTur- 
dUtam. Tradition still points to the Jebel 
Judi as the scene of the event. Europeans 
have given the name Ararat exclusively to 
the mountain which is called Mauia by the 
Armenians, AgrUDaght L e. 8Uep Mountain^ 
by the Turks, and JftdU-JVuA, i. e. Ifoak^s 

Mountain^ by the Persians. It rises im- 
mediately out of the plain of the Araxes, and 
terminates in two conical peaks, named the 
Great and Less Ararat, about seven mOes 
distant from each other ; the former of which 
attains an elevation of 17,260 feet above the 
level of the sea and about 14,000 above the 
plain of the Araxes, while the latter is lower 
by 4000 feet. The summit of the higher is 
covered with eternal snow for about 8000 
feet. It is of volcanic origin. The summit 
of Ararat was long deemed inaeoessible. It 
was first ascended in 1829 by Parrot, who 
approached it trom the N.W. Argttrit the 
only village known to have been built on its 
slopes, was the spot where, according to 
tradition, Noah planted his vineyard. Lower 
down, in the plain of Araxes, is ITachdJevan, 
where the patriarch is reputed to have been 
buried. Returning to the broader significa- 
tion we have assigned to the term, "the 
mountains of Ararat," as co-extensive with 
the Armenian plateau fkrom the base ot Ararat 
in the N. to the range of Kurdittan in the 
S., we notice the following characteristics of 
that region as illustrating the Bible narrative : 
— (1.) Its eUvaticn, It rises to a height of 
from 6000 to 7000 feet above the level of the 
sea. (2.) Its geographical potition. The 
Armenian plateau stands equidistant tmrn 
the Euxine and the Caspian seas on the N., 
and between the Persian Gulf and the Medi- 
terranean on the S. Viewed with reference 
to the dispersion of the nations, Armenia is 
the true centre of the world : and at the 
present day Ararat is the great boundary- 
Mtone between the empires of Russia, Turkey, 
and Persia. (8.) Its phynedl eharaeter. The 
plains as well as the mountains supply evi- 
dence of volcanic agency. Armenia, how- 
ever, diiffers materially fkrom other regions of 
similar geological formi^tion, inasmuch as it 
does not rise to a sharp well-defined central 
crest, but expands into plains or steppes, 
separated by a graduated series of subordinate 
ranges. (4.) The eti$i»ate. Winter lasts 
Arom October to May, and is succeeded by a 
brief spring and summer of intense heat. In 
April the Armenian plains are still covered 
with snow; and in the earl> part of Sep- 
tember it freeses keenly at night. (5.) The 
vegetation. Grass grows InxurianUy on the 
plateau, and fhmishes abundant pasture 
during the summer months to the flocks of 
the nomad Kurds. Wheat, barley, and vines 
ripen at fur higher altitudes than on the 
Alps and the Pyrenees ; and the harvest is 
brought to maturity with wonderful speed. 

ARAITNAH, a Jebusite who sold his 
threshing-floor on Mount Moriah to David as 
a site for an altar to Jehovah, together with 
his oxen (2 8am. xxiv. 18-24 : 1 Chr.sxi. 28). 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 




AK'BA, the progenitor of the AnAxnc, or 
•one of Anak, from -whom their chief city 
HsBSOic reoeired its name of Kiijafh-Artia, 
(Joeh. xiT. lA, xr. IS, xxL N). 

AB'BAH. Hebron, or Eii:)ath-ATha, as 
** the city of Arbah ** is always rendered else- 
where (Gen. xxxT. 27). 

ARBE'LA, mentioned in the Bible only in 
1 Maee. ix. S. It is identified with the 
modem Irbid, a site with a few mins, west 
otM^'Mf oivthe sonth-east side of the Wadp 
Ha$mSm, in a small plain at the foot of the 
hUl of Kurdn HatHn, 

ABCHELA178, son of Herod the Great, by 
a Semaritaa woman, M althak^ and, with his 
brother Antipas, brought np at Bome. At 
the death of Herod (b.c. 4) his kingdom was 
divided between his three sons, Herod Anti- 
pas, Aiehelans, and Philip. Archelans nerer 
properly bore the title of king (Matt U. S2), 
bat oidy that of ethnaroh. In the tenth year 
of his reign, or the ninth, according to Dion 
Cassins, U «. a.d. 6, a complaint was preferred 
against him by his brothers and his sabjeots 
on the gronnd of his tyranny, in consequence 
of which he was banished to Vienne in Gaol, 
where he is generally said to hare died. 

ABCHERY. [Aaxs.] 

ABCHIP'PUS, a Christian teacher in 
Oolofeae (Col. It. 17), called by St Paul his 
*• feUow-^oldler," (Philem. 8). He was pro* 
bably a member of Philemon's fiunily. 

ABCHITECTUBE. The book of Genesis 
(iT. 17, 20, 22) appears to diride mankind 
into great characteristic sections, vis., the 
"dwellers in tents" and the <*dweUers in 
citiee.** To the race of Rhem is attributed 
(Gen. X. 11, 12, 22, xL 2-9) the foundation 
of those dties in the plain of Shinar, Babylon, 
Ninereh, and others ; of one of which, Besen, 
the epithet ''great" sufficiently marks its 
impoitanse in the time of the writer. It is 
in connexion with Egypt that the Israelites 
appear first as builders of dties, compelled to 
labour at the buildings of the Egyptian mon- 
archs. Pithom and Baamses are said to have 
been built by them (Ex. 1. 11). They were 
by occupation shepherds, and by habit dwel- 
lers in tents (Gen. xlriL S). They had 
therelbre originally, speaking properly, no 
architecture. From the time <rf the occupa- 
tion of Canaan they became dwellers in towns 
and in houses of stone (Lev. xiv. 84, 49 ; 
1 K. TlL 10) ; but these were not in all, nor 
Indeed In most eaaes, built by themselves 
(Dent. vi. 10 ; Num. xiii. 19). The peaceful 
rrign and vast wealth of Solomon gave great 
impulse to arehitecture ; for besides the 
Temple and his other great works, he built 
fortresses and dties in various places, among 
which Baalath sad Tadmor are in all prob»- 

Wlity represented by Baalbec and Palmyra 
(1 K. ix. 15, 24). Among the succeeding 
kings of Israd and of Judah, more than one 
is recorded as a builder : Asa (1 K. xv. 2S), 
Baasha (xv. 17), Omri (xvL 24), Ahab (xvl. 
S2, xxiL S9), Hesekiah (2 K. xx. 20 ; 2 Chr. 
xxxii. 27-30), Jehoash, and Josiah (2 E. xii. 
11, 12, xxii. 6); and, lastly, Jehoiakim, 
whose winter palace is mentioned (Jer. xxii. 
14, xxxvi. 22 ; see also Am. iii. 15). On 
the return firom captivity the chief care of 
the rulers was to rebuild the Temple and the 
walls of Jerusalem in a substantial manner, 
with stone, and with timber from Lebanon 
(Ezr. iii. 8, V. 8 ; Keh. H. 8, ilL). But the 
rdgns of Herod and his successors were espe- 
cially remarkable tat their great architecttural 
works. Not only was the Temple restored 
but the fortifications and other public build- 
ings of Jerusalem were enlarged and embel- 
lished (Luke xxL 5). The town of Caesarea 
was built on the dte of Strato's Tower; 
Samaria was enlai^fed, and received the name 
of Sebaste. Of the original splendour of 
these great works no doubt can be enter- 
tained; but of their style and appearance 
we can only conjecture that they were formed 
on Greek and Boman models. The enormous 
stones employed in the Assyrian, Perscpolitan, 
and Egyptiui buildings, find a parallel in 
the substructions of Baalbec and in the huge 
blodcs which t tiU remain at Jerusalem, relics 
of the buildings dther of Solomon or of Herod. 
But tew monuments are known to exist in 
Palestine by which we can form an accurate 
idea of its buildings, and even of those which 
do remain no trus t w o rthy examination has 
yet been made. It is probable, however, that 
the reservoirs known under the names of the 
Pools of Solomon and Heiekiah contain some 
portions at least of the original fabrics. 

ABCTUltU& The Hebrew words ^A9h 
and *Aiah, rendered "Arcturus" in the 
A. v. of Job ix. 9, xxxviii. 82, in conformity 
with the Vulg. of the former passage, are 
now generally believed to be identical, and 
to represent the constellation Ursa Major, 
known commonly as the Great Bear, o> 
Charles's Wain. 

AREOP'AGUS. [MABa» Hill.] 

AB'ETAS. 1. A contemporary of Antiodius 
Epiphanea (b.c. 170) and Jason (2 Maoc. v. 8). 
~-a. The Aretas dluded to by St Paul (2 Cor. 
xl. 82) was fkther-in-law of Herod Antipas. 

AB'OOB, a tract of country on the east of 
the Jordan, in Bashan, the kingdom of Og, con- 
taiiiing 60 great and fortified cities. In latei 
times it was called Trachonitis, and it is now 
apparentiy identified with the Z^ViA, a very 
remarkable district south of Damascus, and 
east of the Sea of GaUlee (Deut. Hi. 4, 1?. 14). 

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Aja'OOB, perhaps a OUeadite officer, who 
was goTemor of Argob. He was either an 
aooompUoe of Pekah in the murder of Peka- 
hiah, or was slain by Pekah (8 K. xr. 25). 

ARURA'THES, properly Mithridates lY., 
Philopator, king of GappadooU b.o. 168.1 SO, 
mentioned 1 Maoo. xt. SB. He lUl in b.o. ISO,, 
in the war of the Romans against Aristonicus. 

ARlEH. Either one of the aocomplioes 
of Pekah in his conspiracy against Pekahiah, 
or one of the princes of PekaSiah, who was 
pat to death with him (8 K. xr. 85). 

A'RIEL. A designation giren by Isaiah 
to the dty of Jerusalem (Is. xxix. 1, 2, 7). 
Its meaning is obeoore. We must under- 
stand by it either ** Lion of God," or ** Hearth 
of God." The latter meaning is suggested 
by the use of the word in £s. xliiL 15, 16, 
as a synonym tat tha altar of burnt offering. 
On the whole it seems most probable that, as 
a name giren to Jerusalem, Ariel means 
« lion of God," whilst the word used by 
Enekiel means ** Hearth of God." 

ARIMATHAE'A (Matt xxriL 57 ; Luke 
xxiiL 51 ; John xix. S8). St. Luke calls it 
" a dty of Judaea." It is identifled by many 
with the modem £amlah, 

ARIOCH. 1. The king of EUasar, one of 
the allies of Chedorlaomer in his expedition 
against his rebellions tributaries (Gen. xir. 
1). — 0. The captain of NebttchadnesEar*s 
body-guard (Dan. ii. 14, &c.). — 8. Properly 
JKrtMA, or JSHooA, mentioned in Jnd. L 6 as 
king of the Elymaeans. 

ARISTAR'CHUS, a Thessalonian (Acts 
zx. 4 , xxTiL 8), who aceompanied 8t Paul 
on his third mlssjonary Journey (Acts xlx. 
89). He was with the apostle on his return 
to Asia (Acta xx. 4) ; and again (xxriL 8) on 
his Toyage to Rome. We trace him after- 
wards as St. Paul*s fellow-prisoner in CoL 
ir. 10, and Philem. 84. Tradition makes 
him bishop of Apamea. 

ARISTOBU'LUS. 1. A Jewish priest 
(8 Mace L 10), who resided in Egypt in 
the reign of Ptolemaens YI. Philometor. 
There can be little doubt that he is 
identical with the peripatetic philo- 
sopher of that name, who dedicated to 
Ptd. Philometor his allegoric exposi- 
tion of the Pentateuch.— 0. A resident 
at Rome, some of whose household are 
greeted in Rom. XTi 10. Tradition 
makes him one of the 70 disdples, and G 
reporu that he preached the Goq^ in 

ARK, NOAH'S. [Noab.] 

first pieoe of the tabernacle's ftodture, 
tta which precise dlreotioiis were deli- 
vend (Ex. xxT.)<~L It appears to hsTo 

been an oblong chest of shitUm (acacia) wood, 
84 cubits long, by 1 J broad and deep. Witida 
and without gold was oTcrlaid on the wooil. 
and on the upper side or lid, which was edge£ 
round about with gold, the mercy seat was 
placed. The ark was fitted with rings, one at 
each of the four comers, and through these 
were paseed staves of the same wood similarly 
OTcrlaid, by which it was carried by the 
Kohathites (Num. vit 9, x. 21). The ends 
of the staves were viaible without the veil in 
the holy place of the temple of Solcunon (IK. 
viiL ft). The ark, when transported, was 
enveloped in the **Teil" of the dismantted 
tabernacle, in the curtain of badgers* skins, 
and in a blue cloth over all, and was there- 
fore not seen (Num. iv. 5, 80). — U. Its pur- 
pose or object was to contain inviolate the 
Dirine autograph of the two taUes, that 
"covenant" from which it derived its title. 
It was also probably a reliquary fbr the pot 
of manna and the rod of Aaron. Occupying 
the most ludy ^ot of the sanctuary, it tended 
to exclude any idol ttom the centre of wor- 
ship. It was also the support of the mercy 
seat, materially symboUdng, perhaps, the 
** covenant" as that on which "mercy" 
rested. — HI. The chief fkcts in the earlier 
history of the ark (see Josh. iii. and vL) 
need not be recited. Before David's time its 
abode was frequently shifted. It sojourned 
among several, probably Levitical, families 
(1 Sam. viL 1 ; 8 Sam. vL 8, 11 ; 1 Chr. 
xiii. 13, XV. 84, 35) in the border villages of 
Eastem Judah, and did not take its place in 
the tabernacle, but dwelt in curtains, Le. in 
a separate tent pitched for it in Jerusalem by 
David. Its bringing up by David thither 
was a national festivaL Subsequently the 
Temple, when completed, received, in the 
installation of the ark in iu shrine, the signal 
of its inaugurati<m by the effulgence of 
Divine glory instantly manifested. When 
idolatry becsme more shamrtfss in the king- 
dom of Judah, Manasseh placM a "carved 

EC7H(»Aik. (Wnidario. Jm. MsA) 

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in the "hooae of Ood,** and pro- 
bably remotad the ark to make way for iu 
Thi« may aoeoont for the snbaeqnent etate- 
ment that it was reinetated by Joalah (S Chr. 
zxxiiL 7, xzxT. S). It was probably taken 
eaptiTe or destroyed by Neboehadnessar 
(S Eidr. X. SS). Prideaax*s argnment that 
there mtuat hare been an ark in the second 
temple is of no weight against expreee testi- 
mony, moh as that of Jotephns. 

ARK'ITK, THE, one of the families of the 
Canaanitee (Gen. z. 17 ; 1 Chr. t 15), and 
from the eontext evidently located in the 
notth of Phoenicia. The site which now 
bean the name of *Arka lies on the coast, S 
to ^ hoars firom the shore, about 13 miles 
north of Tripoli, and 9 south of the Jfahr 

ARMAGED'DOX, "the hill, or dty of 
Xegiddo " (Rer. ztL 16). The scene of the 
struggle of good and evil is suggested by that 
battle-fleld, the plain of Ksdraelon, which 
was fuDoam for two great victoriee, of Barak 
oiver the Omaanitea, and of Gideon orer the 
Midfanltes; and liar two great disasten, the 
deaths of Saul and of Josiah. 

ARXE^nA is nowhere mentioned under 
that name in the original Hebrew, though it 
oeeurs in the English Tcrslon (2 K. zix. S7) 
for AraraL Armenia is that lofty plateau 
whence the riTcrs Euphrates, Tigris, Arazes, 
and Acampsis, pour down their waters in 
diftrnit directions ; the two first to the 
Persian Quit the last two respeotiTcly to the 
OMpian and Euzine ceas. It may be termed 
the MfcfMM of the mountain system of western 
Ada: firom the centre of the 
plafeoan rise two lofty chains of 
mountains, which run fhun £. 
to W., conTerging towards the 
OMpian sea, but parallel to each 
other towards the W. The slight 
acquaintance which the Hebrews 
had with this country was pro- 
bably deriTed fhmi the Phoeni- 
cians. There are signs of their 
knowledge having been progres- 
Mto. Isaiah, in his prophecies 
regarding Babylon, speaks of 
the hosts as o(mdng firom the 
•< mountains » (xiii. 4), while 
Jerendsh employs the specific 
namee Ararat and Minni (IL S7 ) . 
EaeUel, apparently better ac- 
quainted with the country, uses 
a name which was fiuniUar to 
it» own inhabitants, Togarmah. 
(1.) Abasat is mentioned as the 
place whither the sons of 8en- 
iiioherfb fied (Is. xxzriL 88). 
It was the central district sur- 

rounding the mountain of that name. {%.) 
MniMi only occurs in Jer. IL 27. It is pto- 
bably identical with the district Minyas, In the 
upper ralley of the Murad-mt branch of the 
Euphrates. (S.) Tooauiah is noticed in two 
psMagee of Esekiel (zzriL 14, xxxriiL 6), 
both of which are in fkrour of its identi^ 
with Armenia. 

ARMLET, an ornament uniTersal in the 
East, eepeoially among women; used by 
princee as one of the insignia of royalty, and 
by distinguished persons in generaL The 
word is not used in the A. Y., as eren in 
2 Sam. L 10 they render it by ** the bracelet 
on his arm." Sometimes only one was worn, 
on the right arm (Eoolus. xxL 21). From 
Cant. Till. 6, it appears that the signet some- 
times consisted of a Jewel on the armlet. 

Aa^fiiwB AnntoC (frtm Nlocrvh Marblaa, Britfth 

These ornaments were used by most ancient 
princes. They are fk«quent on the sculptures 
of PersepoUs and Ninereh, and were worn 
by the kings of Persia. 

ARMS, ARMOUR. . The subject naturally 
diTides itself into— I. OffensiTe weapons: 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Ajtus. II. DefensiTe weapons: Armoor. — 
1. Qfmtive wtaporu. — 1. Apparently the ear- 
liest known and most widely used was the 
Cher^t or "Swoan." Very little can be 
gathered as to its shape, size, material, or 
mode of use. Perhaps if anjrthing is to be 
inferred it is that the C^ereb was both a 
lighter and a shorter weapon than the modem 
sword. It was carried in a sheath (1 Sam. 

Poniaa swonl, or ■dnacat. 

xriL 51; 2 Sam. xx. 8 ; 1 Chr. xxL S7), 
along by a girdle (1 Sam. xxr. 13} and rest- 
ing upon the thigh (Ps. xlr. 8; Judg. iii. 
16), or upon the hips (2 Sam. xx. 8). Doubt- : 
less it was of metal, firom the allusion to its 
brightness and ** glittering ;" but from Josh. 
V. 2, 8, we may perhaps infer that in early 
times the material was flint. — 2. Next to the 

sword was the Spkak ; and of this weapon we 
meet with at least three distinct kinds, a. 
The Chantth, a ** Spear,** and that of tha 
largest kind. It was the weapon of Goliath 
(1 Sam. xvii. 7, 45 ; 2 Sam. xxL 19 ; 1 Chr. 
XX. 5), and also of other giants (2 Sam. 
xxiii. 21 ; 1 Chr. xi. 28) and mighty warriors 
(2 Sam. iL 28, xxiii. 18 ; 1 Chr. xL 11, 20). 
b. Apparently lighter tlum the preceding was 
the CidSHt or ** Jave- 
lin." When not in ac- 
tion the CidSn was car- 
ried on the back of the 
warrior (1 Sam. xvii. 

6, A. V. "target"). 
c. Another kind of 
spear was the RSmaeh. 
In the historieal books 
it occurs in Num. ax v. 

7, and 1 K. xriiL 28, 
and fluently in the 
later books, as in 1 Chr. 
xiL8 ("buckler"), 2 
Chr. xi. 12. d. The 
ShelaeK was probably 
a lighter missile or 
"dart." See 2 Chr. 
xxiii. 10, xxxiL 5 
(" darU ") ; Neh. It. 
17, 28 (see margin) ; 
Job xxxiiL 18, xxxtL 
12 ; Joel U. 8. s.iSA«- 
6et, a rod or staff, is 
used once only to de- 
note a weapon (2 Sam. 
xviii. 14).— 8. Of mis- 
sile weapons of ofltence 

the chief was undoubtedly the Bow, KMhetK 
It is met with in the earliest stages of the his- 
tory, in use both for the chaoe (Gen. xxi. 20, 


EfTptUn bowa. 

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KXTiL S) and war (zlriiL S2). The Autowa 
arere carried in a qoirer (Gen. xxTii. 8 ; la. 
xxii. 6, zUx. S; Pa. cxxrii. 5). From an 
aUtuion in Job tL 4, they would seem to have 
been aometimea polaoned; and Pa. ozx. 4 may 
point to a practice of using arrowa with aome 
burning material attached to them. 4. The 
SLnoiaftretmentionedinJudg. XX. 16. This 
simple weapon with which Darid killed the 
giant Philistine waa the natural attendant of 
a shepherd. Later in the monarchy, alingera 
formed part of the regular army (2 K. iiL 85). 
II. Armour, — 1. The BnxA8TPi.ATX, enume- 
rated in the description of the anna of Go- 
Uath, a «' MMtf of maU/> UteraUy a ** breatt- 
plaU of aeales" (1 Sam. xrii. 5). This word 
haa lyunished one of the namea of Mount 
Hermon (see Dent ill. 9). — 2. The haber- 
geon Lb mentioned but twice — in reference to 
the gown of the high-priest (£x. xxTiiL S2, 
zxxix. 2S). It waa probably a quilted shirt 
or doublet. — 8. The Hkuoet is referred to in 

I 8am. xTii. 5 ; 2 Chr. xxri. 14 ; Exek. xxtU. 
10. — 4. GuuTxa, or defences for the feet 
made of brass, are named in 1 Sam. xrii. 6, 
only. — 5. Two kinds of Sbikld are distin- 

Aaviiao ■hUd* 

guiahable. a. The large ahield, enoompaasing 
(Ps. T. 12) the whole person. When not in 
actual conflict, it was carried before the 
warrior (1 Sam. XTii. 7, 41). 6. Of amaller 
dimensions waa the buckler or target, pro- 
bably for use in hand-to-hand light (1 K. x. 
16, 47 ; 2 Chr. ix. 15, 16).— 6. What kind 
of arm was the Shelei it is impossible to de- 
termine. By some translators it is rendered 
a "quiver," by some " weapons " generally, 
by others a "shield." It denoted certain 
weapons of gold taken by Darid from Ha- 
dadezer king of Zobah (2 Sam. Tiii. 7 ; 1 Chr. 
XTiii. 7), and dedicated in the Temple (2 K. 
xL 10 ; 2 Chr. xxiii. ; Cant. iv. 4). In 
Jer. IL 11 ; Esek. xxTiL 11, the word has the 
force of a foreign arm. 

AEMY. I. JzwiSH Axjrr. — The military 
organisation of the Jews commenced with 
their departure Arom the land of Egypt, and 
waa adapted to the nature of the expedition 
on which they then entered. Erery man 
above 20 years of age was a soldier (Num. L 
8) : each tribe formed a regiment with its 
own banner and its own leader (Num. ii. 2, 
X. 14) : their positions in the camp or on the 
march were accurately fixed (Num. IL) : the 
whole army started and atopped at a given 
signal (Num. x. 5, 6) : thus they came up 
out of Egypt ready for the fight (Ex. xilL 
18). On the approach of an enemy, a con- 
scription waa made firom the general body 
under the direction of a muster-master (Deut. 
XX. 5 ; 2 K. zxv. 10), by whom also the 
oflScers were appointed (Deut. xx. 0). The 
army waa then divided into thousands and 
hundreds under their respective captaina 
(Num. xxxL 14), and still further into fami- 
lies (Num. ii. 84 ; 2 Chr. xxv. 5, xxvi. 12), 
the family being regarded as the unit in the 
Jewish polity. With the kings aroee the 
cuatom of maintaining a body-guard, which 
formed the nucletu of a standing army. Thua 
Saul had a band of 8000 select warriors (1 Sam. 
xiiL 2, ziv. 52, xxlv. 2), and David, before hia 
accession to the throne, 600 (1 Sam. xxiii. 
18, xxv. 18). This band he retained after he 
became king, and added the CHXBKTHrrzs and 
Pzumnrxa (2 Sam. xv. 18, xx. 7), together 
with another class, Shalishim, officers of high 
rank, the chief of whom (2 K. vii. 2 ; 1 Chr. 
xii. 18) waa inmiedlately about the king's 
person. David ftirther organised a national 
militia, divided into twelve regiments under 
their respective officers, each of which was 
called out for one month in the year (1 Chr. 
xxvii. 1) ; at the head of the army when in 
active service he appointed a commander-in- 
chief (1 Sam. xiv. 50). Hitherto the army 
had consisted entirely of infkntry (1 Sam. iv. 
10, XV. 4), the use of horsea having been 

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restrained by dlTine oommand (Deat. xrii. 
16) ; but we find that as the foreign relations 
of the kingdom extended, mnoh importance 
was attached to them. Darid had reserred 
a hundred chariots trcm the spoils of the 
Syrians (2 Sam. Tiii. 4) : these probably 
serred as the foundation of the force which 
Solomon afterwards enlarged through his 
alliance with Egypt (1 K. x. S6, 38, 29). It 
does not appear that the system established 
by DaTid was maintained by the kings of 
Judah ; but in Israel the proximity of the 
hostile kingdom of Syria necessitated the 
nudntenanoe of a standing army. The militia 
was occasionally called out in time of peace 
(2 Chr. xiT. 8, xxT. 5, xxvi. 11) ; but snob 
cases were exceptionaL On the other hand 
the body-guard appears to hare been r^u- 
larly kept up (1 K. xir. 28 ; 2 K. xi. 4, 11). 
Occasional reference is made to war-chariots 
(2 K. Tiii. 21) ; but in Heiekiah's reign no 
force of the kind could be maintained, and 
the Jews were obliged to seek the aid of 
Egypt for horses and chariots (2 K. xriii. 28, 
24 ; Is. xxxl. 1). The maintenance and 
eqtdpment of the soldiers at the publie ex- 
pense dates from the establishment of a 
standing army. It is doubtfol whether the 
soldier erer receiTed pay eren under the 
kings. The numerical strength of the Jewish 
army cannot be ascertained with any degree 
of accuracy : the numbers, as giren in the 
text, are manifestly incorreet, and the dis- 
crepancies in the Tarions statements irreoon- 

II. BoxAM Abut.— The Boman army was 
dirided into legions, the number of which 
Taried considerably, each under six tribnni 
("chief captains," Acts xxi. 81), who com- 
manded by turns. The legion was snbdiTided 
into ten cohorts ("band," Acts x. 1), the 
eobort into three maniples, and the mimiple 
into two centuries, containing originally 100 
men, as the name impUee, but subsequenUy 
from 50 to 100 men, according to the strength 
of the legion. There were thus 60 centuries 
in a legion, each under the command of a 
oenturion (Aets x. 1, 22 ; Matt Tiii. 9, xxtU. 
54). In addition to the legionary eohorts, 
independent cohorts of Tolunteers serred 
under the Boman standards. One of these 
cohorts was named the Italian (Acts x. 1), 
as consisting of rolunteers from Italy. The 
cohort named "Augustus" (Acts xxtii. 1) 
may hare consisted of the Tolunteers from 
Sebaste. Others, howerer, think that itwas 
% cohort JM^tuta, similar to the logio Augmta. 
The head-quarters of the Boman forces in 
Jndaea were at Caeearea. 

AB*NON, the river or torrent which formed 
the boundary between Moab and the Amorltcs, 

on the north of Moab (Num. xxi. 18, 14, 24, 
26 ; Judg. xl 22), and afterwards bet w e—, 
Moab and Israel (Beuben) (Dent IL 24, 86, 
iii. 8, 12, 16, iT. 48 ; Josh. xii. 1, 2, zUi. 9, 
16; Judg. xi. IS, 26). There ean be no 
doubt that the Fa4y eUM<^ of the present 
day is the Amon. Its principal womrtm im 
near Katrome^ on the Hi^ route. 

AB'OBB. 1. A dty on the torrent Amon* 
the southern point of the t e iritory of Sibon, 
king of the Amorites, and afterwards of the 
tribe of Beuben (Deut. ii. 86, iiL 12, ir. 48 ; 
Josh. xii. 2, xiii. 9, 16 ; Judg. xi. 26 ; 2 K. 
X. 88 ; 1 Chr. t. 8), but later again in pos- 
session of Moab (Jer. xlriii. 19). It is the 
modem Ar^ir^ upon the very edge xA the 
precipitous north bank of the Wa^ Mf^ob. — 
8. Aroer "that is 'Ikeing' Babbah" (Babbeh 
of Ammon), a town built by and belonging to 
Gad (Num. xxxii. 84 ; Josh. xiiL 25 ; 2 Sam. 
xxiT. 5). This is probably the place men- 
tioned in Jnig. xi. 88, which was shown in 
Jerome's time. — 8. Aroer, in Is. xrii. 2, if a 
place at all, must be still farther north then 
either of the two already named.— 4. A town 
in Judah, named only in 1 Sam. xxx. 28, 
perhaps Wadf Af'/hrah, on the road frtjm 
Petra to Oaza. 

AB'PAD or AB'PHAD (Is. xxxtI. 19, 
xxxTii. 18), a dty or district in Syria, appa- 
rently dependent on Damascus (Jer. xlix. 28). 
No trace of its existence has yet been dis- 
coTered (2 K. xriii. 84, xix. 18 ; Is. x. 9). 

ABPHAX'AD, the son of Shem and n- 
oestor of Eber (Oen. x. 22, 24, xl 10). — 
S. AnraAXAD, a king " who reigned orer the 
Modes in Ecbatana" (Jud. 1. 1-4) : perhaps 
the sane as Phraortes, who fell in a battle 
with the Assyrians, 688 B.a 

ABSA'CES YI., a king of Parthia, who 
assumed the royal title of Anaoei in addition 
to his proper name, MmuDAm I. (1 Msec 
XiT. 1-8). 

ABTAXEB'XES. 1. The first Artaxerxes 
is mentioned in Esr. It. 7, and appears 
identical with Smerdis, the Magian impostor, 
and pretended brother of Cambyses, who 
usurped the throne b.o. 522, and reigned 
eight months. 8. In Neh. iL 1 we haTe 
another Artaxerxes. We may saMy identify 
him with Artaxerxes Maorocheir or Longi- 
manus, the son of Xerxes, who reigned b.o. 

A'BUMAH, a place apparently in the 
neighbourhood of Shechem, at which AUm* 
eleoh redded (Judg. ix. 41). 

AB'VAD (£s. xxTiL 8, 11). The idand of 
Jtuad, which lies off Tortosa (2brf«s), f or I 
mUes from the Phoenician coast. 

AB'ZA, prefect of the palace at Tirxah to 
Elah king of Israel, who was assasdniitwl 

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at A buiqiMt in hit hooM bj Zimri (1 K. 
xvL »). 

A'SA, mm of Abifab, and third king of 
Jndfth (B.C. 956-916). In hit seal against 
h«ithwii«n h« did not apare his grandmother 
Maaflhah, who ooonpied the apedal digni^ of 
** King's Mother," to which great importanoe 
waa attached in the Jewish eonrt. Asa bamt 
the symbol of her religion (1 K. xr. 13), and 
threw ita ashes into the brook Kidron, and 
then deposed Maachah from her dignity. He 
also placed In the temple eertain gifts whieh 
his Ihther had dedicated, and renewed the 
great altar which the idolatroas priests appa- 
rently had desecrated (3 Chi . rr. 8). Besides 
this, he fbrtified dties on his fttmtiers, and 
raised an army, amoonting, according to 
3 Chr. zir. 8, to 580,000 men, a number 
probably exaggerated by an error oi the 
eopyirt. During Asa*s reign, Zerah, at the 
head oi an enormous host (2 Chr. xir. 0), 
attacked Mareshah. There he was utterly 
defeated, and driyen back with immense loss 
to Gerar. The peace which followed this 
▼ietory was broken by the attempt of Baasha 
of Israel to tottity Bamah. To stop this 
Asa purchased the hdp oi Benhadad I. king 
of Damaseos, by a large payment of treasure, 
forced Baash* to abandon his purpose, and 
destroyed the works which he had begun at 
Bamah. In his old age Asa sufflsred from 
the gout. He died greatly lored and honoured 
in the 41st year of his reign. 

A'SAHEL, nephew of David, being the 
youngest son of his sister Zeruiah. Hewas 
eel^vated for his swiftness of foot. When 
fighting under the command of his brother 
Joab against Ishbosheth's army at Gibeon, he 
pursued Abner, who was obliged to kill him 
in selfMlefence (2 Sam. U. 18 ff.) 

A'SAFH. 1. A LcTite, son of Berechiah, 
one of the leaders of Darid's choir (1 Chr. tL 
89). Psahns L awl IxxilL-lxxziii. are attri- 
buted to him; and he was In after times 
celebrated as a seer as well as a musical com- 
poser (2 Chr. xxix. 80 ; Neh. xii. 46).— A. The 
father or ancestor of Joah, the recorder or 
chronicler to the kingdom of Jndah In the 
reign of HeseUali (2 K. xTiiL 18, 87 ;, Is. 
xxxTi. 8,22). It is not improbable that this 
Amfik is the same as the preceding. 

AS'EN ATH, danghter of Potlpherah, priest, 
or possibly prince, of On [PonrKBaAn], wife 
of Jos^h (Gen. xli. 45), and mother of Ma- 
nasseh and Ephndm (xli. 50, xlvl. 20). 

ASH (Heb. 6rM) occurs only in Is. xUt. 
14. It is impossible to determine what is the 
tree denoted by the Hebrew word ; the LXX. 
ond the Yulg. understand some spedes of 
pine-tree. Perhaps the larch (Zaryx JBttro- 
f^ea) may be intended. 

A'SHAN, a city in the low country of Judah 
(Joah. XT. 42). In Joah. xix. 7, and 1 Chr. 
It. 82, it is mentioned again as belonging to 
Simeon. It has not yet been identifled, unless 
it be the same as Ain (comp. Josh, xxi 16 
with 1 Chr. Ti. 59) ; in which case Boblnson 
found it at JR Gkm M im, 

ASHBE'A, a proper name, but whether of 
a person or place is uncertain (1 Chr. It. 21). 

ASHDOD, or AZO'TUS (Acts TiiL 40), one 
of the fire confederate dties of the Philistines, 
dtuated about 80 miles from the southern 
frtmtler of Palestine, 8 from the Mediterra- 
nean Sea, and newrly midway between Gasa 
and Joppa. It was assigned to the tribe of 
Judah (Josh. xt. 47), but was nerer subdued 
by the Israelites. Its chief importance arose 
firom its position on the high road from 
Palestine to Egypt. It is now an insig- 
nificant Tillage, with no memorials of iu 
andent importance, but is still called Adud. 

ASH'DOTH-PIS'GAH, a curious and pro. 
baUy a Tery andent term of doubtftil mean- 
ing, found only in Deut. ill. 17 ; Joah. xii. 8, 
xiU. 20 ; awl in Dent. ir. 49, A Y. *« springs 

A'SHEB, Apocr. and N. T. A'SEB, the 8th 
son of Jacob, by Zilpah, Leah's handmaid 
(Gen. XXX. 18). The general podUon of his 
tribe was on the sea-shore from Carmel 
northwards, with Manasseh on the sooth, 
Zebulun and Twwchsr cm the south-east, and 
Naphtali on the north-east The boundaries 
and towns are given in Josh. xix. 24-81, 
xviL 10, 11 ; and Judg. i. 81, 82. They pos- 
sessed the maritime portion of the rich plain 
of Esdraelon, probably for a distance « 8 or 
10 mUes firom the shore. This ter rl toi y con- 
tained some of the richest soil in all Palestine ; 
and to this feet, as wdl as to their proximity 
to the Phoenidans, the degeneracy of the 
tribe maybe attributed (Judg. 1. 81, t. 17). 

A'SHEB, a place which formed one bound- 
ary of the tribe of Msnaisch on the south 
(Josh. XTfi. 7). Mr. Porter suggests that 
Tgyd^ may be the Asher of Manasseh 
{MoHdb. p. 848). 

ASH'EBAH, the name of a PhoMddan 
goddess, or rather of the idol itself (A. Y. 
**groTe"). Asberah is closely connected with 
AsHToasTH and her worship (Judg. iii. 7, 
comp. ii. 8; Judg. vi. 25 ; 1 K. xriiL 19) ; 
Ashtoreth being, perhaps, the proper name 
of the goddess, whilst Asberah is the name 
of her image or symbol, which was of wood 
(see Judg. ri. 25-80 ; 2 K. xxiii. 14). 

ASHES. The ashes on the altar of burnt- 
offering were gathered into a carity in its 
surfece. On the days of the three solemn 
festiTals the ashes were not remored, but the 
I accumulation was taken away afterwards Id 

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the morning, the priests easting lots for the 
office. The ashes of a red heifer burnt entire, 
according to r^tilations prescribed in Num. 
zix. had the ceremonial efficacy of purifying 
the unclean (Heb. ix. 13), but of polluting 
the clean. [Sacrifick.] Ashes about the 
person, especially on the head, were used as 
a sign of sorrow. [Moubm ino.] 

ASH'IHA, a god of the Hamathite colonists 
in Samaria (2 K. zvii. 80). It has been re- 
garded as identical with the Mendesian god 
of the Egyptians, the Pan of the Greeks, and 
has also been identified with the Phoenician 
god EsmAn. 

LON, one of the fire cities of the lords of the 
Philistines (Josh. xiii. 8 ; 1 Sam. t1. 17), but 
less often mentioned wad apparently less 
known to the Jews than the other four. 
Samson went down from Timnath to Ash- 
kelon (Judg. xiv. 19), as if to a remote place 
whence his exploit was not likely to be heard 
of. In the post-biblical times Ashkelon rose 
to considerable importance. Near the town 
were the temple and sacred lake of Deroeto, 
the Syrian Venus. The soil around was re- 
markable for its fertHi^. Asealon played a 
memorable part in the struggles of the Cru- 

ASHlCENAZ, one of the three sons of 
Gomer, son of Japhet (Oen. x. 8). We may 
probably recognize the tribe of Ashkenaa on 
the northern shore of Asia Minor, in the 
name of Lake Ascanius, and in Europe In 
the name Seand-it, Seand-inKfin, Knobel 
considers that Ashk«nai is to be identified 
with the German race. 

ASH'NAH, the name of two cities, both in 
the Lowlands of Judah : (1) named between 
Zoreah and Zanoah, and therefore probably 
N.W. of Jerusalem (Josh. xt. 88) ; and (S) 
between Jiphtah and Nezib, and ttierefore to 
the S.W. of Jerusalem (Josh. xt. 48). Each, 
according to Robinson's Map (1857), would 
be about 16 miles from Jerusalem. 

ASH'TAROTH, and once AS'TARGTH, a 
city on the £. of Jordan, in Bashan, in Uie 
kingdom of Og, doubtless so called from being 
a seat of the worship of the goddess of the 
same name. It is generally mentioned as a 
description or definition of Og (Deut. L 4 ; 
Josh. ix. 10, xil. 4, xiiL 12). The only 
trace of the name yet reoorered In these in- 
teresting dititricu is Tell-Aahterah^ or Aah^ 
rahf and of this nothing more than the name 
is known. 

ASU'TEROTH KARNA'IM = ''Ashtaroth 
of the two horns or peaks," a place of rery 
great antiquity, the abode of the Rephaim 
(Gen. xiv. 5). The name reappears but once, 
as Camaim, or Camion (1 Mace. t. 26, 43, 

44 ; 2 Maoc. xii. 21, 26), in «« the land oJ 
Galaad.*' It is probably the modem A* 
SoHamekit on the HaJ route, about 25 miles 

8. of Damascus. 

ASHTC/RETH, the principal female diTin- 
ity of the Phoenicians, called Ishtar by the 
Assyrians, and Astarte by the Greeks and 
Romans. She was by some ancient writers 
identified with the moon. But on the other 
hand the Assyrian Ishtar was not the moon- 
goddess, but the planet Venus ; and Astarte 
was by many Identified with the goddess 
Venus (or Aphrodite) as well as with the 
planet of that name. It is certain that the 
worship of Astarte became identified with that 
of Venus, and that this worship was connected 
with the most impure rites is apparent firom 
the close connexion of this goddess with 
AsHxnAH (1 K. xi. 6, 88; 2 K. xxiii. 18). 

ASH'URITES, THE. This name occurs 
only in 2 Sam. il. 9. By some of the old 
interpreters the name is taken as meaning 
the Q^urites, but If we follow the Targum 
of Jonathan, which has Beth-Asher, **the 
house of Asher,*' ** the Asherites " will denote 
the inhabitants ot the whole of the country 
W. of the Jordan abore JesreeL 

ASIA. The passages in the N.T., where 
this word occurs, are the following : Acts ii. 

9, Ti. 9, XTi. 6, xix. 10, 22, 26, 27, xx. 4, 16, 
18, xxL 27, xxviL 2 ; Rom. xri. 5 ; 1 Cor. 
XTi. 19; 2 Cor. i. 8 ; 2 Tim. L 15 ; 1 Pet. i. 1 ; 
RcT. L 4, 11. In all these it maybe con- 
fidently stated that the word is used for a 
Roman proTinoe which embraced the western 
part of the peninsula of Asia Minor, and of 
which Ephesns was the capital. 

ASIAR'CHAE (ehi^ cf AMa, A. V. ; Acts 
xix. 81), officer* chosen annually by the 
cities of that part of the proTlnoe of Asia, of 
which Ephesus was, under Roman gOTera- 
ment, the metropolis. They had charge d 
the public games and religions theatrical 
spectacles, the expenses of which they bore. 

ASMODEMJS (Tob. m. 8, 17), the same as 
Abaddon or ApoUyon (Rct. ix. 11; oomp. 
Wisd. xTiiL 25). From the foct that the 
Talmud calls him "king of the demons," 
some assume him to be identical with Reel- 
xebub, and others with AxraeL In the book 
of Tobit this CTil spirit is represented as Iot- 
ing Sara, the daughter ofBaguel, and caus- 
ing the death of her ecTen husbands. 

ASNAP'PER, mentioned in Ear. It. 10 as 
the person who settled the Cuthaeans in the 
cities of Samaria. He was probably a general 
of Esarhaddon. 

ASP {pethen). The Hebrew word occur* 
in the six following passages : — ^Deut. xxxli. 
38 ; Job XX. 14, 16 ; Ps. IriU. 5, xcL 18 ; 
Is. xL 8. It is expressed in the passages 

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from the Psalms by adder in the text of the 
A. v., and by a*p in the nwirgin : elsewhere 
the text of the A. V. has otp as the repre- 

ftcctative of the original word pet hen. That 
tome kind of poisonous serpent is denoted by 
the Hebrew word is clear from the passages 
qooied aborc. We further learn from Ps. 
Iriii. 5, that the pet hen was a snake upon 
which the serpent-charmers practised their 
art. From l^. xi. 8, it woald appear that 
Ifae pethen was a dweller in holes of walls, &c, 
As the Egyptian cobra is more fre- 
quently than any other spedes ths 
satjc^ ^P<*° which the serpent- 
eharmers of the Bible lands practise 
their art, and as it is fond of con- 
cealing itself in walls and in holes 
(Is. xi. 8), it appears to hare the 
best claim to represent the peihen. 

ASPAL'ATHUS, the name of some 
sweet perftnne menttoned in Ecelns. 
xxiv. 15. The lAgnntm Bhodionum 
is by some sappoeed to be the sab- 
stance indicated bj the aspalathiu; 
the plant which y^ds it is the Cbis- 
vohmhu »Mpariu9 of Unnaeas. 

AS^HAK, the pool in the << wilder- 
nessofTheooe" (IMaccix. 8S). Is 
it poesible that the name is a cor- 
mption of lactu AaphaUitet f 

ASS. Five Hebrew names of the 
genos Aaimu oeenr in the O. T. 1. ChamSr 
denotes the male domestic asS) though the 
word was no doobt used in a general sense 
to express any ass whether male or female. 
The ass in eastern countries is a Tery dif- 
ferent animal firom what he is in we st ern 
Europe. The most noble and honoorable 
amongst the Jews were wont to be mounted 

6m. D. B. 

on asses : and in this manner oar Lord him- 
sdf made his triumphant entry into Jeru- 
salem (Matt. xxi. 3).—S. AihSfh the commos 
domestie she-ass. Balaam rode on a she- 
ass. The asses of Klsh which Saul sought^ 
were she-asses. The Shunammite (S K. It.' 
3S, 34) xode on one when she went to seek 
Elisha. They were she-asses which formed 
-the special care of one of Darid's officers 
(1 Chr. xxTii. 80).^S. ^Air, the name of a 
wild ass, which occurs Gen. xxxil. 16, xlix. 
11 ; Judg. X. 4, xii. 14 ; Job xi. 12 ; Is. xxx. 
6, 34 ; Zeeh. ix. 9. — 4. Pere^ a species of wild 
ass mentioned Oen. xtI. 13 ; Ps. civ. 11 ; Job 
Ti. 5, xi. 12, xxiv. 5, xxxix. 5 ; Hos. Tiii. 9 ; 
Jer. ii. 24, xiv. 6 ; Is. xxxii. 14.^5. Ar6d 
occurs o^ly in Job xxxix. 5 ; but in what re- 
spect it differs firom the Pete is uncertain. — 
The species known to the ancient Jews are 
Atinxu hetnippwy which inhabits the deserts of 
Syria, Mesopotamia, and the northern parts of 
Arabia ; the Atinu$ vulgarU of the N.E. of 
AiHca, the true onager or aboriginal wild 
aas, whence^ the domesticated breed has 
sprung ; and probably the Arinut onagefy the 
Koulan or Ghorkhur, which is found in 
Western Asia fix>m 48* N. latitude southward 
to Persia, Beluchistan, and Western India. 
Mr. Layard remarks that in fleetness the 
wild ass {Adntu hemipptu) equals the gazelie, 
and to overtake them is a feat which only one 
or two of the most celebrated mares have 
been known to aecomplish. 

Bjrrlan WHd Am. (Atlmiu ntmnp/ma.) 
Specimen in ZoologionI Onrdttn*. 

ASSH'URIM, a tribe descended firom De- 
dan, the grandson of Abraham (Oen. xxv. 8). 
Like the other descendanto of Keturah, they 
hare not been identified with any degree of 
certainty. Knobel considers them the same 
with the Asshnr of Ex. xxtU. 36, and con- 
nected with southern Arabia. 

ASSIDE'ANS, i. e. the pious, *• puriUns,'* 

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the name awamed by a section of the orthodox 
Jews (1 Mace. ii. 42, tU. IS-; 2 Maoo. xIy. 
6) as distinguished* from the Hellenizing 
fisction. They appear to have existed as a 
party before the Maccabaean rising, and were 
probably bound by some peculiar vow to the 
external obserranoe of the Law. 

AS^SOS or AS'SUS, a seaport of the Bo> 
man province of Asia, in the district 
andently called Mysia. It was situated on 
the northern shore of the gulf of AnnAirrr- 
TI17X, and was only about seven miles firom 
the opposite coast of Lesbos, near Methymna 
(Ao^ XX. 18, 14). 

ASSTR'IA, ASSH'UB, was a great and 
powerfhl country lying on the Tigris (Oen. 
ii. 14), the capital of which was Nineveh 
(Oen. X. 11, Ac.). It derived its name ap- 
parentiy fhun Asshnr, the son of Shem (Gen. 
X. 22), who in later times was worshipped 
by the Assyrians as their chief god. The 
boundaries of Assyria differed greatly at 
dIflBerent periods. Probably in the earliest 
times it was confined to a small tract of low 
country, lying chiefly (m the left bank of the 
Tigris. Gradually its limits were extended, 
until it came to be regarded as comprising 
the whole region between the Armenian 
mountains (lat. 87* SO') upon the north, and 
upon the south the country abont Baghdad 
(lat. 38* 80*). Eastward its boundary was 
the high range of Zagros, or mountains of 
Kwditt&nf westward, it was, according to 
the views of some, bounded by the Mesopo- 
tamian desert, while, according to others, it 
reached the Euphrates. — I. OenertU cha- 
ratter taf the oomtrp. On the N. and E. the 
high moontain^shains of Armenia ^"«^ E.ur- 
distAn are suceeeded by low ranges of llme- 
stone-hiUs of a somewhat arid aspect. To 
theae ridges there succeeds at first an un- 
dulating lone of country, well watered and 
fairly productive, which extends in length 
for 250 miles, and is interrupted only by a 
single limestone-range. Above and below 
this barrier is an immense level tract, now 
for the most part a wilderness, which bears 
marks of having been in early times well 
cultivated and thickly peopled throughout. 
— 2. J*rovinee$ of Aatiria. — ^The dassioal 
geographers divided Assyria into a number 
of regions, which appear to be chiefly named 
firom cities, as ArbeUtis fhmi Arbela ; Cala- 
eene (or Calachine) tmm. Calah or Halah 
(Gen. X. 11 ; 2 K. xvii. 6) ; Apolloniatis 
firom Apolkmia ; Sittaoene from Sittaoe, fto. 
Adiabene, however, the richest region of all, 
derived its appellation firom the Zdb (Dtaft) 
river on which it lay. — S. Ohi$f eiH$9, — ^The 
ehlef oities of Assyria in the time of its great- 
neM appear to have ben the fidlowing : — 

Nineveh, which is marked by the mound* 
opposite Mosul {Nebi-Yunu$ and Kouyitt^ik) ; 
Calah or Halah, now Nitnrud ; Asshur, now 
KUeh Sherghat ; Sargina, or Dur-Sargina, 
now Xhar$abad ; Arbela, still Arbil ; Opis at 
the junction of the Diyaleh with the Tigris ; 
and Sittace, a littie farther down the latter 
river, if this place should not rather be 
reckoned to Babylonia.— 4. Mttory cf As- 
»]fr%a~-origindl peopling. — Scripture infbrms 
us that Assyria was peopled fhmi Babylon 
(Gen. X. 11), and both classical tradition and 
the monuments of the country agree in this 
representation. — 5. Date of the foundation 
of the kingdom. — ^As a country, Assyria was 
evidently known to Moses (Gen. ii. 14, xxv. 
18 ; Num. xxiv. 22, 24) ; but it does not 
appear in Jewish history as a kingdom till 
the reign of Menahem (about b.c. 770). 
Herodotus relates that the Assyrians were 
" lords of Asia " for 520 year^ till the Median 
kingdom was formed, b.c. 708. He would 
thus, it appears, have assigned to the foun- 
dation of the Assyrian empire a date not 
very greatiy anterior to b.c. 1228. This is, 
perhaps, the utmost that can, be determined 
with any approach to certainty. — 6. Early 
hinge firom the foundation cf the kingdom to 
Put, — ^The Mesopotamian researches have 
rendered it apparent that the original seat of 
government was not at Nineveh, but at JBIeh* 
Sherghatf on the right bank of the Tigris. 
The kings proved to have reigned there are 
fourteen in number, divisible into three 
groups; and their reigns are thought to 
have covered a space of nearly 850 years, 
firom B.C. 1278 to b.c. 980. The most re- 
markable monarch of the series was caUed 
Tiglath-pileser. He appears to have been 
king towards the close of the twelfth centur), 
and thus to have been contemporary with 
Samuel. The later kings of the series are 
only known to us as the ancestor* of two- 
great monarchs ; Sardanapalns the first, and 
his son, flhalmaneser or Shalmanubar, a still 
greater conqueror. His son and grandson 
fbUowed in his steps, but scarcely equalled 
his glory. The latter is thought to be 
identical witti the BibUeal Pul, Phul, or 
Phaloch [PiTL].— 7. The hinge from Ful to 
JSearhaddon.—ln the 2nd book of Kings we 
find the names of Pul, Tiglath-pileser, Shal- 
maneser, Sennacherib, and Esarhaddon (2 K. 
XV. 10, 29, xvii. 8, xviii. 18, xix. 87) ; and 
in Isaiah we have the name of "Sargon, 
king of Assyria " (xx. 1). The inscriptions, 
by showing us that Sargon was the fi&ther of 
Sennacherib, fix his place in the list, and 
give us for the monarchs of the Ust half of 
the 8th and the first half of the 7 th century 
B.O. the (probably) complete Ust of Tiglath- 

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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




pUeaer II., Shalmaneser IL, Sargoa, Senns- 
ebfirib, and EMurhaddon. — 8. Lower Dfpuutf. 
It aeema to be certain tlutt at, or near, the 
aooeeaion of Pol, abont b.c. 7:70, a great 
change of some kind or other ocoorred in 
Afsyria. Probably the Pul or Phalooh of 
Scripture was really the laat king of the old 
monarehy, and Tiglath-pileter II., hla buc- 
eeasor, was the founder of what has been 
called the "Lower Empire." — 9. Suppoied 
lost 9f th§ empire at this period, — Many 
writers of repute haTC been inclined to accept 
the statement of Herodotus with respect to 
the breaking up of the whole empire at this 
period. It is evident, however, both ftrom 
Sertptore and finnn the monuments, that the 
shock sustained through the domestio rerolu- 
tion has been greatly exaggerated. It is 
plain, firam Scripture, that in the reigns of 
Tigla^-pfleeer, Shalmaneser, Sargon, Sen- 
nacherib, and Esarhaddon, Assyria was as 
great as at any former era. On every ground 
it seems neoessary to con'slude that the 
eecond Assyrian Ungdam was really greater 
and more glorious than the first ; that under 
it the limits of the empire reached their Ail- 
lest extent, and the internal prosperity was 
at the highest — 10. Sueeeuors of Siorhad- 
don, — ^By the end of the reign of Esarhaddon 
the triumph of the arms of Assyria had been 
so complete that scarcely an enemy was left 
who could cause her serious anxiety. In 
Scripture it is remarkable that we hear no- 
thing of Assyria after the reign of Esar- 
haddon, and profiuie history is equally silent 
until the attacks begin which brought about 
her downfall.— 11. Fall of Assyria.— The 
Ikll of Assyria, long previously prophesied 
by Isaiah (x. S-19), was effected by the 
growing strength and boldness of the 
Modes. If we may trust Herodotus, the 
first Median attack on Nineveh took place 
about the year b.o. 838. For some time 
their cilbrts were unsuccessAil ; but after 
a whUe, having won over the Babylonians 
to their side, they became superior to the 
Assyrians in the field, and about b.c. 6S5, 
or » little earlier, laid final siege to the 
capitaL — 13. Fu^fitmeni of propheey.—Tht 
prophecies of Mahum and Zephaniah (ii. 
18-15) against Assyria were probably de- 
livered shortly before the catastrophe. In 
accordance with Nahum*s annoum^nncnt 
(iii* 19) we find that Assyria never succeeded 
in mfti«fajn<ng a dlstlnot nationality.— 18. 
Oemeral character of the empire. — The As- 
^rian mf^y»^«*hii bore sway over a number of 
petty kings through the entire extent of their 
dominions. These native princes were feu- 
diUories of the Great Monarch, of whom they 
held tilieir exown by the double tenure of 

homage and tribute. It is not quite oertain 
how fttr Assyria required a religious con- 
formity ftrom the subject people. Her religion 
was a gross and complex polythdBm, com- 
prising the worship of thirteen principal and 
numerous minor divinities, at the head of all 
of whom stood the chief god, Asshur, who 
seems to be the deified patriarch of the nation 
(Oen. X. 23). The inscriptions appear to 
state that In all oountries over which the 
Assyrians established their supremacy, they 
set up " the laws of Asshur,'* and *' altars to 
the Great Gods." — 14. lie extent. — On the 
west, the Mediterranean and the river Halys 
appear to have been the boundaries ; on the 
north, a fiuotuating line, never reaching the 
Eoxine nor extending beyond the northern 
flrontier of Armenia ; on the east, the Caspian 
Sea and the Great Salt Desert ; on the south, 
the Persian Gulf and the Desert of Arabia. 
The countries included within these limits 
are the following : — Susiana, Chaldaea, Baby- 
lonia, Media, Matiene, Armenia, Assyria 
Proper, Mesopotamia, parts of Cappadocia 
and Giiioia, Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine, and 
Idumaea. Cyprus was also for a while a 
dependency of the Assyrian kings, and they 
may perhiHiM have held at one time certain 
portions of Lower Egypt. — 15. OiviliaatioH 
qf the Auyriane. — ^The civiliBation of the 
Assyrians was derived originally ttom. ttie 
Babylonians. They were a Shemitic race, 
originally resident in Babylonia (which at 
that time was Cushite), and thus acquaints 
with the Babylonian inventions and dis- 
coveries, who ascended the valley of the 
Tigris and established in the tract imme- 
diately below the Armenian mountains a 
separate and distinct nationality. Still, as 
their cirillBation developed, it became in 
many respects peculiar. Their art is of home 
growth. But they were stlil in the most im- 
portant points barbarians. Their government 
was rude and inartiflcial ; their religion coarse 
and sensual ; and thdr conduct of war crueL 

ASTT'AGES, the last king of the Modes, 
B.C. 505-560, or b.c 5^-558, who was con- 
quered by Cyrus (Bel and Dragon, 1). The 
name is identified by Rawlinson and Niebuhr 
with Deiooes = Ashdah<k, the emblem of the 
Median power. 

ASUP'PIM, and HOUSE OP, 1 Chr. xxvi. 
15, 17, UteraUy "house of the gatherings." 
Some understand it as a proper name of 
chambers on the south of the Temple ; others 
of certain store-rooms, or of the couneH- 
ohambers in the outer court of the Temple in 
which the elders held their deliberations. 

called also Abel-Mlxralm (Gen. L 10, II). 
According to Jerome it was in his day oaUed 
B 9 

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Bethgla or Bethada (Beth-Ho?U). Beth- 
Hogla is known to have lain between the 
Jordan and Jericho, therefore on the west 
aide of Jordan. 

ATAR'OATIS, or Dkbcvto, a Syrian god- 
dess, represented generally with the body of 
a woman and the tail of a fish (eomp. Da- 
com). Her most famous temples were at 
HierapoUs (Mabug) and Ascalon. There 
was a temple of Atargatis (2 Maco. zii. 26} 
at Eamion, which was destroyed by Judas 
Maccabaeus (1 Maoo. v. 44). 

AT'AROTH. 1. One of the towns in the 
«land of Jaser and land of Gilead'* (Num. 
xxxii. S), taken and built by the tribe of Gad 
(xxxii. 84). From its mention with places 
which hare been identified on the N.E. of the 
Dead Sea near the mountain of the Jebel 
AttariU, a connexion has been assumed be- 
tween Ataroth and that mountain. But 
some other identification is necessary. — 0. A 
place on the (south T) boundary of Ephraim 
and Manasseh (Josh. xri. 3, 7). It is im- 
possible to say whether Ataroth is or is not 
the same place, as, 8. ATABOTB-ADAn, or 
-ADDAK on the west border of Benjamin, 
**near the * mountain' that is on the south 
side of the nether Beth-horon" (Josh. xtL 5, 
xviii. 18). In the Ouomastieon mention is 
made of an Atharoth in Ephraim, in the 
mountains, 4 miles N. of Sebaste ; as well aa 
two places of the name not far firom Jeru- 
salem. — 4. " Ataxiotb, thx hovsb op Joab," 
a place (?) occurring in the list of the descen- 
dants of Judah (1 Chr. iL 54). 

ATHACH (1 Sam. xxx. 30). As the name 
does not occur elsewhere, it has been sug- 
gested that it is an error of the transcriber 
fbr Ether, a town in the }ow country of Judah 
(Josh. XT. 42). 

ATHALI'AH, daughter of Ahab and Jese- 
bel, married Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat 
king of Judah, and introduced into the S. 
kingdom the worship of Baal. After the 
great revolution, by which Jehu seated him- 
self on the throne of Samaria, she killed all 
the members of the royal family of Judah 
who had escaped his sword (2 K. xl. 1), 
availing herself probably of her position as 
Ki$tif*» Mother [Asa], to perpetrate the crime. 
From the slaughter of the royal house, one 
infi&nt named Joash, the youngest son of 
Ahaziah, was rescued by Ms aunt Jehosheba, 
wife of Jeholada (2 Chr. zxiii. 11) the Ugh- 
priest (2 Chr. xxiv. 6). The child was 
brought up under Jehoiada*8 care, and con- 
cealed in the Temple for six years, during 
which period Athaliah reigned over Judah. 
At length Jeholada thought it time to pro- 
dace the lawful king to the people, trusting 
to their seal for tha worship of God, and 

loyalty to the house of David, which had 
been so strenuously called out by Asa and 
Jehoshaphat. His plan was successful, and 
Athaliah was put to death. 

ATH'ENS, the capital of Attica, and the 
chief seat of Grecian learning and dvilisation 
during the golden period of the history of 
Greece. St Paul visited it in his journey 
from Macedonia, and appears to have re- 
mained there some time (Aats xvii. 14-84 : 
comp. 1 Thess. UL 1). In order to under- 
stand the localities mentioned in the nar- 
rative it is necessary to give a brief account 
of the topi^raphy of the ei^. Athens is 
situated about three miles firom the sea-coast, 
in the central plain of Attica. In this plain 
rise several eminences. Of these the most 
prominent is a lofty insulated mountain, with 
a conical peaked summit, now called the Hill 
of St George, and which bore in ancient 
times the name <tf LffcdbetUu. This moun- 
tain, which was not included within the 
ancient walls, lies to the north-east of Athens, 
and forms the most striking feature in the 
environs of the city. It is to Athens what 
Vesuvius is to Naples, or Arthur's Seat to 
Edinburgh. South-west of Lyeabettns there 
are four hills of moderate height, all of which 
formed pan of the dty. Of these the nearest 
to Lycabettus, and at the distance of a mile 
fh»n the latter, was the Aoropoli$^ or citadel 
of Athens, a square craggy rock rising 
abruptiy about 150 feet, with a flat summit 
of about 1000 feet long from east to west, by 
500 fleet broad f^om north to south. Imme- 
diately west of the Acropolis is a second hill 
of irregular form, the Artopofftu {Man' 
mU). To the south-west there rises a third 
hill, the FnpXf on which the assemblies of 
the dtiiens were held ; and to the south of the 
latter is a fourth hill, known as the Mu99itm, 
On the eastern and western sides of the city 
there run two small streams, which are 
nearly exhausted before they reach the sea, 
by the heats of summer and by the channels 
for artificial irrigation. That on the east 
is the nissus, which flowed through the 
southern quarter of the city: that on the 
west is the Oephissus. South of the city was 
seen the Saronic gulf, with the harbours of 
Athens.— ^Athens is said to have derived its 
name from the prominence given to the 
worship of the goddess Athena (Minerva) by 
its king Erechthens. The inhabitants were 
previously called Cecropidae, firom Oecrops, 
who, according to tradition, was the ori- 
ginal founder of the city. This at first 
occupied only the hill or rock which after- 
wards became the Aeropoli$; but gradually 
the buildings spread over the ground at 
the southern foot of this hill. It was not 

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till the time of PiBistratuB and his sons 
(B.C. 560-514) that the city began to as- 
nune any degree of splendoar. The most 
remarkable building of these despots was the 
gigantic temple of the Olympian Zeus or 
Jupiter. Xerxes reduced the ancient city 
almost to a heap of ashes. After the de- 
parture of the Persians, its reconstruction on 
a much larger scale was commenced under 
the superintendence of Themistocles, whose 
ilrst care was to provide for its safety by the 
erection of walls. The Acropolis now formed 
the centre of the city, round which the new 
-walls described an irregular circle of about 

60 stadia or 7^ miles in circxmiference. But 
the views of Themistocles were not confined 
to the mercb defence of Athens : he contem- 
plated making her a great naval power, and 
for this purpoae adequate docks and arsenals 
were required. Previously the Athenians 
had used as their only harbour the open 
roadstead of P?uU«rum on the eastern side 
of the Phaleric bay, where the seashore is 
nearest to Athens. But Themistocles trans- 
ferred the naval station of the Athenians to 
the peninsula of Piraeus, which is distant 
about 4J^ miles from Athens, and contains 
three natural harbours. It was not till the 

L PajxEcfltata. 

Plav or AxHsn. 

SL lliMtre of IHoD7ta& 
b. Tempto of Om OfympUm JnpHor. 

4. OdBom of Poriokc 

administration of Pericles that the walls were 
built which oonnected Athens with her ports. 
Under the administration of Pericles, Athens 
was adorned with numerous public buildings, 
which existed in all their glory when St. Paul 
visited the ei^, and of which some idea may 
be formed ftrom the accompanying restora- 
tion. The Aeropolia ma the chief centre 
of the architectural splendour of Athens. 
After the Persian wars the hill had ceased to 
be inhabited, and was appropriated to the 
wMship of Athena and to the other guardian 
deities of the city. It was covered with the 
temples of gods and heroes; and thus its 
platform presented no only a sanctuary, but 

a museum, containing the finest production r 
of the architect and the sculptor, in which 
the whiteness of the marble was relieved by 
brilliant colours, and rendered still more 
dazzling by the transparent clearness of the 
Athenian atmosphere. The only approach to 
it was from the Agora on its western side. 
At the top of a magnificent flight of marble 
steps, 70 feet broad, stood the JPropylaea, 
constructed under the auspices of Pericles, 
and which served as a suitable entrance to 
the exquisite works within. The Propylaea 
were themselves one of the masterpieces of 
Athenian art. They were entirely of Pen- 
telic marble, and covered the whole of the 

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wattera end of the Acropolis, haying a 
breadth of 168 feet. On passing through 
the Propylaea all the glories of the Acropolis 
became visible. The chief building was the 
PortMnon {i.e. House of the Virgin), the 
most perfect production of Grecian archi- 
tecture. It derived its name from its being 
the temple of Athena Parthenos, or Athena 
the Virgin, the invincible goddess of war. 
It stood on the highest part of the Acropolis, 
ne«r its centre. It was entirely of Pentelic 
marble, on a rustic basement of ordinary 
limestone, and its architecture, which was of 
the Doric order, was of the purest kind. It 
was adorned with the most exquisite sculp- 
tures, executed by various artists under the 
direction of Phidias. A large nximber of these 
senlpturee were brought to England by Lord 
Elgin, of whom they were purchased by the 
nation and deposited in the British Museum. 
But the chief wonder of the Parthenon was 
the colossal statue of the Virgin Goddess 
executed by Phidias himself. The Acropolis 
was adorned with another colossal flgtire of 
Athena, in bronxe, also the work of Phidias. 
It stood in the open air, nearly opposite the 
Propylaea. With its pedeeUl it must have 
been about 70 feet high, and consequently 
towered above the roof of the Parthenon, 
no that the point of its spear and the crest 
of its helmet were visible off the promon- 
tory of Sunium to ships approaching Athens. 
Another magnificent building on the Acropolis 
was the Breohthium, or temple of Ereththeus. 
It was one of the finest models of the Ionic 
order, as the Parthenon was of the Doric. 
It stood to the north of the Utter building, 
and olose to the northern wall of the Acro- 
polis. Among the remarkable places in other 
parts of the ci^ we may mention, first, the 
Dioniftiac theatre^ which occupied the slope 
at the south-eastern extremity of the Acro- 
polis. The middle of it was excavated out of 
the rock, and the rows of seats ascended in 
enrvet one above another, the diameter in- 
cressing with the height. It was no doubt 
wftdently large to accommodate the whole 
body of Athenian citizens, as well as the 
strangers who flocked to Athens during the 
Dionysiac festival, but its dimensions cannot 
now be accurately ascertained. It had no 
roof, but the spectators were probably pro- 
tected from the sun by an awning, and from 
their elevated seato they had a distinct view 
of the sea, and of the peaked hills of Salamis 
in the horiaon. Above them rose the Par- 
thenon and the other buildings of the Acro- 
polis, so that they sat under the shadow of 
the ancestral gods of the country. The Are" 
•pofUM, or Hill of Ares (Mars) is described 
elsewhere. [Mass* Hill.] The Ht^x, or 

place for holding the public assemblies of 
the Athenians, stood on the side of a low 
rocky hiU, at the distance of about a quarter 
of a mile from the Areopagus. Projecting^ 
from the hill, and hewn out of it, still stands 
a solid rectangular block, called the Bema or 
pulpit, from whence the orators addressed 
the multitude in the area before them. The 
position of the Bema commanded a view of 
the Propylaea snd the other magnificent edi- 
fices of the Acropolis, while beneath it was 
the city itself studded with monuments of 
Athenian glory. The Athenian orators fre- 
quently roused the national feelings of their 
audience by pointing to the Propylaea and 
to the other splendid buildings before them. 
Between the Pnyx on the west, the Areopagus 
on the north, and the Acropolis on the east, 
and closely adjoining the base of these hills, 
stood the Affora or " Market," where St Paul 
disputed daily. In a direction from north- 
west to south-east a street called the CeramTcus 
ran diagonally through the Agora, entering 
it through the valley between the Pnyx and 
the Areopagus. The street was named after 
a district of the ci^, which was divided into 
two parts, the Inner and Outer Oeramlous. 
The former lay within the dty walls, and 
included the Agora. The Outer Oersmlcus, 
which formed a handsome suburb on the 
north-west of the city, was the burial-place 
of all persons honoured with a public ftineraL. 
Through it ran the road to the gynmasinm 
and gardens of the Aeademy, whioh were 
situated about a mile firom the walls. The 
Academy was the place where Plato and his 
disciples taught. On each side of this road 
were monuments to illustrious Athenians, 
especially those who had fsllen in battle. 
East of the city, and outside the walls, was 
the Ljfefum, a gymnasium dedicated to Apollo 
Lyc^us, and celebrated as the place in which 
Aristotle taught. — The remark of the sacred 
historian respecting the inquisitive character 
of the Athenians (Acta xviL SI) is attested 
by the unanimous voice of antlqui^. Demo- 
sthenes rebukes his countrymen for their 
love of constantly going about in the market, 
and asking one another What news t Their 
natural liveliness was partly owing to the 
purity and clearness of the atmosphere of 
Attica, which also allowed them to pass much 
of their time in the open air. The trans- 
parent clearness of the atmosphere is noticed 
by Euripides {Medea, 829), who describes 
the Athenians as ** delicately marching 
through most pellucid air." Modem tra- 
vellers have not failed to notioe the same 
peculiarity. Thus Dean Stanley speaks ** of 
the transparent clearness, the brilliant colour- 
ing of an Athenian sky ; of the flood of fire. 

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with which the marble ooliunns, the monn- 
taine, and the sea are all bathed and pene- 
trated by an iUumination of an Athenian 
Bonaet.*' — St. Paul began hia address at 
Athens by speaking of their *' oarefolness 
lU religion," which is translated in the 
A. V. " too superstitious,'' an unfortunate 
mirtranslation, as Conybeare and Howson 
remark, "because it entirely destroys the 
graoefdl courtesy of St, Paal's opening ad- 
dress, and represents him as beginning his 
speech by offending his audience." The 
Athenian careftdness in religion is con- 
finned by the andent writers. Thus Pausa- 
nias says that the Athenians surpassed all 
other states in the attention which they 
paid to the worship of the gods ; and hence 
the city was crowded in erery direction 
with temples, altars, and oUier sacred build- 
ings. The altar **to the Unknown God," 
which St. Paul mentions, has been spoken 
of elsewhere. [Altab, p. S4, b.] Of the 
Christian ehureh, founded by St. Paul at 
Athena, according to eoclesiastioal tradition, 
Dionysius the Areopagite was the first bishop. 


day of national humiliation, and the only 
one oommanded in the Mosaic law. [Favts.] 
The mode of its obserranoe is described in 
Ler. xtL, and the conduct of the people is 
emphatically enjoined in LeT. zxiii. 36-S2. 
— II. It was kept on the tenth day of Tisri, 
that is, fhnn the evening of the ninth to the 
evening of the tenth of that month, five days 
before the Feast of Tabernacles. [Festivals.] 
— ^IIL The observances of the day, as de- 
scribed in the law, were as foUow. It was 
kept by the people as a high solemn sabbath. 
On this occasion only the high priest was 
permitted to enter into the Holy of Holies. 
Having bathed his person and dressed him- 
self entirely in the holy white linen gar- 
ments, he brought forward a young bullock 
for a sin-offering, purchased at his own cost, 
on account of himself and his family, and 
two young goats for a sin-offering with a 
nun for a bumt-ofliering, which were paid 
for out of the public treasury, on account of 
the people. He then presented the two goats 
befbre the Lord at the door of the tabernacle 
and east lots upon them. On one lot " for 
JisAovoA" was inscribed, and on the other 
" for AMogd," He next sacrificed the young 
bullock as a sin-offering for himself and his 
family. Taking with him some of the blood 
of the bullock, he filled a censer with burn- 
ing ooals train, the brasen altar, took a hand- 
ful of incense, and entered into the most holy 
place. He then threw the incense upon the 
cools and enveloped the meroy-eeat in a cloud 

of smoke. Then, dipping his finger into the 
blood, he sprinkled it seven times before the 
mercy-eeat eastward. The goat upon which 
the lot ** for Jehovah** had faUen was then 
slain and the high priest sprinkled its blood 
before the mercy-seat in the same manner as 
he had done that of the buUock. Going out 
from the Holy of Holies he purified the holy 
place, sprinkling some of the blood of both 
the victims on the altar of Incense. At this 
time no one besides the high priest was suf- 
fered to be present in the holy place. The 
purification of the Holy of Holies, and of the 
holy place, being thus completed, the high 
priest laid his hands upon the head of the 
goat on which the lot ** for AiuueV* had 
fallen, and confessed over it all the sins of 
the people. The goat was then led, by a 
man chosen fbr the purpose, into the wilder- 
ness, into '* a land not inhabited," and was 
there let loose. The high priest after this 
returned into the holy place, bathed himself 
again, put on his usual garments of oiBee, 
and offered the two rams as bumt-offnings, 
one for himself and one for the people. He 
also burnt upon the altar the fat of the two 
sin-ofliBrings, while their flesh was carried 
away and burned outside the camp. They 
who took away the flesh and the man who 
had led away the goat had to bathe their 
persons and wash their clothes as soon as 
their service was performed. The accessory 
burnt-offerings mentioned Num. xxix. 7-11, 
were a young bullock, a ram, seven lambs, 
and a young goat — lY. There has been 
much discussion regarding the meaning of 
the word AcaseL The opinions which seem' 
most worthy of notice are the following : — 
1. It has been regarded as a designation of 
the goat itself. This view has been most 
favoured by the old interpreters, who in 
genAral supposed it to mean ^ goat imt ofcoy, 
or let loose. But in this case it does not 
seem possible to make sense out of Lev. xvi. 
10 and 26. 2. Some have taken Azaxel for 
the name of the place to which the goat was 
sent. 8. a) Oesenius supposes it to be some 
false deity who was to be appeased by such a 
sacrifice as that of the goat h) But others 
have regarded him as an evil spirit, or the 
devil himself. 4. An explanation of the 
word which seems less objectionable, if it 
is not wholly satisfactory, would render the 
designation of the lot " for eomplete sending 
away." — Y. In considering the meaning of 
the particular rites of the day, three points 
appear to be of a very distinctive character. 

1. The white garments of the high priest 

2. His entrance into the Holy of Holies. 

3. The scapegoat The writer of the Epistle 
to the Hebrews (ix. 7-25} teaches us to apply 

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the flnt two partioolars. The high priest 
himself, with his person cleansed and dressed 
in white garments, was the best outward 
type which a liring roan conld present in his 
own person of that pure and holy One who 
was to purify His people and to cleanse them 
fh>m tiieir sins. But respecting the meaning 
of the sciipegoat, we hare no such light to 
guide us, and the subject is one of great 
doubt and difficulty. It has been generally 
considered that it was dismissed to signify 
the carrying away of the sins of the people, 
as it were, out of the sight of Jehorah. If 
we keep in riew that the two goats are 
spoken of as parts of one and the same sln- 
oflfering, we shaU not hare much difficulty in 
seeing that they form together bat one sym- 
bolical expression: the slain goat setting 
forth the act of sacrifice, in giving up its own 
life fbr others ** to Jehovah ;** and the goat 
which carried off its load of sin **for com- 
plete remoral," as signifying Che deanaing 
influence of fiiith in that sacrifice. 
AT'BOTH, a city of Gad (Num. zxxlL 

ATTXLI'A, a coast-town of Pamphylia, 
mentioned Acts xir. 35. It was built by 
Attains Philadelphua, king ot Pergamns, and 
named after the monarch. All its remains 
are characteristic of the date of its founda- 
tion. Leake fixes Attalia at Adalia, on the 
9. coast of Asia Minor, N. of the Duden Su 
the ancient Catarrhactes. 

AT'TALUS, the name of three kings of 
Pergamus who reigned respectiTcly b.c. 241- 
197, 159-138 (Philadelphns), ISS-ISS (Philo- 
metor). It is uncertain whether the letters 
sent Arom Bome in fiirour of the Jews (1 Mooc. 
XT. 22) were addressed to Attains II. or At- 
talus III., as their date fiais in b.c. 139-8, 
about the time when the latter succeeded his 

AUOUS'TUS CAES'AB, the first Roman 
emperor. He was bom a.v.c. 691, b.o. 63. 
His fkther was Cains OctaTins ; his mother 
Atia, daughter of Julia the sister of C. Julius 
Caesar. He was principally educated by his 
great-uncle Julius Caesar, and was made his 
heir. After his murder, the young OctaTins, 
then Caius Julius Caesar OctaTianus, was 
taken into the TriumTirate with Antony and 
Lepidus, and, after the remoral of the latter, 
divided the empire with Antony. The 
struggle fbr the supreme power was ter- 
minated in ikTour of Octavianus by the battle 
of Aotium, B.C. 31. On this victory, he was 
saluted Imperator by the senate, who con- 
ferred on him the title Augustus (b.o. 27). 
The first link binding him to N. T. history is 
his treatment of Herod after the battle of 
Actium. That prince, who had espoused 

Antony*s side, found himself pardoned, taken 
into fkvour and confirmed, nay even increased 
in his power. After Herod's death in a.i>. 4, 
Augustas divided his dominions almost 
exactly according to his dying directiras, 
among his sons. Augustus died at Nola in 
Campania, Aug. 19, ▲.u.c. 767, ▲.:>. 14, in 
his 76th year ; but long before his desth ha 
had associated Tiberius with him is the 

AUGUSTUS* BAND (Acts xxvli. I). 

A'VA, a place in the empire of Aisyria, 
apparently the same as Ivah (2 K. xvll. 24). 

Ay A RAN, the surname of Eleazar, krother 
of Judas Maccabeus (1 Mace iL 5). 

A'VEN. 1. The " plain of Aven '* k men- 
Uoned by Amos (L 5) in his denimciation of 
Syria and the country to the N. of Pakstine. 
It has not been identified with certainty. — H. 
In Hoe. X. 8 the word is clearly an abbre- 
viation of Bethaven, that is Bethel (oomp. 
iv. 15, ftc.).~d. The sacred city of HeUopoUs 
or On, in Egypt (Ex. xxx. 17). 

A'VIM, A'VIMS, or A'VITES. 1. A 
people among the early inhabitants of Pales- 
tine, whom we meet with in the S.W. comer 
of the sea^)oast, whither they may have 
made their way northwards tnm. the Desert. 
The only notice of them which has come 
down to us is contained in a remarkable 
Aragm«nt of primeval history preserved in 
Deut iL 23. It is a curious fi&ct that both 
the LXX. and Jerome identified the Awim 
with the Hivites.— A. The people of Awa, 
among the colonists who were sent by the 
king of Assyria to re-inhabit the depopulated 
cities of Israel (2 E. xviL 31). 

AWL, a tool of which we do not know the 
ancient form. The only notice of it is in 
connexion with the custom of boring the ear 
of the slave (Ex. xxL 6 ; Deut xv. 17). 

AXE. 'Seven Hebrew words are rendered 
**ax" in the A. y. : the one of most com- 
mon occurrence being Oanen, Arom a root 
signifying ** to cut or sever," as «« hatchet,'* 
fhun " hack,'* corresponds to the Lat. teeuris. 
It consisted of a head of iron (cf. Is. x. 34), 
fkstened, with thongs or otherwise, upon a 
handle of wood, and so liable to slip off 
(Dent. xix. 5 ; 2 K. vi. 5). It was used fbr 
telling trees (Dent. xx. 19), and also fbr 


EgTpdjraAjn (Brfttah tfiuwm.) 

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sbsping the "vrooA when felled, perhape like 
the modern adze (1 K. tL 7).— The " battte- 
ax " {mapp^tt, Jer. U. 30) was probably, as 
its root indicates, a heary maoe or maul, like 
that which gaye his somame to Charles 

AZABI'AH, a oommon name in Hebrew 
and especially in the fiunilies of the priests 
of the line of Elbasab, whose name has 
precisely the same meaning as Asabiah. It 
ii nearly identical, and is often confounded 
with £ira as weU as with Zerahiah and 
Beraiah. The principal persons who bore 
Uds name were : — ^1. Son of Ahimaaz (1 Chr. 
tL 9). He appears from 1 K. ir. S, to hare 
snooeeded Zadok». his grand&ther, in the 
high priesthood, in the reign of Solomon, 
Ahimaas having died before Zaddk. [Am- 
IIAA2.] To him, it can scarcely be doabted, 
instead of to his grandson, Asariah the son 
of Johanan, belongs the notice in 1 Chr. ft 
10. Josephns merely mentions Aaarias as 
the son and successor of Ahimaai. — A. 
Azariah, the son of Oded (S Chr. xt. 1), 
called simply Oded in ver. 8, was a remark- 
able propl^ in the days of king Asa, and a 
ecmtempoiary of Aaariah the son of Johanan 
the high priest, and of Hanani &e seer. — 8. 
The high priest in the reign of Usziah, king 
of Jndah, whose name, perhaps lh»n this cir- 
eomstanoe, is often oormpted into Asariah 
(3 K. xiT. 31, XV. 1, 6, 7, 8, &c.). The 
most memorable erent of his life is that 
which is recorded in 3 Chr. xxvi. 17-20. 
When king Ussiah, elated by his great pros- 
perity and power, " transgressed against the 
Lord his Ood, and went into the Temple of 
the Lord to bom incense upon the altar of 
isoense," Azariah the priest, accompanied by 
eighty of his brethren, went in boldly after 
him, and withstood him. He was contem- 
porary with Isaiah tiie prophet, and with 
Amos and Joel, and doubtless witnessed the 
great earthquake in Uzziah's reign (Am. i. 1 } 
Zeeh. xir. 6}. 

AZ'EKAH, a town of Judah, with depend- 
ent Tillages, lying in the Shefelah or rich 
agricultural plain. It is most clearly defined 
as being near Shoehoh (1 Sam. xrii. 1) ; but 
its podtion has not yet been recognized. 

AZMA'VETH, a place to all appearance in 
Bei^amin, being named with Anathoth, Kir- 
jath-Jearim and other towns belonging to that 
tribe (Ezr. iL 34). The name elsewhere 
occurs as Bzth-Azxatxth. 

AZlCON, A plaoe named as being on the S. 
boundary of the Holy Land, apparently near 
the torrent of Egypt ( Wadi •l-ArUh) (Num. 
xxxiv. 4, S ; Josh. xt. 4). It has not yet 
been identified. 
AZ'NOTH-TA'BOB, the ears (i 0. possibly 

the summits) o/t Tabor, one of the landmmrta 
of the boundary of Naphvali (Josh. xix. 84). 
The town, if town it b^ has hitherto eeoapai 

AZ'ZAH. The more accurate rendering of 
the name of the well-known Philistine dty, 
Gaza (Deut. U. 31 ; 1 K. It. 34 ; Jer. xxt. 

BA'AL, the supreme male diTinity of the 
Phoenician and Canaanitish nations, as 
AsnTOBKTB was their supreme female diTinity. 
Both names haTO the peculiarity of being 
used in the plural, and it seems certain that 
these plurals designate not statues of the 
dlTinities, but different modifications of the 
diTinities themselves. The word Baal is in 
Hebrew a oommon noun of firequent occur- 
rence, haTing the meaning Xortf, not so 
much, however, in the sense of £uler as of 
Matter, (honer, Foateator* There can be no 
doubt of the Tery high antiquity of the wor- 
ship of Baal. We find it established amongst 
the Hoabites and their allies the Midianites 
in the time of Moees (Num. xxiL 41), and 
through these nations the Israelites were 
seduced to the worship of this god under the 
particular form of Baal-Peor (Num. xxv. 
3-18; Deut iv. S). In the times of the 
kings the worship of Baal spread greatly, and 
together with that of Asherah became the 
religion of the court and people of the ten 
tribes (1 K. xvl. 81-88, xviiL 19, 33). Ai.d 
though this idolatry was occasionAlly put 
down (3 K. iiL 3, x. 38) it appears never to 
have been permanently abolished among them 
(3 E. xvii. 16). In the kingdom of Judsh 
also Baal-worship extensively prevailed. The 
worship of Baal amongst the Jews seems to 
have been appointed with much pomp and 
oeremoniaL Temples were erected to him 
(1 E. xvi. 83 ; 3 K. xi. 18) ; his images were 
set up (3 K. X. 36) ; his altars were very 
numerous (Jer. xi. 18), were erected particu- 
larly on lofty ftminenees (1 K. xviii. SO), and 
on the rooft of houses (Jer. xxxii. 39) ; there 
were priests in great numbers (1 K. xviii. 
19), and of various classes (3 K. x. 19) ; the 
worshippers appear to have been arrayed in 
appropriate robes (3 K. x. 32) ; the worship 
was performed by burning inuoense (Jer. vii. 
9) and offering burnt-sacrifices, which occa- 
sionally consisted of human victims (Jer. xix. 
5). The officiating jaiests danced with fhintic 
shouts around the altar, and out themselves 
with knives to excite the attention and com- 
passion of the god (1 E. xviiL 36-28). 
Throughout all the Phoenician coloides we 
continually find traoes of the worship of this 
god; nor need we hesitate to wt^ard the 

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Babylonian Bol (Is. xItL 1) or Belos, as 
ewenttally identical niih Baal, though per- 
haps under some modified form. Among the 
compounds of Baal which appear in the U. T. 
are : — ^1. Bx'AL-BK'arrH (Judg. Tiii. 88, iz. 
4). The name signifles the Covetumt-Baaif 
the god who comes into ooTenant with the 
worshippers. — S. Ba'ai.-ek'bub, worshipped 
at Ekron (3 K. i. S, 8, 16). The meaning of 
the name iii Baal or Lord of thefty. The 
name occurs in the N. T. in the well-known 
form BRKLZKinTB. — 8. Ba'al-pb'or. We haTe 
already referred to the worship of this god. 
The narratiTe (Num. xxt.) seems clearly to 
show that this form of Baal-worship was 
connected with lioeutlous rites. Baal-Peor 
was identified by the Rabbins and early 
bthers with Priapus. 

BA'AL, gtoffraphieal. This word oocurs 
as the prefix or suffix to the names of seTeral 
places in Palestine. It nerer seems to hare 
become a naturalised Hebrew word; and 
such places called by this name or its com- 
pounds as can be identified, were either near 
Phoenicia, or in proximity to some other 
acknowledged seat of heathen worship. Some 
of the places in the names of which Baal 
forms a part are as follows :~1. Ba'al, a 
t«iwn of Simeon, named only in 1 Chr. iv. 88, 
which (rom the parallel list in Josh. xix. 
seems to hare been identical with Baalath- 
Bkkr. — 9. Ba'alah. (a.) Another name for 
Kibjath-Jeaux, or Kibjath^aal, the well- 
known town, now Kwiet el Bnah, It is 
mentioned in Josh. xt. 9, 10 ; 1 Chr. xiil. 6. 
In Josh. XT. 11, it is caUed Mount Baalah, 
and in xr. 60, and xriiL 14, Kiijath-BaaU 
It would seem as if Baalah were the earlier 
or Canaanite ^>pellation of the place. In 
3 Sam. ri. 3, the name ooours slightly altered 
as ** Baide of Judah." (6.) A town in the 
south of Judah (Josh. xr. 39), which tn xix. 
8 is called Balah, and in the parallel list (1 
Chr. It. 39) Bilhah. — 8. Ba'ai<-oao, used to 
denote the most northern (Josh. xL 17, xii. 
7), or perhaps north-western (xiiL 5), point 
to which Joshua's victories extended. It 
was in all probability a Phoenician or Ca- 
naanite sanctuary of Baal under the aspect 
of Oad, or Fortune.— 4. Ba'al-ha'mok, a 
place at which S<domon had a rineyard, 
evidently of great extent (Cant. viii. 11).— 
5. Ba'al-ha'sob, a place *'by Ephraim," 
where Absalom appears to have had a sheep- 
Curm, and where Amnon was murdered (8 
Sam. xiiL 2S).— 6. Mouxrr Ba'al-hxb'mok 
(Judg. iii. 8), and simply Baal-hermon (1 
Chr. V. 83). This li usually considered as a 
dlstlnot place trom. Mount Hermon ; but we 
know that this mountain had at least three 
names (Dout. ilL 9), and BaaUhennna may 

have been a fourth in use amoi^ the Phoe- 
nician worshippers of Baal. — 7. Ba'al-mi^oiv, 
one of the towns which were built \ty tLs 
Reubenites (Num. xxxii. 88), and to wbidi 
they *< gave other names." It also ooours in 
1 Chr. V. 8, and on each ocearion with Kebo. 
In the time of Esekiel it was Moabite, one of 
the cities which were the ** glory of the 
country " (Es. xxv. 9). — 8. BA'AL-rsB'AJCOC, 
the scene of a victory of David over the 
Philistines, and of a great destruction of 
their images (3 Sam. v. 30 ; 1 Chr. xiv. 11). 
The place and the drenmstance appear to be 
again alluded to in Is. xxviii. 81, where it is 
called JfbwilP.— 9. Ba'al-shal'isha, a place 
named only in 8 K. iv. 43 ; apparently not 
fax from Oilgal (comp. ver. 88). — 10. Ba'al- 
ta'mab, a place named only in Judg. xx. 88, 
as near Oibeah of Benjamin. The palm-tree 
{timdr) of Deborah (iv. 5) was situated some- 
where isL the locality, and is possibly alluded 
to. — ^11. Ba'ai.-zb'phon, a place in Egypt 
near where the Israelites crossed the Bed 
Sea (Ex. xiv. 3, 9 ; Num. xxxiiL 7). From 
the position of Goshen and the indications 
afforded by the narrative of the route of the 
Israelites, we place Baal-zephon on the 
western shore of the Gulf of Sues, a little 
below its head, which at that time was about 
80 or 40 miles northward of the present 

BA'ALIS, king of the Ammonites at the 
time of the destruction of Jerusalem by Ne- 
buohadneEsar (Jer. xl. 14). 

BA'ANAH. Son of Rimmon, a Be^Jamite 
who with his brother Rechab murdered Ish- 
bosheth. For this they were killed by David, 
and their mutilated bodies hung up over the 
pool at Hebron (3 Sam. iv. 3, 6, 6, 9). 

BA'ASHA, B.C. 958-981, third sovereign 
of atyb separate kingdom of Israel, and the 
founder o^ its second dynasty. He was son 
of Ah^ah of the tribe of IsMohar, and eon- 
spired against King Nadab, son of Jeroboam, 
when he was besieging the Philistine town 
of Gibbethon (1 K. xv. 37), and killed him 
with his Whole fomily. He appears to have 
been of humble origin (1 K. xvi. 3). It wa* 
probably in the 13th year of his reign that 
he. made war on Asa, and began to fortify 
Ramah. He was defeated by the unexpected 
allianoe of Asa with Benhadad I. of Damas- 
cus. Baasha died in the 34th year of his 
reign, and was honourably buried in the 
beautifiil city of Tirsah (Cant. vi. 4), which he 
bad made his capital (1 K. xvi. 6 ; % Chr. 
xvi. 1-6). 

BA'BEL, BABTLON, is properly the ca- 
pital city of the country, which is called in 
Genesis Shinar, and in the later books 
Chaldaoa, or the land of the Cbaldaeans. The 

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architeetoral remains diflcorered in southern 
Babylonia, taken in oo^Jonction with the 
monumental records, seem to indicate that it 
was not at first the capital, nor, indeed, a 
town of rery great importance. The first 
rise of the Chaldaean power was in the region 
dose upon the Persian Gulf; thence the 
natioii spread northwards np the coarse of 
the riTers, and the seat of goTemment mored 
in the same direction, heing finally ilxed at 
Babylon, perhaps not earlier than b.c. 1700. 
— I. Topography of Babylon — AneUtU tU- 
mripHons of the eity. — ^The descriptions of 
Babylon which have come down to us in 
clasaical writers are derired ehiefiy from two 
Boorcee, the works of Herodotus 
and of Ctesias. According to 
the former, the city, which was 
built on both sides of the £u- 
phratee, formed a vast square, 
enclosed within a doable line of 
high walls, the extent of the 
oater circuit being 480 stades, 
or about 56 miles. The entire 
area included would thus have 
been about 206 square miles. 
The houses, which were fre- 
quently three or four stories 
high were laid out in straight 
streets crossing each other at 
right angles. In each divlBioa 
of the town there was a fortress 
or stronghold, consisting in the 
one case of the royal palace, in 
the other of the great temple 
of Belus. The two portions of 
the city were united by a bridge, 
composed of a series of stone 
piers with moveable platforms 
of wood stretching from one 
pier to another. According to 
Ctesias the circuit of the city 
was not 480 bat 860 stades^ 
which is a little under 42 miles. 
It lay, he says, on both sidM of 
the Euphrates, and the two parts 
were connected together by a 
stone bridge five stades (above 
1000 yards) long, and 80 feet 
broad, of the kind described by 
Herodotas. At either extremity 
of the bridge was a royal palace, 
that in the eastern city being 
the more magnificent of the 
two. The two palaces were 
Joined, not only by the bridge, 
but by a tunnel under the river t 
Ctesias' account of the temple 
of Belus has not come down to 
us. In examining the truth of 
these descriptions, we shall most 

conveniently commence fttnn the oater oireoit 
of the town. All the ancient writers appear 
to agree in the fSact of a district of vast 
sise, more or less inhabited, having been 
enclosed within lofty walls, and included 
under the name of Babylon. With respect 
to the exact extent of the circuit they diifer. 
The estimate of Herodotus and of Pliny is 
480 stades, of Strabo 385, of Q. Curtius 368, 
of Clitarchus 865, and of Ctesias 360 stades. 
It is evident that here we have merely the 
moderate variations to be expected in inde- 
pendent measurements, except in the first 
of the numbers. Perhaps the true explan- 
ation is that Herodotus spoke of the outer 


FoctfMM of AnotaDt Bnhttoti dlirtinfakhablt In tU 

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wall, which could be traced in his time. 
TaUnr ttie lowest estimate of the extent of 
the circuit, we shall hare for the space 
within the rampart an area of above 100 
«quare miles; nearly fire times the size of 
liondonl It is evident that this vast space 
cannot have been entirely covered with houses. 
With regard to the height and breadth of the 
walls there is nearly as much difference of 
statement as with regard to their extent. 
The gates and walls are alike mentioned in 
Scripture; the height of the one and the 
breadth of the other being specially noticed 
(Jer. U. 68; oomp. 1. 15, and IL 53).~n. 
Present State of the .fiiMnt. — About five miles 
above SUah^ on the opposite or left bank of 
the Euphrates, occurs a series of artificial 
mounds (tf enormous size. They consist chiefly 
of three great masses of building— the high 
pile of unbaked brickwork called by Bich 
* M^Jellibe,' but which is known to the 
Arabs as * BahU ;' the building denominated 
the * JCiur' or palace; and a lofty mound, 
upon which stands the modem tomb of 
Amr6m-4bn'*Alb, On the west, or right 
bank, the remains are very slight and scanty. 
Scattered over the country on both sides of 
the Euphrates, are a number of remarkable 
mounds, usually standing single, which are 
plainly of the same date with the great mass 
of ruins upon the river bank. Of theae, by 
far the most striking is the vast ruin called 
the Bin-Nimrudy which many regard as the 
tower of Babel, situated about six miles to 
the 8.W. of Hillah. [Babkl, towxr or.] — 
in. limU^fioaHon of tites. — The great mound 
of Babil is probably the ancient temple of 
Belus. The mound of the Xmt marks the 
site of the great Palace of Nebuchadnezzar. 
The mound of Amr&m is thought by M. 
Oppert to represent the '* hanging gardens " 
of Nebuchadnezzar; but most probably it 
represents the andent palace, coeval with 
Babylon itself, of which Nebuchadnezzar 
speaks in his inscriptions as a4ioining his 
own more magnificent residence. The most 
remarkable fact connected with the mag- 
nificence of Babylon, is the poorness of the 
material with which such wonderAil results 
were produced. With bricks made ftom the 
soil of the oountry, in many parts an ex- 
cellent day, and at first ozUy "slime for 
mortar " (Gen. xi. 8), were constructed edi- 
fices of so vast a size that they still remain 
among the most enormous ruin^ ^ the world. 
— IV. Hittory of Babylon, —Scripture repre- 
sents the '* beginning of the kingdom *' as 
belonging to the time of Nimrod, the grand- 
son of Ham (Oen. x. 6-1 0). The most ancient 
insariptikms appear to show that the pri- 
mitive tnbabltanti of the oountry were really 

Coshite, t. e. identical in race with the early 
inhabitants of Southern Arabia and of Ethi- 
opia. The early annals of Babylon are filled 
by Berosus, the native historian, with three 
dynasties ; one of 49 Chaldaean kings, who 
reigned 458 years ; another of 9 Arab 
kings, who reigned 245 years; and a third 
of 49 Assyrian monarchs, who held dominion 
for 526 years. The line of Babylonian kings 
becomes exactly known to us from the year 
B.C. 747. The " Canon of Ptolemy " gives 
us the succession of Babylonian monarchs, 
with the exact length of the rdgn of each, 
from the year b.o. 747, when Nabonassar 
mounted the throne, to b.c. 831, when the 
last Persian king was dethroned by Alex- 
ander. Of the earlier kings of the Canon, 
the only one worthy of notice is Mardocem- 
palus (b.c. 721), the Mkbodach-Baladax of 
Scripture, but it is not till we come to Nabo- 
polassar, the father of Nebuchadnezzar, that 
a new era in the history of Babylon eom- 
mences. On the fall of Nineveh (b.c. 625) 
Babylon became not only an independent 
kingdom, but an empire. The dty was taken 
by a surprise (b.c. 639), as Jeremiah had 
prophesied (li. 81), by an army of Medea 
and Persians under Cyrus, as intimated 170 
years earlier by Isaiah (xxi. 1-9), and, as 
Jeremiah had also foreshown (U. 39), daring 
a festival. According to the book of Daniel, 
it would seem as if Babylon was taken, not 
by Cyrus, king of Persia, but by a Median 
king, named Darius (v. 81). There is, bow- 
ever, suffldent indication that ** Darius the 
Mede*' was not the real conqueror, but a 
monarch with a certain ddegated authority 
(see Dan. v. 81, and ix. 1). With the con- 
quest by Cyrus commeni^d the decay and 
ruin of Babylon, though it continued a royal 
residence through the entire period of the 
Persian empire. The defences and pubUo 
buildings suffered grievously from neglect 
during the long period of peace which fol- 
lowed the reign of Xerxes. After the death 
of Alexander the Great, the removal of the 
seat of empire to Antioch under the 8dea- 
ddae gave the finishing blow to the pros- 
perity of the place. Since then Babylon has 
been a quarry from which all the tribes in 
the vicinity have derived the bricki with 
which they have built their dties. The 
" great dty," " the beauty of the Chaldees* 
excellency,*' has thus emphatically ** become 
heaps'' (Jer. U. 87). 

BA'BEL, TOWER OF. The "tower of 
Babel " is only mentioned once in Scripture 
(<3en. xL 4-5), and then as incomplete. It 
was built of bricks, and the "slime" used 
for mortar was probably bitumen. Such ao> 
thorltias as w« possess, represent the build' 

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2ng M destroyed soon after its erection. 
When the Jews, howeycr, were carried cap* 
tive into Babylonia, they were struck with 
the Tast magnitude and peculiar character of 
MTtain of the Babylonian temples, in one or 
other of which they thought to recognise the 
▼ery tower itself. The predominant opinion 
was in ftiTOur of the great temple of Nebo at 
Borsippa, the modem Btn^Nimrud. But the 
Birt-Nimnidj though it cannot be the tower 
of Babel itsd^ may well be taken to show 
the probable shape and character of the edi- 
fice. This builoUng appears to hare been a 
sort of obUque pyramid built in seven reced- 
ing stages. ** Upon a platform of crude brick, 
raised a few feet abote the level of the allu- 
rial plain, was built of burnt brick the first 
or basement stage — an exact square, 272 feet 
each way, and 26 feet in perpendicular height 
Upon this stage was erected a second, 280 
feet each way, and likewise 26 feet high; 
which, howerer, was not placed exactly in 
the middle of the first, but considerably 
nearer to tbB south western end, which con- 
stituted the back of the building. The other 
stages were arranged similarly; the third 
being 188 feet, and again 26 feet high ; the 
fourth 146 feet square, and 15 feet high ; the 
fifth 104 feet square, and the same height as 
the fourth; the sixth 62 feet square, and 
again the same height ; and Uie seventh 20 
feet square and once more the same height. 
On the seventh stage there was probably 
placed the ark or tabernacle, which seems to 
have been again 15 feet high, and must have 
nearly, if not entirely, covered the top of the 
seventh story. The entire original height, 
allowing three feet for the platform, would 
thus have been 156 fleet, or, without the 
platform, I5S feet. The whole formed a sort 
of obUque pyramid, the gentler slope fodng 
the N.E., and the steeper inclining to the 
S.W. On the N.E. side was the grand en- 
trance, and here stood the vestibule, a sepa- 
rate bonding, the debris flrom which having 
joined those tram the temple itself; fill up 
the intermediate space, and very rema rk a b ly 
prolong the mound in this direction " (Raw- 
Unson's Herodottu^ vol. ii. pp. 582-8). 

BAB'TLON. The occurrence of this name 
in 1 Pet. V. 18 has given rise to a variety of 
eoqjeetures, which may be briefiy enume- 
rated. — 1. That Babylon tropically denotes 
Rome.— 2. Some take Babylon, with as little 
reason, to mean Jerusalem. — 3. Bar-Hebraeus 
understands by it the house in Jerusalem 
where the Apostles were assembled on the Day 
of Pentecost. — 4. Others place it on the Tigris, 
and identify it with Seleoda or Ctesiphon, 
but flDT this there is no evidence. The two 
theoriee which remain are worthy of more 

consideration. — 5. That by Babylon is in- 
tended the small fort of that name which 
formed the boundary between Upper and 
Lower Egypt, the modem Baboul. — 6. The 
most natural supposition of all is that by Ba- 
bylon is intended the old Babylon of Assyria, 
which was largely inhabited by Jews at the 
time in question. 

BABTLON, in the Apocalypse, is the 
symbolical name by which Rome is denoted 
(Rev. xiv. 8, xvii., xviii.). The power of 
Rome was regarded by the later Jews as that 
of Babylon by their forefathers (comp. Jer. 
li. 7 with Rev. xiv. 8), and hence, whatever 
the people of Israel be understood to sym- 
bolise, Babylon represents the antagonistic 

BABTIxyNISH GARMENT, literally « robe 
of Shinar' (Josh. vii. 21). An ample robe, 
probably made of the skin or fhr of an animal 
(comp. Gen. xxv. 25), and ornamented with 
embroidery, or perhaps a variegated garment 
with figures inwoven in the fiishion for which 
the Babylonians were celebntted. 

BA'CA, THE VALLEY OP, a valley in 
Palestine, through which the exiled Psalmist 
sees in vision the pilgrims passing in their 
march towards the sanctuary of Jehovah at 
Zion (Ps. Ixxxiv. 6). That it was a real loca- 
lity is most probable, from the use of the 
definite article before the name. The ren- 
dering of the Targum is Gehenna, i.e. the 
Ge-HinnMn or ravine below Mount Zion. 
This locality agrees well with the mention of 
Becaim (A. T. " mulberry '*) trees in 2 Sam. 

T. 28. 

BAC'OHIDES, a firiend of Antioehus 
Epiphanes and governor of Mesopotamia 
(1 Maec. vii. 8), who was commissioned by 
Demetrius Soter to investigate the charges 
which Aldmus preferred against Judas 

BADGER-SKINS. There is much obscurity 
as to the meaning of the word tacJuuhf ren- 
dered **badger" in our A. Y. (Bx. xxv. 5, 
XXXV. 7, Ac.) ; the ancient versions seem 
nearly all agroed that it denotes not an 
animal, but a colour, either black or sky- 
blue. The badger is not found in the Bible 
lands. The Arabic tfucAosA or hicAoM denotes 
a dolphin, but in all probability is not re- 
stricted in its application, but may refer to 
either a seal or a cetacean. The skin of 
the ffalieore fh>m its hardness would be well 
suited for making soles for shoes (Es. xvi. 1 0), 
and it is worthy of remark that the Arabs 
near Cape Mussendum employ the skins of 
these animals for a similar purpose. The 
Halican Ib&snMuwIJ is found in the Red Sea, 
and on the coral banks of the Abyssinian coast. 
Perhaps, however, taeJUuh may denote a 9m\^ 

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the skin of which animal would suit all the 
demands of the Scriptural alluaions. 

KMtrlte. Th« Ej9. 

BtUcon IWwmaMls with tnlufvl dntwlnc of th* hMuL 

BAHU'RIM, a Tillage, the slight notices re- 
maining of which connect it almost exolnslTelj 
withtheflightofDavid(2 8am.xTL6). It was 
apparently on, or dose to the rood leading up 
from the Jordan ralley to Jerusalem, and must 
hare been Tery near the south boundary of 
Benjamin. Dr. Barclay oonjeeturetf that it lay 
where some ruins still exist close to a 7Fa<^ 
Bmeahjff which runs in a straight course for 
3 miles from Oliret directly towards Jordan. 

BA'LAAM, the son of Beor, a man endowed 
with the gift of prophecy (Num. xxii. 5). 
He belonged to the Midisjiites, and perhaps 
as the prophet of his people possessed the 
same authority that Moses did among the 
Israelites. At any rate he is mentioned in 
conjunction with the five kings of Mtdian, 
apparently as a person of the same rank 
(Nam. xxxi. 8 ; cf. xxxL 16). He seems to 
hare lired at Pethor, which is said at Deut. 
xxiii. 4 to haTc been a dty oi Mesopotamia. 
He himself speaks of being *' brought from 
Aram out of the mountains of the East" 
(Num. xxiii. 7). Balaam Is one of those 
instances which meet us in Scripture of per- 
sons dwelling among heathens but possessing 
a certain knowledge of the one true God. 
When the Israelites were encamped in the 
plains of Moab, Balak, the king of Moab, 
sent for Balaam to curse them. Balaam was 
prohibited by Qod from going. The king of 

Moab, howerer, sent again to him. Tb€ 
prophet again refused, but was at length 
allowed to go. Balaam therefore proceeded 
on his Journey with the messengers of Balak. 
But God's anger was kindled at this mani- 
festation of determined self-will, and the 
angel of the Lord stood in the way for an 
adversary against him. " The dumb ass, 
speaking with man's roice, forbad the mad- 
ness of the prophet" (2 Pet. ii. 16). Balaam 
predicted a magnificent career for the people 
whom he was called to curse, but he never- 
theless suggested to the Moabites the expe- 
dient of seducing them to commit fornication* 
The effect of this is recorded in ch. xxt. 
A battle was afterwards fought against 
the Midianites, in which Balaam sided 
with them and was slain by the sword 
of the people whom he had endeavoured 
to curse (Num. xxxL 8). 

BA'LAK, son of Zippor, king of the 
Moabites, at the time when the children 
of Israel were bringing their Joumey- 
ings in the wilderness to a close. Balak 
entered into a league with Midian and 
hired Balaam to curse the Israelites ; 
but his designs were frustrated in the 
manner recorded in Num. xxii.-xxiv. 

BALDNESS. There are two kinds 
of baldness, via. artificial and natural. 
The latter seems to have been uncommon, since 
it exposed people to public derision, and is 
perpetually alluded to as a mark of squalor 
and misery (2 K. ii. 28 ; Is. iU. 24, xt. 2 ; 
Jer. xlviL 5 ; Ei. viL 18, ftc.) In Lev. xiiL 
29 fto., very careful directions are given to 
distinguish " the plague npon the head and 
beard," fh>m mere natural baldness which ia 
pronounced to be dean, ver. 40. Artificial 
baldness marked the conclusion of a Nfoarite^i 
vow (Acts xviii 18 ; Num. vi. 9), and was 
a sign of mourning. 

BALM (Heb. Udri, tMXri) occurs in Gen. 
xxxvii. 25, xliU. 11 ; Jer. viU. 22, xlvi. 11, 
11. 8 ; and Ei. xxvii. 17. It is impossible 
to identify it with any certainty. It may 
represent the gum of the Fistaeia letUiseus, 
or that of the Baltamodendron opobaUamtim, 
[Spicks; Mabtick.] Hasselquist has given 
a description of the true balsam-tree of Meeoa. 
He says that the exudation from the plant 
** is of a yellow colour, and peUudd. It has 
a most fragrant smell, which is resinons, 
balsamick, and very agreeable. It is very 
tenacious or glutinous, sticking to the lingers^ 
and may be drawn into long threads." 

BA'MAH (Ut. "high-place.") This word 
appears in its Hebrew form only in one pas- 
sage (Ex. XX. 29), very obscure, and tail of 
the play upon words so dear to the Hebrew 
poets, so difficult for us to appreciate 2 

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•* What ifl the high-p]M>e whermuto ye Am! 
and the name of it is called Buoah unto this 

BAlCOTH-BA'AL, a aanetnary of Baal in 
the ooimtry of Moab (Josh. ziii. 1%), which 
is probably mentioned in Mom. xxi. 19, under 
the ahorter form of Bamoth, or Bamoth-in- 
the-raTine (SO), and again in Is. xr. 2. 

BANQUETS, among the Hebrews, were not 
only a means of social enjoyment, but were a 
|iart of the obeenranoe of religions fSestlTity. 
At the three solemn festivals the family also 
had its domestic feast (Dent. xtL 11). Pro- 
bably both males and females went up (1 Sam. 
L 9) together, to hold the festiyal. Saorifloes, 
both ordinary and extraordinary (Ex. xxxir. 
1ft ; Jndg. xTi. 28), included a banquet, and 
EU*s eons made this latter the prominent 
part. Birtbday-banquets are only mentioned 
in the cases of Pharaoh and Herod (Gen. xl. 
20 ; Matt xir. e). The usual time of the 
banquet was the evening, and to begin early 
was a mark of ex^eess (Is. t. 11 ; Ecd. x. 16). 
The most essential materials of the banquet- 
ing-room, next to the viands and wine, which 
last was often drugged with spices (Prov. ix. 
2; Cant. viiL 2), were perfumed unguents, 
garlands or loose flowers, white or brilliant 
robes; after these, exhibitions of music, 
singers, and dancers, riddles. Jesting and 
merriment (Is. xxviiL 1 ; Wisd. IL 7 ; 2 Sam, 
xix. 8ft ; Is. XXV. 6, v. 12 ; Judg. xiv. 12 ; 
Keh. viiL 10 ; Ecd. x. 19 ; Matt. xxiL 11 ; 
Am. vL 5, 6 ; Luke xv. 25). The posture at 
table in early times was sitting (1 Sam. xvl. 
11, XX. ft, 18), and the guests were ranged 
in order of dignity (Oen. xM. M ; I Sam. 
ix. 22) : the words which imply the xecum- 
bent posture belong to the M. T. The sepa- 
ration of the women's banquet was not a 
Jewiih custom (Esth. i. 9). 

BAPTISM. I. It is wen known that ablu- 
tion or bathing was common In most ancient 
nations as a preparation for prayers and 
saeriflce or as expiatory of sin. There is a 
natural connexion in the mind between the 
thought of physical and that of spiritual pol- 
lution. In warm countries this connexion is 
probably even closer than in colder climates ; 
and hence the frequency of ablution in the 
religious rites throughout the east. — ^n. The 
history of Israel and the Law of Moses 
abound with such lustrations (Oen. xxxv. 
2 ; Ex. xix. 10 ; Lev. xv. xviL 1ft, xxiL 4, 
6, xvi. 26, 28 ; Num. xix. 10). It was 
natural, that of all people, the priests most 
especially should be required to purify them- 
selves in this manner. The consecration of 
the high-priest deserves especial notice. It 
was first by baptism, then by unction, and 
lastly by saerillee (Ex. xzix. 4, xl. 12 ; Lev. 

viii.). From the Gospel history we lean 
that at that time ceremonial washings had 
been greatly multiplied by traditions of tiie 
doctors and elders (see Mark vil. S, 4). The 
most important and probably one of the 
earliest of these traditional customs was the 
baptising of proselytes.— m. Tkt bapti$m eif 
Jokn^ — ^These usages of the Jews will account 
for the readiness with which all men flocked 
to the baptism of John the Baptist. There 
has been some uncertainty as to the nature 
of John's baptism and its spiritual signi- 
ficance. It appears to have been a kind of 
transition from the Jewish baptism to the 
Christian. The distinction between John's 
baptism and Christian baptism appears in the 
case of Apollos (Acts xviiL 26, 27), and of 
the disciples at Ephesos, mentioned Acts xix. 
1-6. We cannot but draw from this history 
the inference that in Christian baptism there 
was a deeper spiritual significance. — IV. 7%s 
hapti$m of Jetusw— Plainly the most im- 
portant action of John as a baptist was his 
baptism of Jesus, which was His formal set- 
ting apart for His ministry, and was a most 
important portion of His consecration to be 
the High Priest of Ood. He was just enter- 
ing on the age of thirty (Luke ilL 28), the 
age at which the Levites began their ministry 
and the rabbis their teaching. It has already 
been mentioned that the consecration of 
Aaron to the high-priesthood was by b<i^»ti$m, 
unction^ and »a€rific4 (see Lev. viiL). All 
these were undergone by Jesus. Baptism 
was the beginning of consecration ; unction 
was the immediate consequent upon the 
baptism ; and sacrifice was the completion of 
the initiation, so that He was thenceforth per- 
fected, or folly consecrated as a Priest for 
evermore (Heb. viL 28).^^. Baptism of th« 
Ditciplei of Christ. — Whether our Lord ever 
baptised has been doubted. The only pas- 
sage which may distinctly bear on the ques- 
tion is John iv. 1, 2, where U is said *' that 
Jesus made and baptised more disciples than 
John, though Jesus Himself baptized not, 
but His disciples." We necessarily infer 
ftrom it, that, as soon as our Lord began His 
ministry, and gathered to Hhn a company 
of disdples. He, like John the Baptist, ad- 
mitted into that company by the administra- 
tion of baptism. After the resurrection, 
baptism became the initiatory rite cS the 
Christian Church, as circumcision was the 
initiatory rite of Judaism. — YI. The Tifpes oj 
Baptism. — Baptism is compared to the Flood 
by which Noah was saved (1 Pet iiL 21) ; 
to the passage of the Bed Sea and the shadow- 
ing of the miraculous cloud (1 Cor. x. 1, 2) ; 
to circumcision (Col. ii. 11); and to death 
(Matt. XX. 22 ; Mark x. 89; Luke zii 60). 

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— yn. Jfamet of J«pdm.— 1. " Baptlam »' 
properly and literally means immartion. — S. 
*' The Water*' ia a name of baptiam which 
oooura in Acts x. 47. — 8. " Washing of 
Water " (lit. " the bath of the water "), Ib 
another Scriptoral term, by which baptism 
is .signified (Eph. t. 86). There appears 
dearly in these words a reference to the 
bridal bath ; bnt the allusion to baptism is 
clearer stUL — i, ** The washing of regenera- 
tion '' (Ut. " the bath of regeneration **) is a 
phrase naturally connected with the fore- 
going. It occnrs Tit. iiL 5. All ancient and 
mo6t.modem commentators have interpreted 
it of baptism.— 5. " Dlomination " (Heb. Yi. 
4). — ^Vm. BecipienU of Bapti9m.—T\M 
command to baptise was co-eztensiTe with 
the command to preach the Gospel. All na- 
tions were to be CTsngeliaed ; and they were 
to be made disciples, admitted into the fel- 
lowship of Chrisf s religion, by baptism 
(Matt. xxTiiL 19). The great qaestion has 
been, whether the invitation extended, not 
to adults only, but to infants also. The uni- 
versality of the invitation, Christ's declara- 
tion concerning the blessedness of infiuits 
and their fitness for his kingdom (Mar. x. 14), 
the admission of infants to drcumdsion and 
to the baptism of Jewish proselytes, the men- 
tion of whole households, and the subsequent 
praetioe of the Church, have been principally 
relied on by the advocates of inlknt baptism. 
The silence of the Mew Testament conoem- 
' ing the baptism of infants, the constant men- 
tion of fldth as a pro-requisite or condition of 
baptism, the great spiritual blessings which 
seem attached to a right reception of it, and 
the responsibility entailed on those who have 
taken its obligations on themselves, seem the 
chief objections urged against paedo-baptlsm. 
But here we must leave ground which has 
been so extensively occupied by controver- 
sialists. — TJL. Th9 wtode of Baptum. — ^The 
language of the New Testament and of the 
primitive ftitbers suffldentiy points to im- 
mersion as the common mode of baptism. 
But in the case of the family of the Jailor at 
Fhilippi (Acts xvL 88), and of the three 
thousand converted at Pentecost (Acts ii.), it 
seems hardly likely that immersion should 
have been possible. Moreover the ancient 
Church, which mostty adopted immersion, 
was satisfied with efftasion in case of clinical 
baptism — the baptism of the siek and dying. 
— Questumi and ontw&n.^Jix the earliest 
times of the Christian Church we find the 
catechumens required to renounce tiie Devil 
and to profbas their faith in the Holy Trinity 
and in the principal articles of the Creed. 
It is generally supposed that St Peter (1 Pet. 
lit SI) refers to a custom of this kind as 

existing fhnn the first— X. 7^ fbnmmia ^ 
BapHim, — ^It should seem from our Lord's 
own direction (Matt xxviiL 10) that tte 
words made use of in the administration of 
baptism should be those which the Church 
has generally retained. —XI. Baptism for the 
Dead, — 1 Cor. xv. S7. **£l8e what shaU 
they do who are baptised for the dead, if the 
dead rise not at all t Why are they then 
baptised for the deadt" 1. Tertullian tells 
us of a custom of vicarious baptism as exist- 
ing among the Mardonites ; and St Cfary- 
sostom relates of the same heretics, that, 
when one of their catediumens died without 
baptism, they used to put a living person 
under the dead man's bed, and asked whether 
he desired to be baptized; the living man 
answering that he did, they then baptised 
him in place of the departed (Chrys. JTbin. 
xl. on 1 Cor. xv.). S. Chrysostom believes 
the Apostie to refer to the profession ot faith 
in baptism, part of which was " I believe in 
the resurrection of the dead." The former 
of the two interpretations above mentioned 
commends itself to us by its simplidty ; the 
latter by its antiquity. Many other explana- 
tions have been given. 

BARAB'BAS, a robber (John xviii. 40), 
who had committed murder in an insurrec- 
tion (Mark xv. 7 ; Luke xxiii. 10) in Jem- 
salem, and was lying in prison at the time of 
the trial of Jesus before Pilate. 

BA'RAK, son of Abinoam of Kedesh, a 
reftige-city in Mount Naphtali, was indted 
by Deborah, a prophetess of Ephraim, to 
deliver Israel from the yoke of Jabin (Judg. 
iv.). -He utterly routed the Canaanites in the 
plfldn of Jesred (Esdraekm). 

BARBARIAN. ** Every one not a Greek 
is a barbarian " is the common Greek defini- 
tion, and in this strict sense the word is used 
inRom.i.14, "lamdebtorbottitoQreduand 
barbarians." It often retains this primitive 
meaning, as in 1 Cor. xiv. 11 (of one using an 
unknown tongue), and Acts xxviiL S, 4 (of 
the Maltese, who spoke a Punic dialect). 

BARLEY was grown by the Hebrews (Lev. 
xxvii. 16; Dent viiL 8; Rutii iL 17, Ac), 
who used it for baking into bread, chiefs 
amongst the poor (Judg. vii. 18 ; S EL iv. 42 ; 
John vL 0, 18 ) ; for making into bread by 
mixing it with wheat, beans, lentiles, millet, 
Ac (El. iv. 8) ; and as fodder for horses (I K. 
iv. 88). The barley harvest (Rutii L 83, iL 
88 ; 2 Sam. xxL 0, 10) takes place in Pdes- 
tine in March and April, and in the hilly 
districts as late as May ; but the period of 
course varies according to the localities where 
the com grows. It always precedes the 
wheat harvest, in somo places by a wedi, in 
others by tally three weeks. In Egypt the 

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bailej is about a month earlier than the 
wheat ; whence its total destmotion by the 
hail-stonn (Ex. ix. 81). Barley was sown 
at any time between Norember and March, 
according to the season. Barley bread Is 
ereii to this day little esteemed in Palestme. 
This fttct is impOTtant, as serving to duddate 
acme passages in Scripture. 

BAB'MABAS, a name signifjring *' son of 
prophecy," or " exhortation ** (or, bat not so 
probably, ** consolation," as A. Y.), given by 
the Apostles (Acts iv. 96) to Joseph (or 
Joses), a Levite of tiie island of Cyprus, who 
was early a disdple of Christ. In Acts ix. 
87, we And him introducing the newly-con- 
Terted Saul to the Aposties at Jerusalem, in 
a way which seons to imply previous ac- 
quaintance bctwewi the two. On tidings 
coming to the church at Jerusalem that men 
of Cyprus and Cyrene had been preaching to 
Gentiles at Antioch, Barnabas was sent 
thither (Acts xi. 19-26), and went to Tarsus 
to seek Saul, as one specially raised up 
to preach to the Gentiles (Acts xxvL 17). 
Having brought him to Antioch, he was 
sent with him to Jerosalem with relief for 
the brethren in Judaea (Acts xi. 80). On 
their return, they (Acts xiiL 2) were or- 
dained by the church for the missionary 
work, and sent forth (aj>. 45). From this 
time Barnabas and Paul en^oj the title and 
dignity of Apostles. Their first missionary 
Journey is related in Acts xlii. xiv. ; it was 
oonflned to Cyprus and Asia Minor. Some 
time after their return to Antioch (a.b. 47 
or 48), they were sent (a.d. 50), witii some 
others, to Jerusalem, to determine with the 
Apoetiea and Elders the difficult question 
respecting the necessity of dreunidsion for 
the Gentile converts (Acts xv. 1 if.). On 
that occasion Panl and Barnabas were re- 
oogniaed as the Apostles of uncircurndsion. 
After another stay in Antioch on their re- 
turn, a variance took place between Barnabas 
and Paul on the question of taking with 
them, on a seeond missionary Journey, John 
Mark, slater's son to Barnabas (Acts xv. 86 
fr.). They parted, and Barnabas took Mark, 
and sailed to Cyprus, his native island. Here 
the Scriptore notices of him cease. TheEpistte 
attributed to Barnabas is believed to have been 
written early in the seeond century. 

BARTHOL'OMEW, one of the Twelve 
Apoetiea of Christ (Matt. x. 8 ; Mark iU. 18 ; 
Luke vi. 14; Acts i. 13). It has been not 
improbably oo^jeetnred that he is identical 
with Nathanael (John i. 45 ff.). He is said 
to have preached the Gospel in India, that is, 
probably, Arabia Felix, and according to some 
tn Armenia. 

BARTIMAE^S, a blind beggar of Jerieho 

who (Mark x. 46 ff.) sat by the wayside beg- 
ging as our Lord passed out of Jericho on 
His last Journey to Jerusalem. 

BA'&UCH. Son of Neriah, the firiend 
(Jer. xxxiL 12), amanuenslB (Jer. xxxvi. 
4-82), and faithftil attendant of Jeremiah 
(Jer. xxxvL 10 ff. ; b.c. 608), in the dis- 
charge of his prophetic office. . He was of a 
noble fEunily (comp. Jer. li. 59 ; Bar. L 1), 
and of distinguished acquirements ; and his 
brother Sendah held an honourable office in 
the court of Zedekiah (Jer. U. 59). His 
enemies accused him of influencing Jeremiah 
in Ikvour of the Chaldaeans (Jer. xliiL 3 ; 
cf. xxxvii. 18) ; and he was thrown into 
prison with that prophet, where he remained 
till the capture of Jeruralem, b.o. 586. By 
the permission of Nebuchadnessar he re- 
mained with Jeremiah at Mizpeh (Jos. Ant, 
z* 9f §1) ) hut was afterwards forced to go 
down to Egypt (Jer. xlilL 6). Nothing is 
known certainly of the close of his life. 

BABUGH, THE BOOK OF, may be di- 
Tided into two main parts, i-iii. 8, and iii. 
9-end.-— 1. It exists at present in Greek, and 
in several translations which were made from 
the Greek. Of the two Old Latin versions 
which remain, that which is incorporated in 
the Vulgate is generally literal ; the other is 
more free. The vulgar Syriao and Arabic 
follow the Greek text dosely.—ft. The as- 
sumed author is undoubtedly the companion 
of Jeremiah, but the details of the book are 
inconsistent with the assumption. — 8. The 
book was held in littie esteem among the 
Jews. From the time of Irenaeus it was 
frequentiy quoted both in the East and in 
the West, and generally as the work of 
Jeremiah. At the Council of Trent Baruch 
was admitted into the Bomish Canon.— 4. 
The two divisions of the book are dis- 
tinguished by marked peculiarities of style 
and language. The Hebraic character of the 
first part is such as to mark it as a tranda- 
tion and not as the work of a Hebraizing 
Greek. The second part, on the other hand, 
closely approaches the Alexandrine type. — 

6. The most probable explanation of this 
contrast is gained by supposing that some 
one thoroughly conversant with the Alex- 
andrine translation of Jeremiah found the 
Hebrew fragment which forms the bads of 
the book already attached to the writings of 
that prophet, and wrought it up into Its 
present form.— 6. The present \>ock. must be 
placed probably about the time of the war of 
liberation (b.o. 160), or somewhat earlier. — 

7. The Bpietle of Jeremiah, which, according 
to the authority of some Gredc Miss^ stands 
in the English version as the 6th ohapter of 
Barudi, is the work of a later period. If 

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may be assigned with probability to the first 
century b.c. 

BARZIL'LAL A wealthy Oileadite who 
ithowed hospitality to Darid when he fled from 
Absalom (2 Sam. xvii. 27). He declined the 
king's offer of ending his days at court 
(2 Sam. xiz. 82-39). 

BA'SHAN, a district on the east of Jordan. 
It is sometimes spoken of as the *' land of 
Bashan " (1 Chr. r. 1 1 ; and comp. Num. xxi. 
38, xxxii. 88), and sometimes as *' all Ba- 
uhan" (Deut. iii. 10, 18; Josh. xU. 5, xiiL 
12, 80), but most commonly without any 
addition. It was taken by the children of 
Israel after their conquest of the land of 
Sihon f^om Arnon to Jabbok. The limits 
of Bashan are rery strictly defined. It ex- 
tended f^om the *' border of Oilead " on 
the south to Mount Hermon on the north 
(Deut. iii. 8, 10, 14 ; Josh. xU. 6 ; 1 Chr. t. 
S8)« and fh>m the Arabah or Jordan valley 
on the west to Salchah (Sulkhad) and the 
border of the Oeshurites and the Maacha- 
thites on the east (Josh. xii. 8-5 ; Deut. iii. 
10). This important district was bestowed 
on the half tribe of Manasseh (Jo«h. xiU. 29- 
81), together with " half GUead." 

BA'SHAN-HA'VOTH-JA'IR, a name given 
to Argob After its conquest by Jair (Deut. 
iii. 14). 

BASH'EMATH, daughter of Ishmael, the 
last married of the three wives of Esau (Gen. 
xxxvL 8, 4, 18). In Gen. xxviiL she is 
called Mahalatii ; whilst the name Bashemath 
is in Gen. xzvi. 84 given to another of Esau's 
wives, the daughter of Elon the Hlttite. 
This is probably due to a transcriber's error. 

BASIN. Among the smaller vessels for 
the Tabernacle or Temple service, many must 
have been required to receive tnia the sacri- 
ficial victims the blood to be sprinkled for 
purification. The form and material of these 
vessels can only be conjectured firom the 
analogy of andent Assyrian and 
Egyptian specimens of works of the 
same kind. The ** basin " lh>m 
which our Lord washed the dis- 
ciples' fbet was probably deeper 
and larger than thie hand-basin for 

BASKET. The Hebrew terms 
need in the description of this article 
are as follows: (1) Salt so called 
f^om the twigs of which it was ori- 
ginally made, speciaUy used for 
holding bread (Gen. xL 16 ff. ; Ex. xxix. 8, 
28; Lev. viii. 2, 26, 81; Num. vi. 15, 17, 
19). (2) Saltiimht a word of kindred ori- 
gin, applied to the basket used in gathering I 
grapes (Jer. vL 9). (8) Tme^ in which the 
first-fruits of the harvest were presented I 

(Deut. zxvL 2, 4). We may infer that it 
was used for household purposes, perhaps to 
bring the com to the mill. (4) Ciliibt so 
called from its similarity to a birdcage o» 
trap, probably in regard to its having a lid : 
it was used for carrying fruit (Am. viiL 1» 
2). (5) Dddt used for carrying ftnit (Jer. 
xxiv. 1, 2), as well as on a larger scale for 
carrying clay to the brickyard (Ps. Ixxxl. 6 ; 
pot»t A. v.), or for holding bulky articles 
(2 K. X. 7). In the N. T. baskets are de- 
scribed under three different terms. 

eg}-ptian Ba«k«t. (From WUkln*on.) 

BASTARD. Among those who were ex- 
cluded ttom entering the congregation, even 
to the tenth generation, was the wuuHMfr 
(A. V. bastard), who was classed in this 
respect with the Ammonite and Moabite 
(Deut xxiii. 3). ' The term is not, however, 
applied to any illegitimate offspring, bom 
out of wedlock, but is restricted by the Bab- 
bins to the issue of any connexion within ths 
degrees prohibited by the Law. 

BkT {'&tattfyh). There is no doubt what- 
ever that the A. Y. is oorreet in its rendetins 

Bat (ropkoaou* j>ei/or«taf.) 

of this word (Lev. xi. 19 ; Deut xiv. 18). 
Many travellers have noticed the immense 
numbers of bats that are found in caverns in 
the East, and Mr. Layard says that on the 
occasion of a visit to a cavern these ndsome 
beasts compelled him to retreat 

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BATH, BATHINO. This was a pmoribed 
part of tha Jewish ritual of porifleatloii in 
oaaes of aoeident» leproos, or ordisarj on- 
clcaimeaa (Ler. xt., xTi. 28, zxiL 6 ; Num. 
xix. 7, 19 ; i Sam. xi. 2, 4 ; S K. t. 10) ; 
aa also after mooming, which always implied 
defilement (Bath iiL 8; 2 Sam. xiL 20). 
With bathing, anointing was customarily 
Joined ; the climate making both these 
essential alike to health and pleasure, to 
which luxury added the use of perfomes 
(Susan. 17 ; Jud. x. 8; Esth. ii. 12). The 
" pools,'* such as that of Siloam and Hesekiah 
(Neh. iiL 15, 16 ; 2 K. xx. 20 ; Is. xxii. 11 ; 
John ix. 7), often sheltered by porticoes 
(John T. 2), are the first indications we 
baT* of pubUe bathing accommodation. 

BATH. [Mkasvxxs.] 

of the gates of the ancient dty of Heshbon 
(Cant. TiL 4 [5]). 

BATHSHE'BA (2 Sam. xi. 8, fte. ; also 
called Bathshua in 1 Chr. iii. 5), the daughter 
of Eliam (2 Sam. xi. 8), or Ammiel (1 Chr. 
iii. 8), the son of Ahithophel (2 Sam. xxiii. 
84), and wife of Uriah the Hittite. The 
child whieh was the fhiit of her adulterous 
interooorse with DaTid died ; but after mar- 
riage she became the mother of four sons, 
SoUmon (Matt. L 6), Shimea, Shobab, and 
Nathan. When Adon^ah attempted to set 
aside in his own fkrour the succession pro- 
mised to Solomon, Bathsheba was employed 
by Nathan to inibrm the king of the con- 
spiracy (1 K. i. 11, 18, 28). After the ac 
cession of Solomon, she, as queeU'mother, 
requested permissioa of her son for Adon^ah 
to take in marriage AUshag the Shunamite 
(1 K. iL 21-25). 

BATH«^ACHARI'AS, a place, named only 
1 Mace. Ti. 82, 88. It is the modem BeU 
SakSrish, nine miles north of B*U tdr. 

BAT-TREE {emrAek), Most of the Jewish 
doctors understand by the term ssricA **a 
tree whieh grows in its own soil '*— one that 
has nerer been transplanted; which Ib the 
interpretation given in the margin ot the 
A. V. (Ps. xxxvii. 85). 

BDEL'LIUM (8«i^Za«A), Gen.iL 12 ; Num. 
xL 7. It !■ quite impossible to say whether 
hedSlaeh denotes a mineral, or an animal 
production, or a Tsgetable exudation. Bdel- 
lium ia an odoriferous exudation ttooi a tree 
whieh is perhaps the BoraamfJldbMiformUt 
Lin., of Arabia FeUx. 

BEANS (2 Sam. xtIL 28; Es. It. 9). 
Beans are cultirated in Palestine, which pro- 
dueeamany of the leguminous order of pUmts, 
such aa lentila, kidney-beans, retches, Ac. 
Bcana are in blossom in January ; they hare 

8«. D. B. 

been noticed in flower at Lydda on the 28rd, 
and at Sidon and Acre even earlier; they 
continue in flower till March. 

SyiUa Boor. (Pmu SffrmemM.) 

BEAR (1 Sam. xtU. 84 ; 2 Sam. XTii. 8). 
The Syrian bear ( Ur$ut Syriaeus), whieh is 
without doubt the animal mentioned in the 
Bible, Ib still found on the higher mountains 
of Palestine. During the summer months 
these bears keep to the snowy parts of Le- 
banon, but descend in winter to the Tillages 
and gardens ; it is probable also that at this 
period in former days they extended their 
Tiaits to other parts of Palestine. 

BEARD. Western Asiatics hare always 
eherlBhed the beard as the badge of the 

BMnh. EgTTitiftn, from WUkimoa (top row). Of ocbw 
iMMona, (h>m Ro««llini and Lajard. 

dignity of manhood, and attached to it the 
importance of a feature. The Egyptians on 
the contrary, for the most part, shaTcd the 
hair of the fisoe and head, though we flnd 
some instances to the contrary. It is im- 
possible to decide with certainty the meaning 
of the precept (Ler. xix. 27, xxL 5) regards 

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Ing the *• oornera of the beard." Probably 
the Jews retained the hair on the aides of the 
face between the ear and the eye, which the 
Arabs and others shaved away. The beard 
is the object of an oath, and that on which 
blessings or shame are spoken of as rest* 
ing. The custom was and is to shave or 
pluck it and the hair out in mourning (Is. 
1. 6, XV. 2 ; Jer. xU. 5, xlviii. S7 ; Ezr. ix. 
8 ; Bur. vi. 81) ; to neglect it in seasons of 
permanent aflUction (2 Sam. xix. 24), and 
to regard any insult to it as the last out- 
rage which enmity can inflict (2 Sam. x. 4). 
The beard was the object of salutation (2 Sam. 
XX. 9). The dressing, trimming, anointing, 
fto. of the beard, was performed with much 
ceremony by persons of wealth and rank 
(Ps. cxxxiii. 2). The removal of the beard 
was a part of the ceremonial treatment proper 
to a leper (Lev. xiv. 9). 

BE'CHER, the second son of Benjamin, 
according to the list both in Oen xlvi. 21, 
and 1 Chr. vii. 6 ; but omitted in 1 Chr. 
viii. 1. It is highly probable that Becher, or 
his heir and head of his house, married an 
Ephraimitish heiress, a daughter of Shuthelah 
(1 Chr. vii. 20, 21), and so that hlB house 
was reckoned in the tribe of Ephraim, just as 
Jair, the son of Segub, was reckoned in the 
tribe of Manasseh (1 Chr. ii. 22; Mum. 
xxxU. 40, 41). 

BED and BED-CHAMBER. We may dis- 
tinguish in the Jewish bed five principal 
parts. — 1. The mattress, which was limited 
to a mere mat, or one or more quilts. — 2. 
The covering, a quilt finer than those used 
in 1. In smnmer a thin blanket or the outer 
garment worn by day (1 Sam. xix. 18) suf- 
floed. Henoe the law provided that it should 
not be kept in pledge after sunset, that the 
poor man might not lack Ms needftil covering 
(Deut. xxiv. 18). — 8. The only material 
mentioned for this is that which occurs 
I Sam. xix. 18, and the word used is of 
doubtftil meaning, but seems to signify some 
fabric woven or plaited of goatVhair. It is 
clear, however, that it was something hastily 
adopted to serve as a pillow, and is not de- 
cisive of the ordinary use. Such pillows are 
common to this day in the East, formed of 
sheep's fleece or goat's-skin, with a stuffing 
of cotton, ftc. — 4. The bedstead was not 
always necessary, the divan, or platform 
along the side or end of*an Oriental room, 
sufficing as a support for the bedding. Yet 
some slight and portable fhune seems im- 
plied among the senses of the word, which ia 
used for a ** bier" (2 Sam. ilL 31), and for 
the ordinary bed (2 K. iv. 10), for the Utter 
4m which a siok person might be carried 
(1 fiam. six. 15), for JaeoVs bed of 

(Gen. xlviL 81), and for the oonch on which 
guests reclined at a banquet (Esth. L 6). — 
5. The ornamental portions were pillars and 
a canopy (Jud. xiiL 0), ivory carvings, gold 

Bed and HMd-rait (WOkiaam^ Aftaml Bftptimm.^ 

and silver, and probably mosaic work, purple 
and flne linen (Esth. i. 6 ; Cant. iii. 9, 10). 
The ordinary ftimiture of a bed-chamber 
in private life Is given in S E. iv. 10. The 
" bed-chamber " in the Temple where Joash 
was hidden, was, probably, a store-chamber 
for keeping beds (2 K. xi. 2 ; 2 Chr. xxiL 
11). The position of the bed-chamber in 
the most remote and secret parts of the 
palace seems marked in the passages, Ex. 
viii. 8, 2 K. vi. 12. 

BE'DAN. 1. Mentioned 1 Sam. xii. 11, 
as a Judge of Israel between Jerubbaal 
(Gideon) and Jephthah. The Chaldee Para- 
phrast reads Samson for Bedan; the LXX., 
Syr., and Arab, all have Barak. Ewald 
suggests that it may be a false reading 
for Abdon.--ft. The son of Gilead (1 Chr. 
vii. 17). 

BEE (debSrdh), Deut. L 44 ; Judg. xiv. 8 ; 
Ps. oxviii. 12 ; Is. vii. 18. That Palestine 
abounded in bees is evident ftrom the descrip- 
tion of that land by Moees, for it was a land 
*' flowing with milk and honey ;'• nor is there 
any reason for supposing thatthis expression 
is to be understood otherwise than in its 
literal sense. English naturalists know little 
of the species of bees that are found in Pa- 
lestine. Mr. F. Smith, our best authority on 
the Hymenoptera, is inclined to believe that 
the honey-bee of Palestine is distinct trom 
the honey-bee {A. melli/ica) of this oountry. 
There can be no doubt that the attacks of 
bees in Eastern countries are more to be 
dreaded than they are in more temperate 
climates. Swarms in the East are ta larger 
than they are with us, and, on account of the 
heat of the climate, one can readily imagine 
that their stings must give rise to very dan. 
geroQs symptoms. The passage in Is. viL 

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18, *' the Lord shaU hiM tor the bee that is 
in the land of AatTria,** has been understood 
hj some to refer to the praotioe of ** oalling 
ont the bees from their hires by a hissing or 
whistling sound to their labour in the fields, 
and sommoning them again to return " in 
the erening. In all probability, howerer, 
the e g p re s ai on in Isaiah has reference, as 
Mr. Denham says, *'to the eostom of the 
pec^le in the But of calling the attention 
of any one by a signifleant Mm or rather 

BEtL'ZEBlTL, the title of a heathen deity, 
to whom tbt Jews ascribed the sorereignty of 
the eril spirits (Matt. x. 35, xiL 24 ; Mark 
tiL 22 ; Luke zL 1ft fT.). The eorrect read- 
ing is without doubt Beelu^Mf and not BmI- 
ne^tib as given in the Syriac, the Vulg., and 
some other Tersions. Some connect the term 
with uebtU, kabitatioH, thus making Beelaebul 
(Matt. X. 25), th4 lord of the dweilmg, who- 
ther as the " prince of the power of the air " 
(Eph. ii. 2), or as the prince of the lower 
wOTld, or as inhabiting human bodies, or as 
occupying a mansion in the scTcnth heaven, 
like Saturn in Oriental mythology. Others 
derire it from ubel, dutng^ thus making Beel- 
xebul, literally, the lard qf dtrng, at the dung- 
kill ; and in a secondary sense, as aebel was 
used by the Talmudical writers BB—4dol or 
iddalry, the lord ef idole, prwoe of false 
f/ode. We hare lastly to notice the inge- 
nious eoi^eetnre of Hug that the fly, under 
which BaaljEebub was represented, was the 
Searahaeue pUlularitu or dunghill beetle^ in 
which ease Baalsebub and Beelaebul might 
be used indiAerently. 

BEER-EfUM, a spot named in Is. xt. 8 
as on the ** border of Moab," apparently the 
south, Eglaim being at the north end of the 
Dead Sea. The name points to the well dug 
by the ehieft of Israel on their approach to 
the promised land, doae by the ** border of 
Moab " (Num. xxl. 16 ; comp. 18). 

BEEB-LAHAl-ROI, a well, or rather a 
living spring (A. Y. fb w t t oim, comp. Jer. vi. 
7) between Kadesh and Bered, in the wilder- 
ness, ** in the way to Shur," and therefore in 
the ** sooth country" (Gen. xxiv. 62). Mr. 
Rowland announces the discovery of the well 
Lahairoi at Mogle or MoilaM, a station on 
the road to Beersheba, 10 hours south of 
Jlmheiheh; near which is a hole or cavern 
bearing the name of Beit Hagar (Bitter, 
Sinai, 1086, 7) ; bnt thia requires conflr- 

BEf EROTH, one of the four cities of the 
HIvitee who deluded Joshua into a treaty of 
peace with them (Josh. Ix. 17). It was 
sUotted to Benjamin (xviii. 26), and is*iden- 
tifled with the modem eUSireh, which stands 

at about 10 miles north of Jerusalem by the 
great road to N6bl%u, 

BEEB-SHE'BAj the name of one of the 
old places in Palestine, which formed the 
soQthem limit of the country. There are 
two accounts of the origin of the name. — 

1. According to the first, the well was dug 
by Abraham, and the name given, because 
there he and Abimelech the king of the Phi- 
listines ** sware " both of them (Gen. xxi. SI). 

2. The other narrative ascribes the origin of 
the name to an occurrence almost precisely 
similar, in which both Abimelech the king of 
the Philistines, and Phichol, his chief cap- 
tain, are again concerned, with the diiference 
that the person on the Hebrew side of the 
transaction is Isaac instead of Abraham (Gen. 
xxvi. 31-38). There are at present on the 
spot two principal wells, and five smaller 
ones. The two principal wells are on or 
close to the northern bank of the Wadig «t- 
A6a*. They lie Just a hundred yards apart, 
and are so placed as to be visible flrom a con- 
siderable distance. The larger of the two, 
which lies to the east, is, according to the 
oareM measurements of Dr. RoUnson, 12^ 
feet diam., and at the time of his visit (Apr. 
12) was 44^ feet to the snrfooe of the water : 
the masonry which encloses the well reaches 
downwarda for 28| fiset. The other well is 
5 fiset diam., and was 42 fbet to the water. 
The curb-stones round the mouth of both 
wells are worn into deep grooves by the 
action of the ropes of so many centorise, and 
*Mook as if frilled or fluted all round." The 
five lesser wells are in a group in the bed of 
the wady. On some lew hills north of the 
large wells are scattered the foundations and 
ruins of a town ef moderate sise. There ore 
no trees or shrubs near the spot Beersheba 
was given to the tribe of Simeon (xix. 2 ; 
1 Chr. iv. 28). In the time of Jerome it 
was still a considerable place ; and later it is 
mentioned as an episcopal dty under the 
Bishop of Jerusalem. It only remains to 
notice that it retains Its ancient name as 
nearly similar in sound as an Arabic signifi- 
cation will permit— 2Nr e*-606^f—^e "well 
of the lion," or *« of seven." 

BE'HEMOTH. There can be little or 
no doubt, that by this word (Job xL 15-24) 
the hippopotamus is intended, since all the 
details descriptive of the behemoth accord 
entirely with the ascertained habits of au 
animal. Since in the first part of Jehovah's 
discourse (Job xxxviii., xxxix.) landanimale 
and birde are mentioned, it suits the general 
purpose of that discourse better to suppose 
that aqvatie or amphibiotu creatures are 
spoken of in the last half of it ; and since the 
leviathan, by almost universal consent, d»> 

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notes the crocodile, the behemoth secDU 
clearly to point to the hippopotamxis, \n» 
asaocLato in the Nile. The description of 
the animal's lying under *' the shady treea," 
amongst the ** reeds '* and willows, is pecu- 
liarly appropriate. 

Hlppopotunui unpUbloB 

BE'LA. 1. One of the five cities of the 
plain which was spared at the intercession of 
Lot, and received the name of Zoar (Gen, 
xiv. 2, xlx. 22). It lay on the sonthem ex- 
tremity of the Dead Sea, on the frontier of 
Moab and Palestine (Jerome on Is. xt.), and 
on the route to Eyypt ; the connexion in 
which it is found. Is. xv. 5 ; Jer. xlviii, 
34 ; Gen. xiii. 10. We flrst read of Bela in 
Gen. xiv. 2, 8. — 2. Son of Beor, who reigned 
over Edom in the city of Dinhab&h, eight 
generations before Saul, king of Israel, or 
about the time of the Exodus. He is sup- 
posed by some to be the same as Balaam. 
It is not improbable that he was a Chal- 
dean by birth, and reigned in Edom by con- 
quest. He may have been contemporary 
with Moses (Gen. xxxvi. 31-3JJ ; 1 Chr, i. 
43, 44). 

BF/LIAL. The translators of our A. V., 
following the Vulgate, have frequently treated 
this word as a proper name, and given it in 
the form Beluil, in accordance with 2 Cor. 
vi. 15. There can bo no question, however, 
that the word is not to be regarded as a pro- 
per name in the O. T. ; it« meaning is worth' 
lesmess, and hence reckUiSfiess, latclesmess. 
The expression »on or man of Belial must be 
understood as meaning simply a worthless, 
lawless fellow. The term as used in 2 Cor. 
vi. 15 Is generally understood as an appel- 
lative of Satan, as the personiflcation of all 
that was bad. 

BELLOWS. The word occurs only in Jer. 
Ti. 89, *' The bellows are burned ;" where 
their use is to heat a smelting furnace. A 
picture of two different kinds of bellows, both 

of highly ingenioos oonstraotion, may be found 
in Wilkinson, Ane, Egypt, iii. 888. ** Thej 
oonaisted,'* ho aaya, '* of a leather, seoared 
and fitted into a frame, from which a lonff 
pipe extended for carrying the wind to the 
fire. They were worked by the feet, the 
operator standing npon them, with one under 
eaeh foot, and pressing them alternately while 
he pulled np each exhansted skin with a 
string he held in his hand. In one instance 
we observe fh>m the painting, that when the 
man left the bellows, they were raised as if 
inflated with air; and this would imply a 
knowledge of the yalve. The p%>es eren in 
the time of Thothmes n., [supposed to be] 
the contemporary of Moeee, appear to ba^e 
been simply of reed, tipped with a 
point to resist the action of the fire." 

Bfirptiaii bsQowt. (F. CanHard, Bt A er^ km $m Im Artt 
dm iadMM SgwUmm.) 

BELLS. InEx.xxTiii.88thebeIlsaUaded 
to were the golden ones, according to the 
Rabbis 7S in number, round the hem of the 
high-priest*s ephod. The object of them was 
**that his sotmd might be heard when he 
went in unto the holy place, and when he 
came oat, that he die not" (Ex. xxriiL 84 ; 
Ecclns. xIt. 9). To this day bells are f^e- 
qnently attached, for the sake of their plea- 
sant sound, to tiie anklets of women. The 
little girls of Cairo wear strings of them 
round their feet. In Zech. xir. SO "bells of 
the horses " is probably a wrong renderine. 
It Is more probable that they are not bells 
but concave or fiat pieces of brass, which 
were sonetimes attached to horses for the 
sake of ornament. 

BELSHAZ'ZAR, the last king of Babylon. 
According, to the well-known narratiTe in 
Dan. T., he was slain daring a splendid frast 
in his palace. Similarly Xenophon tells us 
that Babylon was taken by Cyrus in the 
night, while the Inhabitants were engaged in 
fieasting and revelry, and that the king was 
killed. On the other hand the narratiTes of 

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BeitMoa in JosephiM and of Herodotut differ 
trom tlie tbore Mooont in MHne imporUnt par* 
tieoUrs. Berotos calls the last king of Babylon 
Nabonnedas or Nabonadiua, and aaya tliat in 
tlie 17th year of hia reign Cyrus took Baby- 
Urn, the king baTing retired to the oligh- 
booring city of Bordppas or Borsipp*. Ae- 
eording to Herodotus the last Ung was called 
Labynetos. These diserepanoifas hay lately 
been cleared 19 by the disooreries of Sh* 
Henry Rawlinson. From the inaeriptions it 
appears that the eldest son of Nabonnedns 
waa called Bel-shar-esar, oontraeted into 
Belshassarv and admitted by his fkther to a 
share in the goremment. 80 that Belshaa- 
sar, aa Joint king with his father, may hare 
been goremor of Babylon, when the eity was 
attacked by the combined forces of the M edfes 
and Persians, and may hare perished in the 
assault which followed; while Nabonnedns 
leading a force to the rdief of the place was 
defeated, and obliged to take reftige in Bor- 
sippa. In Dan. ▼. 2, Nebuchadnessar is 
ealled the fether of Belsbaiaar. This, of 
ooorse, need only mean grandfather or an- 
cestor. Bawlinson connects Belshamar with 
Nebuchadneasar through his mother; but 
liaieus Niebnhr considers Bdshanar to be 
another name for Eril-merodaoh, the son of 
Nebochadnezsar. On Bawllnson's riew, 
Bebhaaxar died b.c 588; on Niebuhr's, 
BX. 559. 

BENAlAH. 1. The son of Jehoiada the 
chief priest (1 Chr. xxtU. 5), and therefore 
of the tribe of Levi, though a natiTO of Kab- 
seei (S 8am. zxiii. 20 ; 1 Chr. zi. 22), in the 
south of Judah ; set by DaTid (1 Chr. zi 25) 
orer his bodyguard of Cherethites and Pele- 
thites (2 Sam. TiiL 18 ; 1 EL i. 88 ; 1 Chr. 
zTiii. 17 ; 2 Sam. zz. 28) and oocupying a 
middle rank between the first three of the 
** mighty men," and the thirty " Taliant men 
of the armies'' (2 8am. zziiL 22, 28 ; 1 Chr. 
zi. 25, zzTii. 6). The ezploits which gave 
him this rank are narrated in 2 Sam. zziii. 
20, 21 ; 1 Chr. zi. 22. He was captain of 
the host for the third numth (1 Chr. zzyU. 
5). Benaiah remained faithAil to Solomon 
during Adon^ah's attempt on the crown 
(1 K. 1. 8, 10, 82, 88, 44) ; and was raised 
into the place of Joab as commander-in-chief 
of the whole army (ii. 85, ir. 4).->-0. Bsn- 
AiAH the PuLATHoitrrx ; an Ephralmite, one 
of Darid's thirty mighty men (2 8am. 
zziiL 80; 1 Qir. zi. 81), and the ci4>tain 
ot the elerenth numthly course (1 Chr. 
zxTiL 14). 

BEN-AMin, the son of the younger 
daughter of Lot, and progenitor of the Am- 
monites (Gen. ziz. 88). 

BEMBA'DAD, the name of three kings of 

Damascus. — BaiinAnAO I. was either son or 
grandson of Beton, and in his time Da- 
mascus was supreme in Syria. He made an 
alliance with Asa, and conquered a great part 
of the N. of Israel. From 1 K. zz. 84, it 
would appear that he continued to make war 
upon Israel in Omri's time, and forced him 
to make ** streets" in Samaria for Syrian re- 
sidents. This date is b.o. 950. — BsKHAnAS 
IL, son of the preceding, and also king of 
Damascus. Long wars with Israel charac- 
terised his reign. Some time after the death 
of Ahab, Benhadad renewed the war with 
Israel, attacked Samaria a,seoond time, and 
pressed the siege so doeely'that there was a 
terrible famine in the dty. But the Syrians 
broke up in the night in consequence of a 
sudden panic. Soon after Benhadad fell 
sick, and sent Haaael to consult Elisha as to 
the issue of his malady. On the day after 
Hasael's return Benhadad was murdered, 
probably by some of his own aerrants (2 K. 
▼iii. 7-15). Benhadad's death was about 
B.a 890, and he must have reigned acme 80 
yeara, — ^BzuBAnAD HI., son of Haiael, and 
his suooessor on the throne of Syria. When 
he succeeded to the throne, Jehoash reoorered 
the cities which Jehoahas had lost to the Sy- 
rians, and beat him in Aphek (2 K. ziii. 17, 
25). Jebuash gained two more victories, but 
did not restore the dominion of Israel on the 
E. of Jordan. The date of Benhadad III. is 
Bx. 840. 

BEN'JAMIN, the youngest of the chil- 
dren of Jacob, uid the only one of the thirteen 
who was bom in Palestine. His birth took 
place on the road betwee n Bethel and Beth- 
lehem, a short distance ftrom the latter, and 
his mother Rachel died in the aet of giving 
him Urth, naming him with her last breath 
Ben-oni, ** son of my sorrow." This was by 
Jacob changed into Bei^amin (Gen. zzzt. 
16-18). Until the Journeys of Jacob's sons 
and of Jacob himself into Egypt we hear no. 
thing of Bei^amin. Henceforward the his- 
tory of Benjamin is the history of the tribe. 
And up to the time of the entrance on the 
Promised Land that history is aa meagre as 
it is afterwards fiill and interesting. The 
prozimity of Be^amin to Epbraim during 
the march to the Pnmiised Land was main- 
tained in the territories allotted to each. 
BeniJamin lay immediately to the south of 
Epbraim and between him and Judah. It 
formed almost a parallelogram, of about 26 
miles in length by 12 in breadth. Its eastern 
boundary was the Jordan, and from thence 
it eztended to the wooded district of Khjath- 
Jearim, a point about eight mfles west of 
Jerusalem, while in the other direction it 
stretched ttom the valley of Hinnom, under 

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the " Shoulder of the Jebosite " on the sonth, 
to Bethd on the north. On the south the 
territory ended abruptly with the steep slopes 
of the hill of Jerusalem,— on the north it 
melted imperceptibly into the possessions of 
friendly Ephraim. — (1.) The general level of 
this part of Palestine is very high, not less 
than SOOO feet abore the maritime plain of 
the Mediterranean on the one side, or than 
8000 feet aboTO the deep ralley of the Jordan 
on the other, besides vhich this general level 
or plateau is surmounted, in the district now 
under consideration, by a large number of 
eminences, almos| erery one of which has 
borne some part in the history of the tribe. — 
(2.) No less important than these eminences 
are tht torrent-beds and raTines by which 
the upper country breaks down into the deep 
tracts on each side of it. The passes on the 
eastern tide are of a much more difficult and 
intricate character than those of the western. 
The contrast between the warlike character 
of the tribe and the peaoeftil image of its 
progenitor o(Hnes out in many scattered no- 
tices. Bei^amin was the only tribe which 
seems to have pursued archery to any pur- 
pose, and their skill in the bow (1 Sam. zx. 
SO, 86 ; S Sam. L 23 ; 1 Chr. riiL 40, xii. 2 ; 
2 Chr. XTiL t7) and the sUng (Judg. zx. 16) 
is celebrated. The dreadftd deed recorded 
in Judg. xix., though repelled by the whole 
country, was unhesitatingly adopted and de- 
fended by Benjamin with an obstinacy and 
spirit truly extraordinary. That fdghtfiil 
transaction was indeed a crisis in the history 
of the tribe : the six hundred who took reftige 
in the cliff Rimmon were the only surTirors. 
A long interral must have elapsed between 
so abject a condition and the culminating point 
at which we next meet with the tribe. Se- 
reral circumstances may hare conduced to its 
restoraticm to that place which it was now to 
assume. Bamah (1 Sam. ix. 12, ftc), Mispeh 
(I Sam. Tit 5), Bethel, and Oibeon (I E. iii. 
4) were all in the land of Bei^amin. The 
people who resorted to these sanctuaries must 
gradually have been accustomed to associate 
the tribe with power and sanctity. The strug- 
gles and contests which followed the death 
of Saul arose ttom the natval unwillingness 
of the tribe to relinquish its position at the 
head of the nation, especially in fkrour of 
Judah, and we do not hear of any cordial co- 
operation or firm union between the two tribes 
until Uie disruption of the kingdoms. Hence- 
forward the hist<n*y of Bei^amin becomes 
merged In that of the soothem kingdom. 

B£N-<yNI, the name which the dying 
Rachel gave to her newly-born son, but 
which by his fkther was changed into Bkn- 
JAXXM (Gen. xxxt. 18). 

which Jehoshaphai and his people assembled 
to '* bless*' Jehorah after the orerthrow of 
the hosts of Moabites, Ammonites, and Me- 
hunim, who had come against them, and 
whioh ftrom that fact acquired its name of 
"the TaUey of blessing" (2 Chr. xx. 26). 
The name of Bm-eikut still surrives, attached 
to ruins in a valley of the same name lying 
between Tekna and the main road from Beth- 
lehem to Hebron. 

BERE'A. 1. A city of Macedonia, men- 
tioned in Acts xvii. 10, 16. It is now 
called Vtirria or I^trO'Verriot and is sita- 
ated on the eastern slope of the Olympian 
mountain-range, commanding an extensive 
view of the plain of the Axius and Haliacmon, 
aitd has now 15,000 or 20,000 inhabitants. — 
ft. The modem Aleppo^ mentioned in 2 Maoc. 
xiii. 4. — 8. A place in Judea, apparently not 
very far from Jerusalem (1 Mace. ix. 4). 

BERENTCE. [BxaiacK.] 

BERTAH. a son of Ephraim, so named 
on account of the state of his father's house 
when he was bom (1 Chr. vii. 20-28). This 
short notice is of no slight historical import- 
ance ; especially as it refers to a period of 
Hebrew history respecting which tiie Bible 
affords us no other like information. The 
event must be assigned to the time between 
Jacob's death and the beginning of the op- 

BEfRITH, THE GOD, Judg. ix. 46. 

BERNI'CE and BERENI'CE, the eldest 
daughter of Herod Agrippa L (Acts zlL 
1, ftc). She was first married to her onele 
Herod, king of Chalds, and after his death 
(a.d. 48) she lived under circumstances of 
g^reat suspicion with her own brother Agrippa 
II., tn eonnexion with whom she is men- 
tioned Acts XXV. 18, 28, x^vL 80, as having 
visited Festus on his appointment as Proen- 
rator of Judaea. 

BER'ODACH-BAL'ADAN. 2 K. zz. 12. 


BE'ROTHAH, BE'ROTHAI. The first of 
these two names is given by EseUel (xlviL 
16) in Mmnezion with Hamath and Damascus 
as ftmning part of the northern boundary of 
thd Promised Land. The second is mentioned 
(2 Sam. viiL 6) also in eonnezion with 
Hamath and Damascus. The well-known 
city BeiHit (Berytus) naturally suggests it- 
self as identical with one at least of the 
names ; but in each instance the ciroumstancea 
of the case seem to require a position Airther 

BERYL {ianihUh), occurs in Ex. zzviiL 
20, xzziz. 18 ; Cant. v. 14 ; Es. L 16, x. 9, 
xzviii. 18 ; Dan. z. 6. It is generally sup- 

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posed that the tar$Mih derives its name from 
the place so called. The ancient ehrytoliU 
or the modem yellow topoM appears to hare a 
better claim than tny other gem to represent 
the tarthUh of the Hebrew Bible, certainly a 
better claim than the beryl of the A. V., a 
Tendering which appears to be unsupported 
by any kind of evidence. 

BETH, the most general word for a house 
or habitation. Like Aedei in Latin and Dom 
in German, it has the special meaning of a 
temple or house oi worship. — Beth is more 
frequently employed in oompound names of 
places than any other word. Bkth-xkki>, 
the "shearing house" (3 K. x. 12), lay be- 
tween Jezreel and Samaria, according to 
Jerome 1 5 miles from the town of Legio, and 
in the plain of Esdraelon. Bxth-haooak, 
<• the garden-house" (2 E. ix. 27), is doubt- 
less the same place as Ekoam him, ** spring of 
gardens," the modem Jenin. 

BETH-AB'ARA, a place beyond Jordan, in 
which, according to the Beeeived Text of the 
N. T., John was baptising (John i. 28). If 
this reading be eorrect, Bethabara may be 
identioJ with Beth-barah, the ancient ford 
of Jordan, or, which seems more likely, with 
Beth-nimrah, on the east of the river, nearly 
opposite Jericho. 

BETH'ANT, a village which, scanty as 
are the notices of it contained in Scripture, 
is more intimately associated in our minds 
than perhaps any other place with the most 
fhtnjHar acts and scenes of the last days of 
the life of Christ It was situated *< at" the 
Mount of OUves (Hark xi. 1 ; Luke xix. 29), 
about fifteen stadia ttmo. Jerusalem (John xi. 
18), on or near the usual road from Jericho 
to the city (Luke xlx. 29, comp. 1 ; Mark 
xi. 1, comp. X. 46), and close by the west (?) 
of another village called Bbthphaoe, the two 
being several times mentioned together. 
Bethany is now known by a name derived 
fttnn Lasarus — eWAMoriyeh or Laaarteh, It 
lies on the eastem slope of the Mount of 
Olives, fully a mile beyond the summit, and 
not very far from the point at which the road 
to Jericho begins its more sudden descent 
towards the Jordan valley. m-'JLsorfytfA is a 
ruinouii and wretched village, a wild mountain 
hamlet of some twenty families. Beth-any has 
been eommonly explained " House of Dates,*' 
but it more probably signifies ** House of 
Misery" (H. DUon, EtAy Land, iL 214, foil.). 

BETH-A'VEN, a place on the mountains of 
Benjamin, east of Bethel (Josh. vii. 2, xviii. 
12), and lying between that place and Mich- 
mash (1 Sam. xiii. 5, xlv. 28). In Hos. iv. 15, 
V. 8, X. 5, the name is transllerred to the neigh- 
bouring Bethel — once the ** house of Ood," 
but then the house of idols, of " naught.*' 

BETH-BAAL-ME'ON, a place in the pbs- 
sessions of Beuben, on the downs (A. V. 
" plain") east of Jordan (Josh. xiii. 17). At 
the Israelites* first approach its name was 
Baal-mboh (Num. xxxiL 88, or in its con- 
tracted form, Bkoh, xxxii. 8), to which the 
Beth was poMibly a Hebrew addition. Latex 
it would seem to have come into pos sess ion 
of Moab, and to be known either as Beth- 
meon (Jer. xlviii. 28) or Baal-meon (Ex. 
XXV. 9). The name is still attached to a 
ruined place of considerable sine, a short 
distance to the S.W. of Heabdn, and bearing 
the name of "the fortress of MPUn," or 
MaOn, which appears to give its appellation 
to the Wady Zerka Maem, 

BETH-BA'RAH, named only in Judg. 
vii. 24, as a point apparently south of the 
scene of Gideon's victory. Beth-barah de- 
rives its chief interest from the possibility 
(bat its more modem representative may 
have been Beth-abara where John bap- 
tlxed. It was probably the chief ford of 
the district. 

BETH-DIBLATHA'IM, a town of Moab 
(Jer. xlviii. 22), apparently the place else- 
where called Almok-Diblatuaxm. 

BETH'EL. A well-known city and holy 
place of central Palestine. Of the origin of 
the name of Bethel there are two accounts 
extant. 1. It was bestowed on the spot by 
Jacob under the awe inspired by the noc- 
turnal vision oi God, when on his journey 
from his father's house at Beersheba to seek 
his wife in Haran (Gen. xxviii. 19).^2. But 
according to the other account. Bethel re- 
ceived its name on the occasion of a blessing 
bestowed by God upon Jacob after his return 
firom Padan-aram ; at which time also (ac- 
cording to this narrative) the name of Israel 
was given him (Gen. xxxv. 14, 15). — Early 
as is the date involved in these narratives, 
yet, if wo are to accept the precise defi- 
nition of Gen. xii. 8, the name of Bethel 
would appear to have existed at this spot 
even before the arrival of Abram in Canaan 
(Gen. xii. 8, xiiL 8, 4). In one thing, how- 
ever, the above narratives all agree, — in 
omitting any mention of town or buildings 
at Bethel at that early period, and in draw- 
ing a marked distinction between the " city " 
of Lux and the consecrated "place" in its 
neighbourhood (comp. Gen. xxxv. 7). The 
appropriation of the name of Bethel to the 
city appears not to have been made till stUl 
later, when it was taken by the tribe of 
Ephraim ; after whidi the name of Lus occurs 
no more (Judg. i. 22-26). — After the eon- 
quest Bethel is flrequently heard of. In the 
troubled times when there was no king in 
Israel, it was to Bethel that the people went 

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up in their distress to ask ooonsel of God 
(Judg. zx. 18, 36, 31; xxi. 2 : A. Y. **hoi 
of God ") . Here was the ark of the ooyenant 
nnder the oharge of Phinehas the grandson 
of Aaron (xx. 26-38, xxi. 4). Later we find 
It named as one of the holy cities to which 
Samoel went in circuit (1 8am. TiL 16) 
Here Jeroboam placed one of the two calres 
of gold. Towards the end of Jeroboam's lifs 
Bethel fell into the hands of Judah (2 Chr. 
xiii. 19). EUJah risited Bethel, and we hear 
of '^sons of the prophets" as resident there 
(2 K. U. 2, 3), two facts apparently incom- 
patible with tb» aotive existence of the calf- 
worship. But, after the destruction of the 
Baal worship by Jehu, Bethel comes once 
more into view (3 K. x. 20). After the de- 
solation of the northern kingdom by the king 
of Assyria, Bethel still remained an abode of 
priests (2 K. xviL 28, 27). In the account 
of Josiah*s iconodasm we catch one more 
glimpse of the altar of Jeroboam, with its 
last loathsome fire of *<dead men's bones'* 
burning upon it. In later times Bethel is 
named only once ; its ruins still lie on the 
right hand side of the road firom Jerusalem 
to Nablous under the scarcely altered name 

ii. 17). There is no clue to guide us to what 
mountains are intended here. 

BETHES'DA, the Hebrew name of a re- 
servoir or tank, with flve ** porches," close 
upon the sheep-gate or '* market" in Jeru- 
salem (John ▼.2). Tlie porches— <. «. clois- 
ters or colonnades —were extensive enough 
to accommodate a large number of sick and 
infirm people, whose custom it was to wait 
there for the ** troubling of the water." The 
large reserroir Birket ImraU^ within the walls 
of the dty, dose by the St. Stephen's Gate, 
and under the north-east wall of the Haram 
area, is generally considered to be the modem 
repreeentatiTe of Bethesda. 

BETH-HACCE'REM (Neh. iii. 14). Prom 
Jer. Ti. 1, we find that it was used as a 
beaoon-etation, and that it was near Tekoa. 
In the time of Nehemiah (iiL 14) it had a 
ruler or prince. By Jerome a village named 
Bethaoharma is said to have been on a moun- 
tain between Tekoa and Jerusalem, a podtion 
in which the eminence known as the Prank 
mountain (Herodium) stands conspicuous; 
and this has accordingly been suggested as 

BETH-HOG'LA, and HOG'LAH, a place 
on the border of Judah (Josh. xv. 6) and of 
Benjamin (xviiL 10), to which Utter tribe it 
was reckoned to bdong (xviiL 21). A mag- 
nificent spring and a ruin between Jericho 
and the Jordan sUU bear the names of Ai^^ 

hqfia and JTtisr Hqf'la, and are doubtless on oc 
near the old dte. 

BETH-HO'RON, the name of two towns 
or villages, an *< upper" and a ** nether," 
(Josh. xvi. 8, 6 ; 1 Chr. vii. 24), on the road 
firom Oibeon to Asekah (Josh. x. 10, 11), and 
the Philistine plain (1 Mace. iii. 24). Beth- 
horon lay on the boundary-line between Ben* 
junin and Ephraim (Josh. xvi. 8, 5), and 
(xviii. 18, 14), was counted to Ephraim (Jodi. 
xxL 22 ; 1 Chr. viL 24), and given to the 
Kohathites (Josh. xxi. 22 ; 1 Chr. vl. 68 [58]). 
There is no room for doubt that the two 
Bethhorons still survive in the modem vil- 
lages of Be%t'*4r, H-tahta and a^/bio. 

town or place east ot Jordan, on the lower 
levd at the south end of the Jordan valley 
(Num. xxxilL 40) ; and named with Ashdod- 
pisgah and Beth'4>eor. It was one of the 
limits of the encampment of Israel before 
crossing the Jordan. Later it was allotted 
to Reuben (Josh. xii. 8, xiii. 20), but came 
at last into the hands of Moab, and formed 
one of the dties which were ** the glory of 
the country" (Es. xxv. 9). 

BETH'LEHEM. One of the oldest towns 
in Palestine, already in existence at the time 
of Jacob's return to the country. Its earliest 
name was Epiouth or Epioutah (see Gen. 
XXXV. 16, 19, xlviiL 7), and it is not till 
long after the occupation of the country by 
the Israelites that we meet with it under ita 
new name of Bethlehem. After the conquest 
Bethldian appears under its own name Beth- 
lehem-judah (Judg. xviL 7 ; 1 Sam. xviL 12 ; 
Ruth i. 1, 2). The Book of Ruth is a page 
fhxm the domestie history of Bethlehem : the 
names, almost the very persons, of the Beth- 
lehemites are there brought before us ; we ar^ 
allowed to assist at thdr most peculiar cus- 
toms, and to witness the very springs of those 
events which have conferred immortaUty <m 
the name of the place. The elevation of 
David to the kingdom does 'not appear to 
have aflbcted the fbrtnnes of his native town. 
— ^The few remaining casual notices of Beth- 
lehem in the Old Testament may be quickly 
enumerated. It was fortified by Rehoboam 
(3 Chr. xi. 6). By the time of the captivity, 
the Inn of Chimham by Bethlehem appears 
to have become the recognised point of de- 
parture for travellers to Egypt (Jer. xlL 
17).— In the New Testament Bethlehem re- 
tains its distinctive title of Bethlehem-Judah 
(Matt ii. 1, 5), and once, in the announoe- 
ment of the Angels, the "dty of David" 
(Luke ii. 4 ; oomp. John viL 43). The pas- 
sages Just quoted, and the few which follow, 
exhaust the reflsrenoes to it in the N. T. 
(Matt. il. 6, 8, 16 ; Luke ii. 15). Tho mo- 

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den town of BeU-lakm lies to the E. of the 
main rotd from Jenmlem to Hebron, 6 milee 
from the fbnner. It eorere the £. uid N.E. 
parts of the ridge of a long grey hUl of Jora 
Umestone, which etands nearly due E. and 
W., and is about a mUe in length. The hill 
bM a deep ralley on the N. and another on 
the 8. On the top lies the Tillage in a kind 
of irregolar triangle. The population is about 
SOOO souls, entirely Cihristians. 

BETH-ME'ON, Jer. xlTiiL 23. A o( 
traoted form of the name elsewhere giren as 


BBTH-NDl'ilAH, one of the fenced dties 
oa the east of Jordan taken and built bj the 
tribe of Gad (Num. zzziL 86) and described 
as lying in the valley beside Beth-haran 
(Joah. xliL 27). In Num. zxxiL 8 it is 
ealled simply Nnaun. The name still sur^ 
TiTOS in the Jfahr Jfimrim, the Arab appel- 
latioii of the lower end of the Wady Shoaib, 
where the waters of that Talley discharge 
themselTes into the Jordan dose to one 
of the regular ibrds a ibw miles abore 

BETH'-PEOR, a place, no doubt dedicated 
to the god Baal-peor, on the east ot Jordan, 
opposite Jericho, and six miles above Libias 
or Beth-haran. It was in the possession of 
the tribe of Beuben (Josh. xiiL 20). One of 
the last halting-places of the chOdnni of Israel 
is desig n a t ed — "the ravine over against Beth- 
peo r"(D ent. ilL 29, iv. 46). 

BETH'-PHAGE, the name of a place on 
the mount of Olives, on the road between 
Jericho and Jerusalem. It was apparently 
close to BsTHAHT (Matt. %xL 1 ; Mark xL 1 ; 
Lake ziz. 29), and to the eastward of it. No 
remains however which could answer to this 
position have been found, and the traditional 
site is above Bethany, halfway between that 
village and the top of the mount 

BETH'-KEHOB, a place mentioned as 
having near it the valley in which lay the 
town of Laish or Dan (Judg. xviiL 28). It 
was one of the little kingdoms of Aram or 
Syria (2 Sam. x. 6). BoUnson conjectures 
that this andent place is represented by the 
modem H4mn. 

BETH-SAIDA. 1. •< Bethsaida of Galilee *' 
I John xii. 21), a dty which was the native 
plaoe of Andrew, Peter, and Philip (John L 
44, xii. 21) in the land of Oennesareth (Mark 
vi. 45 ; eomp. 58), and therefore on the west 
dde of the lake. Dr. Bobinson plaoes Beth- 
saida at *Amst»Tabigohf a short distance 
north of Khan Mlnyeh, which he identifles 
with Gapeinaum.— 0. By comparing the nar- 
ratives in Mark vi. 81-58, and Luke ix. 10^ 
17, it appears certain that the Bethsaida at 
which the 5000 were fed must have been a 

second place of the same name on the east of 
the lake. Such a place there was at the 
north-eastern extremity, formerly a village, 
but rebuUt and adorned by Philip the Te- 
trarch, and raised to the dignity of a town 
under the name ot Julias, after the daughter 
of the emperor. Bere in a magnificent tomb 
PhiUp was buried. Of this Bethsaida we have 
certainly one and probably two mentions in 
the Gospels : — 1. That named above, of the 
feeding of the 5000 (Luke ix. 10).— 2. The 
other, most probably, in Mark viii. 22. 

BETH'-SHEAN, or in Samuel, Bstbsbaw, 
a dty, which, with its ** daughter '* towns, 
bdonged to Manasseh (1 Chr. vii. 20), though 
within the limits of Issaohar (Josh. xvil. U), 
and therefore on the west of Jordan (comp. 
1 Mace. V. 52) — but not mentioned in the 
listo of the latter tribe. The Canaanites were 
not driven out Aram the town (Judg. L 27). 
In later times it was called ScythopoUs 
(2 Maoc. xiL 20), but this name has not sur- 
vived to the present day ; and the place is 
still known as BeisOtt, It lies in the Gh5r 
or Jordan valley, about twdve miles south of 
the sea of Galilee, and feur miles west of the 

BETH-SHEM'ESH. 1. One of the towns 
which marked the north boundary of Judah 
(Josh. XV. 10), but not named in the lists of 
the dties of that tribe. It is now '.i«M-^%MM, 
about two miles ttam the great Philistine 
plain, and seven fh>m Ekron. — 0. A dty on 
the border of Issacbar (Josh. xix. 22). — 
8. One of the "fenced dties*' of Naphtali 
(Josh. xix. 88; Judg. L 88).— 4. Anidd- 
atrous temple or place in Egypt (Jer. Ttn» 
18). In the middle ages HeUopolis was still 
called by the Arabs Ain 8h»m$. 

BETH-TAPPU'AH, one of the towns of 
Judah, in the mountainous district, and near 
Hebron (Josh. xv. 58 ; comp. 1 Chr. ii. 48). 
Here it has actually been discovered by Bo- 
binson under the modem name of T^fffUi^ 
5 miles W. of Hebron, on a ridge of high 

BETH'UEL, the son of Nahor by Btihsah ; 
nephew of Abraham, and father of Bebekah 
(Gen. xxiL 22, 28, xxiv. 15, 24, 47, xxviii. 
2). In XXV. 20, and xxviiL 5, he is called 
"Bethud the Syrian." Though often re- 
ferred to as above in the narrative, Bethuel 
only appears in person once (xxiv. 50). Upon 
this an ingenious conjecture is raised b> 
Prof. Blunt that he was the subject of some 
imbecility or other incapadty. 

BETHlJL, a town of Simeon in the south, 
named with El-tolad and Hormah (Josh. xix. 
4>, ealled also Chesil and Bethud (Josh. xv. 
80 ; 1 Chr. iv. 20). 

BETHUXIA, the dty which was the scene 

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of the ohief events of the Book of Judith, in 
which book only the name ooenn. Its posi- 
tion is there described with rery minute 
detail. Notwithstanding this detaU, how. 
erer, the identification of the site of Bethnlia 
has hitherto defied all attempts, and is one 
of the greatest poxiles of saered geography. 
Ton Raomer suggests Santir, which is per- 
haps the nearest to probability. It is about 
three milea fhnn Dothan, and some six or 
seren ftt>m Jenin (Engannim), which stand 
on the very edge of the grMt plain of E«- 

BETH-ZACHABrAS. [Bath-Zacharias.] 

BETH'-ZUR, a town in the mountains of 
Judah, named between Halhul and Oedor 
(Josh. XT. 58). The recovery of the site of 
Bethsur, under the almost identical name of 
BeU-$iir, explains its impregnability, and also 
the reason for the choice of its position, sinoe 
it commands the road from Beersheba and 
Hebron, which has always been the main 
approach to Jerusalem firom the south. 

BEU'LAH, "married,'* the name which 
the land of Israel is to bear, when ** the land 
shall be married" (Is. IxU. 4). 

BEZ'ALEEL. The son of UrI, the son of 
Hur, of the tribe of Judah, and one of the 
architects of the tabernacle (Ex. xxxL 1-6). 
His charge was chiefly in all works of metal, 
wood, and stone. 

BB'ZEK. 1. The residence of Adonl-besek, 
i. s. the ** lord of Bezek " (Judg. i. 5) ; in the 
lot of Judah (Terse S), and inhabited by Ca- 
naanites and Perixsitet (verse 4). This must 
hare been a distinct place flrom— a. Where 
Saul numbered the forces of Israel and Judah 
before going to the relief of Jabesh-Gilead 
(1 8am. xL 8). This was doubtless some- 
where in the centre <tf the oountry, near the 
Jordan valley. No identification of either 
place has been made in modem times. 

of the Beubenites, with suburbs, set apart by 
Moses aa one ct the three cities of rttage in 
the downs on the east of the Jordan, and 
allotted to the Merarites (Deut iv. 48 ; Jodu 
XX. 8, xxi. 86 ; 1 Chr. vi. 78). 

BIBLE.— L When the Books of the Old 
Testament were formed into a Canon [Camok] 
it was natural to give a general name to the 
collection. The earliest instance of such a 
title ooours in Daniel, who refers to "the 
books " (Dan. ix. 2) in a manner which seems 
to mark the prophetic writings aa already 
collected into one whole. The same word 
was applied by the Jews in Alexandria to 
the oolleeted books of the Old Testament — 
«u fiifiKot, more firequently tA fiifiKia — ^whenoe 
the word Bxblx, or The Book, has been given 
to the oolleeted books of the Old and New 

Testaments. The writers of the New Testa- 
ment call the books of the Old Testament 
either Tho Seripturt (n ypo4^» Acts viii. 82 ; 
Gal. iU. 22 ; 2 Tim. iU. 16), or The SeHphtroo 
(aiypoitMC Matt. xxi. 42; Luke xxiv. 27), 
or 7%o Holy Soripturto {rk UfA ypdfifLar^ 
2 Tim. iiL 15). The use of the phrase 
1^ iroAoia 8ui^in) in 2 Cor. iii. 14, for the law 
as read in the synagogues, led gradually to 
the extension of the word to include the 
other books of the Jewish Scriptures. Of the 
Latin equivalents, which were adopted hy 
different writers {Instrume nt m m t Ttttm m en 
tum)t the latter met with the most general 
acceptance, and perpetuated itself in the lan- 
guages of modem Europe, whence the terms 
Old TutameiU and Now Testament, though 
the Greek word properly signifies "Cove- 
nant" rather than "Testament." But the 
application of the word Biblk to the collected 
books of the Old and New Testaments is not 
to be traced further back than the 5th cen- 
tury of our era. — II. The existence of a col- 
lection of sacred books recognised as autho- 
ritative, leads naturally to a more or less 
systemi^ arrangement. The Prologue to 
Eoolesiasticus mentions "the law and the 
prophets and the other Books." In the N. T. 
there is the same kind of recognition. " The 
Law and the Prophets " is the shorter (Matt. 
xL 18, xxii. 40 ; Aets xiU. 15, &c.) ; " the 
Law, the Prophets, and the Pmlms" (Luke 
xxiv. 44), the ftiller statement of the division 
popularly recognised. The arrangement of 
the books of the Hebrew text under these 
three heads, requires however a farther notice 
— 1. The Xoto, containing Genesis, Exoduit, 
Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, natu- 
rally oontinued to occupy the position which 
it must have held from the first as the most 
ancient and authoritative portion. In the 
Hebrew classification the titles were taken 
ftrom the initial words, or prominent words 
in, the initial verse ; in that of the LXX. 
they were .intended to be significant of the 
sul^Jeet of each book. — 2. The next group 
presents a more singular combination. The 
arrangement stands as follows : — 

f Jothoa. 

'^*** ^141AMnael. 



. . { mtnor 

— the Hebrew titles of these books correspond- 
ing to those of the English bibles.— 8. Last 
in order came the group known to the Jews 
as Cethubim, inelnding the remaining books 

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of the He1>rew Canon, arranged in the follow- 
ing order, and irith subordinate diriaions : 
(a) Paabna, Proverbs, Job. (ft) The Song of 
Soogs, Bath, LamentaUona, Eoclesiastea, 
Esther— the Ave rolls. (0) Daniel, Esra, 
Nehemiah, 1 and 3 Chronieles. — ^The history 
of the arrangement of the Books of the New 
Testament presents some rariations, not with- 
out interest, as indicating difllerences of feel- 
ing or modes of thought. The four Gospels 
and the Acts of the Apostles uniformly stand 
first. They are so Ikr to the New what the 
Pentateneh was to the Old Testament. The 
position of the Acts as an intermediate book, 
the sequel to the Gospels, the prelude to the 
Epistles, was obriously a natural one. After 
this we meet with some striking diiferenoes. 
The order in the Alexandrian, Vatican and 
Ephraem MS8. (A B C) gives preoedence to 
the Catholic Epistles, and this would appear 
to have been oharaeteristio of the Eastern 
Churches. The Western Church on tho other 
hand, as represented by Jerome, Augustine, 
and their suoceseors, gare priori^ of podtien 
to the Pauline Epistles. The Apocalypse, as 
might be expected flrom the peeuliar cha- 
racter of its contents, occupied a position by 
itself. — in. Divmon into Chapt&n tmd 
Vm^et. — The Bebrew of the Old Testament 
It is hardly possible to concdTe of the litur- 
gical use of the books <€ the Old Testament, 
without soitae kind of recognised dirision. 
The references however in Mark xiL 26 and 
Luke XX. 87, Rom. xL 3 and Acts viiL 82, 
Indicate a di\ision which had become familiar, 
and show that some at least of the sections 
were known popularly by the titles taken 
from their sut^eots. In like manner the ex- 
iiftence of a cycle of lessons is indicated by 
Luke It. 17 ; Acts xiiL IS, xr. 21 ; 2 Cor. 
iiL 14. The Tafanudic divlBion is on the 
following plan. The Law was In the first 
instance divided into fifty-four Panhiotht 
or sections, so as to provide a lesson for each 
Sabbath in the Jewish intercalary year. 
Co-existing with this there was a subdivi- 
sion into lesser Parahioth, A diiTerent ter- 
minology was employed for the Elder and 
Later Prophets, and the division was less 
uniform. The name of the seotionB In this 
ease was Hapkiaroth, Of the traditional di- 
visions of the Hebrew Bible, however, that 
which has exercised most influence in the 
received arrangement of the text, was the 
subdivision of the larger sections into verses 
{ F§m i k im), These do not appear to have 
been used till the post-Talmndie recension of 
the text by the Masoretea of the 9th century. 
The chief fticts that remain to be stated as 
to the verse division of the Old Testament 
ars^ that it was adopted by Stephens in his 

edition of the Vulgate, 1555, and by Frellon 
in that of 1556 ; that it appMred for the first . 
time in an English translation, in the Geneva 
Bible of 1560, and was thence transferred to 
the Bishops' BiUe of 1568, and the Authorised 
Version of 161 1. With the New Testament, 
the division into chapters adopted by Hugh 
de St. Cher superseded those that had been 
in use previously, appeared in the early edi- 
tions of the Vulgate, was transferred to the 
English Bible by Coverdale, and so became 
universal. As to the division Into verses, 
the absence of an authoritative standard left 
more scope to the individual discretion of 
editors or printers, and the activity of the two 
Stephenses caused that which they adopted 
in their numerous editions of the Greek Tes- 
tament and Vulgate to be generally received. 
In the Prefkoe to the Concordance, pubUshed 
by Henry Stephens, 1594, he gives an account 
of the origin of this division. The whole work 
was accompUAed "inter equitandum** on 
his journey fkrom Paris to Lyons. While it 
was in progre s s men doubted of its success. 
No sooner was it known than it met with 
universal acceptance. The edition in which 
this division was first adopted was published 
in 1 55 1 . It was used for the English version 
published in Geneva in 1560, and from that 
time, with slight variations in detail, has 
been universally reeogniied. 

BID'KAK, Jehu's "captain," originaUy 
his feUow-oiBcer (2 K. ix. 25) ; who com- 
pleted the sentence on Jehoram son of Ahab. 

BIQ'THAN and BIG'THANA, an eunuch 
(chambtrlain, A. V.) in the court of Aha- 
suerus, one of those "who kept the door" 
and conspired with Teresh against the king's 
life (Esth. IL 21). The conspiracy was de- 
tected by MordecaL 

BIS'ATH-A VEN, Amos 1. 5 marg. [Avsn 1 .] 

BIL'DAD, the second of Job's three friends. 
He is called "the Shuhite," which implies 
both his family and nation (Job ii. 11). 

BIL'HAH, handmaid of Baohel (Gen. xxlx. 
20), and concubine of Jacob, to whom she 
bore Dan and Naphtali (Gen. xxx. 8-8, xxxv. 
25, xlvi. 25 ; 1 Chr. vU. 18). [BximaM.] 

BIRDS. [SpAxnow.] 

BIR'SHA, king of Gomorrha at the time of 
the invasion of Chedorlaomer (Gen. xiv. 2). 

BIRTH-DAYS. The custom of observing 
birthdays is very ancient (Gen. xl. 20 ; Jer. 
XX. 15) ; and in Job L 4, ftc, we read that 
Job's sons " feasted every one his day." In 
Persia they were celebrated with peculiar 
honours and banquets, and in Egypt the 
king's birthdays were kept with great pomp. 
It is very probable that in Matt. xiv. 6, the 
feast to commemorate Herod's accession is in- 
tended, for we know that such feasts were 

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common, and were called " the day of the 
lring"(Hos. vii. 5). 

BIBTHRIGHT. The adrantages accruing 
to the eldest eon were not deflnitelj fixed in 
patriarchal times. Great respect was paid to 
him in the household, and, as the family 
widened into a tribe, this grew into a sus- 
tained authority, undefined sare by custom, 
in all matters of common interest. Thus the 
" princes " of the congregation had probably 
rights of primogeniture (Num. Tii. 2, xxi. 
18, xxy. 14). A "double portion "of the 
paternal property was allotted* by the Mosaic 
law (Deut. xxi. 15-17). The first-born of the 
king was his successor by law (2 Chr. xxi. 8) ; 
David, however, by diyine appointment, ex- 
cluded Adon^ah in favour of Solomon. 

BISHOP. This word, applied in the N. T. 
to the officers of the Church who were charged 
with certain factions of superintendence, 
had been in use before as a title of office. 
When the organisation of the Christian 
churches in Gentile cities involved the as- 
signment of the work of pastoral superin- 
tendence to a distinct order, the title bishop 
{hrCvKowoi) presented itself as at once conve- 
nient and familiar, and was therefore adopted 
as readily as the word elder {wptafi&npos) had 
been in the mother church of Jerusalem. 
That the two titles were originally equivalent 
is clear firom the following ftusts. — 1. Bishops 
and elders are nowhere named together as 
being orders distinct firom euA other. — 2. 
Bishops and deacons are named as apparently 
an exhaustive division of the officers of the 
church addressed by St. Paul as an apostle 
(PhiL L 1 ; 1 Tim. i. 1, 8).'-8. He same 
persons are described by both names (Acts 
XX. 17, 18 ; Tit. 1. 5, 8).— 4. Elders dis- 
charge Ainctions which are essentiaUy epis- 
copal, i, «. involving pastoral superintendence 
(1 Tim. V. 17 ; 1 Pet. v. 1, 2).— Assuming as 
proved the identity of the bishops and elders 
of the N. T. we have to inquire into— 1. The 
relation which existed between the two titles. 
2. The Amotions and mode of appointment of 
the men to whom both titles were applied. 
8. Their relations to the general government 
and discipline of the Church. — I. There can 
be no doubt that elders had the priority in 
order of time. The order Itself is recognised 
in Acta xi. 80, and in Acts xv. 2. The ear- 
liest use of " blBhops," on the other hand, is 
in the address of St. Paul to the elders of 
Hnetus (Acts XX. 28), and there it is rather 
descriptive of Amotions than given as a 
title.— U. Of the order in which the first 
elders were appointed, as of the occasion 
which led to the institulion of the office, we 
have no record. Arguing from the analogy 
of the Seven in Acts vi. 5, 6, it would seem 


probable that they were chosen by the mem- 
bers of the Church collectively, and then set 
apart to tbeir office by the laying on ot the 
apostles' hands. In the case of Timothy 
(1 Tim. iv. 14 ; 2 Tim. L 6) the " pres- 
byters," probably the body of the elders at 
Lystra, had taken part vrith the apostle In 
this act of ordination. The conditions which 
were to be observed in choosing these officers, 
as stated in the pastoral epistles, are, blame- 
less life and reputation among those "that 
are without " as well as within the Church, 
fitness for the work of teaching, the wide 
kindliness or temper which shows itself in 
hospitality, the being " the husband of one 
wife " (t. e. according to the most probable 
interpretation, not divorced and then married 
to another), showing powers of government 
in his own household as well as in self-oontrol, 
not being a recent and, therefore, an untried 
convert. When appointed, the duties of the 
bishop-elders appear to have been as follows : 
— 1. General superintendence over the spi- 
ritual weU-being of the flock (1 Pet v. 2). 
2. The work of teaching, both publicly and 
privately (1 Thess. ▼. 12 ; Tit L 9 ; 1 Tim. 
V. 17). 8. The work of visiting the sick ap- 
pears in Jam. v. 14,as assigned to the elders 
of the Church. 4. Among other acts of cha- 
rity that of receiving strangers oocupied a 
conspicuous place (1 Tim. iU. 2 ; Tit. L 8). 
The mode in which these officers of the 
Church were supported or remunerated varied 
probably in difibrent cities. Collectively at 
Jerusalem, and probably in other ehurohes, 
the body of bishop-elders took part in deli- 
berations (Acts XV. 6-22, xxi. 18), addressed 
other churches {ibid, xv. 28), were Joined 
with the apostles in the work of ordaining 
by the laying on of hands (2 Tim. L 6). — 
ni. It is clear fh>m what has been said tnat 
episcopal functions in the modem sense of 
the words, as implying a special superin- 
tendence over the ministers of the Church, 
belonged only to the apostles and those whom 
they invested with their authority. 

BITHI'AH, daughter of a Pharaoh, and wlfb 
of Mered, a descendant of Judah (1 Chr. iv. 18). 

BITHR'ON (more accurately "theBith- 
ron "), a place, doubtless a district in the 
Jordan valley, on the east side of the river 
(2 Sam. U. 29). 

BITBTN'IA. This province of Asia Minor 
is mentioned only in Acts xvL 7, and in 
1 Pet L 1. Bithynia, considered as a Roman 
province, was on the west contiguous to Asia. 
On the east its limits underwent great modi- 
fications. The province was originally inhe- 
rited by the Boman republio (b.o. 74) as a 
legacy firom Nicomedes III. The chief town 
of Bithynia was Nioaea, celebrated for the 

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general Ooandl of the Choroh held there in 
▲.». %2i against the Arian heresy. 

BITTER HERBS. The Israelites were oom- 
naaded to eat the Pasehal lamb '* iriUi nn- 
leaTenedhieadand with bitter herbs *> (Ex. xii. 
8). These may well be understood to denote 
Tsrioos sorts of bitter plants, sooh partioolarly 
as belong to the erueiftras, as some of the bitter 
cresses, or to the chicory gronpof tiie eompo^ 
M'tos, the hawkweeds, and sow-thistles, and 
wild lettuces which grow abundantly in the 
Peninsula of Sinai, in l^alestine, and in 

BITTERN. The Hebrew word has been 
the sul^eet of nrious interpretations. Phi- 
lological arguments appear to be rather in 
fiiTonrofthe ** hedgehog" or "porcupine,*' 
tor the Hebrew word kwpSd appears to be 
identieal with km^f^ the Arable word for 
the hedgehog ; but soologically, the hedgehog 
or porcupine is quite out of the question. 
The word oeeurs in Is. sir. 38, xxzir. 11 ; 
Zeph. iL 14, and we are inelined to beUere 
that the A. y. is correct. The bittem {Bo- 
taurm it$ttarii) belongs to the jirdiMas, the 
heron (kmily of Urdk 

BLAINS, Tiolent ulcerous inflammations, 
the iixth plagne of Egypt (Ex. ix. 0, 10}, 
and henee called in Deut. xxriii. 37, 85, 
** the botch of Egypt'* It seems to have 
been the black lepitMy, a toutal kind of 

BLASPHEMY, in Its technical English 
sense, signifies the speaking evil of God, and 
in this sense it is found Ps. Ixxir. 18 ; Is. 
m. 5 ; Rom. tt. 84, Ae. Bat according to its 
deriration it may mean any species of ca- 
lumny and abuse : see I K. xxL 10 ; Acts 
XTiiL 6 ; Jude 9, ftb. Blasphemy was pu- 
nished with stoning, which was inflicted on 
the son of Shelomlth (Ler. xxIt. U). On 
this cha^ both our Lord and St. Stephen 
were condemned to death by the Jews. It 
only remains to speak of "the blasphemy 
against the Holy Ghost," which has been so 
fhiitftd a theme for speculation and oontro- 
Tersy (Matt xii. 83 ; Mark iiL 38). It eon- 
sisted in attributing to the power of Satan 
those unquestionable miracles, which Jesus 
performed by "the flnger of God,*' and tho 
power of the Holy Spirit. 

BLAS'TUS, the chamberlain of Herod 
Agrippa I. (Acts xiL SO). 

BLINDNESS is extremely common in the 
East firom many causes. Blind beggars flgure 
repeatedly in the N. T. (Matt. xii. 33), and 
*• opening the eyes of tiie blind" is men- 
tioned in prophecy as a peculiar attribute of 
the Messiah (Is. xxix. 18, ftc). The Jews 
were specially charged to treat the blind 
with compassion and oare (Lev. xix. 14 ; 
Deut xxTii. 18). Blindness wilftiUy inflicted 
for political or other purposes is alluded to 
in Scripture (I Sam. xi. 3 ; Jer. xxxix. 7). 

BLOOD, I8BUE OF. The menstruous dis- 
charge, or the /huBU$ uUri (Lev. xt. 19-80 ; 
Matt ix. SO ; Mark r. 35, and LukeTiii. 48). 
The latter caused a permanent legal undean- 
ness, the former a temporary one, mostly for 
seven days ; after which the woman was to 
be purified by the customary offering. 

BLOOD, REVENGER OF. It was, and 
even still is, a common practice among 
nations of patriarchal habits, that the nearest 
of kin should, as a matter of duty, avenge 
the deatii of a murdered relative. Compen- 
sation for murder is allowed by the Koran. 
Among the Bedouins, and other Arab tribes, 
should the offer of blood-money be refused, 
the *Thar,' or law of blood, comes into 
operation, and any person within the fifth 
degree of blood firom the homicide may be 
legally killed by any one within the same 
degree of consanguinity to the victim. The 
right to blood-revenge is never lost, except 
as annulled by compensation : it descends to 
the latest generation. The law of Moees 
was very precise in its directions on the 
sobjeet of Retaliation.—!. The wilfkil mur- 
derer was to be put to death without per- 
mission of compensation. The nearest re- 
lative of the deceased became the authorised 
avenger of blood (Num. xxxv. 10). 3. The 

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law of retaliation was not to extend beyond 
the immediate offender (Dent. xzir. 16 ; 
2 K. xiT. 6 ; 8 Chr. xxt. 4 ; Jer. xxxi. 29, 
80; Exek. zTiii. 20). — 8. The involuntary 
shedder of blood was permitted to take flight 
' to one of six Levitical oities, specially ap- 
pointed as cities of ref^ (Num. xxxv. 
88, 28 ; Dent xix. 4-6). 

BOANER'QES, a name signifying "sons 
of thunder," given by oar Lord to the two 
sons of Zebedee, James and John (Mark iii. 
17). See Luke U. 54 ; Mark ix. 88 ; comp. 
Matt XX. 80, &c 

BOAR. [Swims.] 

BO'AZ. 1. A wealthy Bethlehemite, kins- 
man to EUmelech, the husband of NaomL 
He married Ruth, and redeemed the estates 
of her deceased husband Mahlon (iv. 1 ff.). 
Boaz is mentioned in the genealogy of Christ 
(Matt i. 5), but there is great difficulty in 
assigning his date.^a. Boas, the name of 
one of Solomon's brazen pillars erected in the 
temple porch. [JAcnm.] It stood on the 
left, and was 18 oubito high (1 K. vii. 15, 
21 ; 8 Chr. iU. 15 ; Jer. Iii. 21). 

BO'HAN, a Reubenite, after whom a stone 
was named. Its position was on the border 
of the territories of Benjamin and Judah 
(Josh. XV. 6, xviii. 17). 

BOOTY consisted of captives of both sexes, 
cattle, and whatever a captured city might 
contain, especially metallic treasures. Within 
the limits of Canaan no captires were to be 
made (Deut. xx. 14 and 16) ; beyond these 
limits, in case of warlike resistance, all the 
women and children were to be made cap. 
tives, and the men put to death. The law 
of booty is given in Num. xxxi. 26-47. As 
regarded the army David added a regulation 
that the baggage guard should share equally 
with the troops engaged (1 Sam. xxx. 24, 

BOTTLE. 1. The skin botae; 2. The 
bottle of earthen or glass-ware, both of them 
capable of being closed tnua the air. — 1. The 
Arabs keep their water, milk, and other 
liquors, in leathern bottles. These are made 
of goatskinr. When the animal is killed they 
cut off its feet and ito head, and they draw it 
in this manner out of the skin, without opening 
its belly. The great leathern bottles are 
made of the skin of a he-goat, and the small 
ones, that serve instead of a bottle of water 
on the road, are made of a kid's skin. The 
effect of external heat upon a skin-bottle is 
indicated in Ps. oxix. 88, ** a bottle in the 
smoke," and of expansion produced by fer- 
mentation in Matt ix. 17, " new wine in old 
bottles." — 8. Vessels of metal, earthen, or 
glaw ware for liquids were in use among the 
Greeks, Egyptians, Etruscans, and Assyrians, 

and also no doubt among the Jews, especially 
in later times. Thus Jer. xix. 1, " a potter's 
earthen bottle." The Jews probably bor- 
rowed their manufactures in this particular 
from Egypt. 

Skill BottlM. (From the Mumo BortNmloOb) 

BOX-TREE. The Heb. tea$$Mr ooeurs m 
Is. xlL 10, U. 18. The Talmudioal and 
Jewish writers generally are of opinion that 
the box-tree is intended. Box-wood writing 
tablets are alluded to in 8 Esdr. xiv. 24. 

BO'ZEZ, one of the two sharp rocks be- 
tween the passages by which Jonathan entered 
the Philistine garrison. It seems to have 
been that on the north (1 Sam. xiv. 4, 5). 

BOZ 'RAH. 1. In Edom— the dty of Jobab 
the son of Zerah, one of the early kings of 
that nation (Gen. xxxvl. 88 ; 1 Chr. L 44). 
This is doubtiess the place mentioned in later 
times by Isaiah (xxxiv. 6, IziiL 1) in oon- 
nezion with Edom, and by Jeremiah (xlix. 
18, 22), Amos (L 12), and Micah (IL 12). 
There is no reason to doubt that its modem 
representative is el-Busaireh, which lies on 
the mountain district to the S. E. of the Dead 
Sea. — a. In his catalogue of the cities of the 
land of Moab, Jeremiah (xlviiL 24) mentions 
a Bocrah as In ** the plain country " (ver. 
21, i. 0. the high level downs on the east of 
the Dead Sea). 

BRACELET. [See Auclst.] Bracelets of 
fine twisted Venetian gold are still common 
in Egypt In Gen. xxxviii. 18, 25, the word 
rendered <* bracelet" means probably **a 
string by which a seal-ring was suspended." 
Men as well as women wore bracelets, as wo 
see firom Cant v. 14. Layard says of the 
Assyrian kings : " The arms were endrded 
by armlets, and th$ ioruU by hraeelettJ* 

A«7iteD BraoeM ClMpk (HIimtcIi Mutte) 

BRAMBLE. [Tbobks.1 
BRASS. The word neeMtheth is impro- 
peily translated by ** brass." In most plaees 

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of the 0. T. the oorreot truislatioii would be 
ocpper, although it may Bometimee poeeiblj 
mean broiuse, a oompound of oopper and tin. 
Indeed a simple metal waa obviooBly intended, 
as ire fee from Deut. riii. 0, xzxii. 35, and 
Job zxTiii. 3. Copper was known at a Tery 
early period (Gen. It. 82). The word x«^" 
mokifioi^ in Ber. L 15, ii. 18 (A. Y. "fine 
brass"), has excited much difference of opi- 
nion. Some suppose it to hare been oriohal- 
eom, which iras so rare as to be more Taluable 
than gold. 

BREAD. The preparation of bread as an 
article of food dates fh>m a very early period : 
the earliest undoubted instance of its use is 
fonnd in Gen. zriii. 6. The com or grain 
employed was of rarions sorts : the best bread 
was made of wheat, which after being ground 
produced the "flour" or **meal" (Judg. ri. 
19 ; 1 Sam. L 34 ; IK. ir. 32, ztIL 12, 14), 
and when sifted the ** fine flour " (Ex. xxix. 
3 ; Gen. zriii. 6) usually employed in the 
sacred offerings (Ex. xxix. 40 ; Ler. ii. 1 ; 
Ex. xItL 14), and in the meals of the wealthy 
(1 K. ir. 23 ; 2 K. rii. 1 ; Es. zri 18, 19 ; 
Ber. XTiii. 13). "Barley" was used only 
by the very poor (John vi. 9, 18), or in times 
of seareity (Ruth iii. 15, oompared with L 1 ; 
2 ^. ir. 88, 42 ; Rer. ri. 6). " Spelt" was 
also used both in Egypt (Ex. ix. 82) and 
Palestine (Is. xxTiii. 25 ; Ex. ir. 9 ; 1 K. 
xix. 6). The bread taken by persons on a 
journey (Gen. xlr. 28, Josh. ix. 12) was 
probably . kind of biscuit. The process of 
making br sad was as follows : — the flour was 

SffjpCisiw knaadlnc dough with thdr 
rWUkliMaa, Cram ft jMhiUnir ta Um Tomb of ' 

flrst mixed with water, or perhaps milk; it 
was then kneaded with the hands (in Egypt 
with the fSBet also) in a small wooden bowl 
or ** kneading-trough " until it became dough 
(Ex. xiL 84, 89 ; 2 Sam. xiii. 8 ; Jer. TiL 18 ; 
Hos. TiL 4). When the kneading was com- 

pleted, learen was generally added [Lxaysm] : 
but when the time for preparation was short, 
it was omitted, and unlearened cakes, hastily 
baked, were eaten, as is still the preralent 
custom among the Bedouins (Gen. xriiL 6, 
xix. 8 ; Ex. xiL 89 ; Judg. tI. 19 ; 1 Sam. 
xxriiL 24). The learened mass was allowed 
to stand for some time (Matt. xiii. 88 ; Luke 
xiiL 21). The dough was then dirided Into 
round cakes (Ex. xxix. 28 ; Judg. tIL 13, 
TiiL 5 ; 1 Sam. x. 8 ; Prov. ▼!. 26), not un- 
like flat stones in shape and appearance 
(Matt. TiL 9 ; comp. It. 8), about a span in 
diameter and a finger's InnMtdth in thickness. 
In the towns where professional bakers re- 
sided, there were no doubt fixed orens, in 
shape and sise resembling those in use among 
ourselTes : but more usually each household 
possessed a portable oren, consisting of a 
stone or metal Jar about three feet high, 
which was heated inwardly with wood (1 K. 
zTlL 12 ; Is. xUt. 15 ; Jer. Tii. 18) or dried 
grass and flower-stalks (Matt. vi. 80). 

BRICK. Herodotus (L 179), descrlMcg 
the mode <tf building the walls of Babylon, 
says that the clay dug out <tf the ditch was 
made into bricks as soon as it was carried up, 
and burnt in kilns. The bricks were ce- 
mented with hot bitumen, and at every thir- 
tieth row crates of reeds were stuffed in 
(comp. Gen. xL 8). The Babylonian briekn 
were more oommonly burnt in kilns than 
those used at Nineveh, which are chiefly sun- 
dried like the Egyptian. They are usually 
from 12 to 18 in. square, and 8| in. thick. 
They thus possess more of the character of 
tiles (Es. iv. 1). The Israelites, in common 
with other captives, were employed by the 
Egyptian monarohs in making bricks and in 
bunding (Ex. i. 14, v. 7). Egyptian bricks 
were not generally dried in kilns, but in the 
sun. When made of the Nile mud, they re- 
quired straw to prevent cracking ; and crude 
brick walls had firequently the additional se- 
curity of a layer of reeds and sticks, placed 
at intervals to act as binders. A brick pyra- 
mid is mentioned by Herodotus (ii. 186) as 
the work of King Asycbis. The Jews learned 
the art of brick-making in Egypt, and we 
find the use of the brick-kiln in David's time 
(2 Sam. xiL 81), and a complaint made by 
Isaiah tbat the people built altars of brick 
instead of unhewn stone as the law directed 
(Is. Ixv. 3 ; Ex. XX. 25). 

BRIDGE. The only mention of a bridge 
in the Cano n ical Scriptures is indirectly in 
the proper name Geshur, a district in Badian, 
N.E. of the sea of Galilee. At this place a 
bridge stiU exists, called the bridge of the 
sons of Jacob. Judas Maccabaeis is said to 
have intended to make a bridge In order to 

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f besiege the town of Camphor or Caspis, situate 
near a lake (3 Maoo. xii. 18). The Romans 
were the first constructors of arched bridges. 
The bridge connecting the Temple with the 
upper city, of which Josephos speaks, seems 
to have been an arched riaduct. 

BRIGANDINE, Jer. zItI. 4; elsewhere 
" habergeon," or " coat of mail." 

BRIMSTONE. The Hebrew word is con- 
nected with gopher f " gopher-wood,'* A. V. 
Gen. ▼!. 14, and probably signified in the 
first instance the gum or reain that exuded 
from that tree ; hence it was transferred to all 
inflammable substances, and especially to 
sulphur, which is found in considerable quan- 
tities on the shores of the Dead Sea (Gen. 
xlx. 24). 

BROTHER. The Hebrew word is used in 
rarious senses in the O. T. as 1. Any kins- 
man, and not a mere brother ; e. g. nephew 
(Gen. xiT. 16, ziii. 8), husband (Cant. It. 0). 
2. One of the same tribe (2 Sam. zix. 18). 
8. Of the same people (Ex. ii. 14), or even of 
a cognate people (Num. xx. 14). 4. An ally 
(Am. i. 9). 5. Any fHend (Job t. 15). 6. 
One of the same office (1 K. ix. 18). 7. A 
fellow man (Ley. xlx. 17). 8. Metaphoric- 
ally of any similarity, as in Job xxx. 19. 
The word iS*Xi^ has a similar range of 
meanings in the N. T. 

BUL. [Months.] 

BULL, BULLOCK, terms used synonym- 
ously with ox, oxen, in the A. Y. as the 
representatives of several Hebrew words. 
Bdkdr, the most oommon. Is properly a ge- 
neric name for homed cattle when of tixM 
age and flt for the plough. Accordingly it 
is variously rendered bullock (Is. Ixv. 25), 
eoto (Ex. iT. 15), oxen (Gen. xii. 16). In Is. 
U. 20, the " wild bull " ("wild ox " In Deut. 
xiv. 5) was possibly one of the larger species 
of antelope, and took its name ftrom its swift- 
ness. Dr. Robinson mentions large herds of 
black and almost hairless bufEaloes as still 
existing in Palestine, and these may be the 
animal indicated. 

this subject we have to notice : 1. the place 
of burial, its site and shape ; 2. the mode of 
burial; 8. the prevalent notions regarding 
this duty.— 1. A natural cave enlarged and 
adapted by excavation, or an artificial imita- 
tion of one, was the standard type of sepulchre. 
This was what the structure of the Jewish 
soil supplied or su^ested. Sepulchres, when 
the owner's means permitted it, were com- 
monly prepared beforehand, and stood often 
in gardens, by roadsides, or even adjoining 
houses. Kings and prophets alone were pro- 
bably burie within towns (1 K. li. 10, xvi. 
6. 28 i 2 K. X. 85, xiiL 9 ; 2 Chr. xvi. 14, 

xxviii. 27 ; 1 Sam. xxt. 1, xxviU. 8). Sarah's 
tomb and Rachel's seem to have been chosen 
merely fh)m the accident of the place of 
death ; but the sucoessiTe interments at the 
former (Gen. xlix. 31) are a ehronide of the 
strong family feeling among the Jews. Cities 
soon became populous and demanded ceme- 
teries (Ez. xxxix. 15), which were placed 
without the walls. Sepulchres were marked 
sometimes by pUlars, as that of Rachel, or 
by pyramids as those of the Asmoneans at 
Modin. Such as were not otherwise notice- 
able were scrupulously "whited" (Matt, 
xxiii. 27) once a year, after the rains before 
the passover, to warn passers by of defile- 
ment. — 2. "The manner of the Jews'* in- 
cluded the use of spices, where they oould 
command the means. Thus Asa lay in a 
"bed of spices" (2 Chr. xvi. 11). A portion 
of these were burnt in honour of the deceased, 
and to this use was probably destined part of 
the 100 pounds weight of " myrrh and aloes " 
in our Lord's case. In no instance, save 
that of Saul and his sons, were the bodies 
burned; and even then the bones were in- 
terred, and re-exhumed for solemn entomb- 
ment. It was the office of the next of kin to 
perform and preside over the whole funereal 
office ; but a company of public buriers, ori- 
ginating in an exceptional necessity (£s. 
xxxix. 12-14), had become, it seems, cus- 
tomary in the times of the N. T. (Acts v. 
6, 10). The bier, the word for which in the 
O. T. is the same as that rendered "bed" 
was borne by the nearest relatives. The 
grave-clothes were probably of the foshion 
worn in life, but swathed and fastened with 
bandages, and the head covered separately. — 
8. The precedent of Jacob's and Joseph's re- 
mains being returned to the land of Canaan 
was followed, in wish at least, by every pious 
Jew. Following a similar notion, some of 
the Rabbins taught that only in that land 
oould those who were buried obtain a share 
in the resurrection which was to usher in 
Messiah's reign on earth. Tombs were, in 
popular belief; led by the same teschinirff 
invested with traditions. 

BURNT-OFFERING. The word is appUed 
to the offering, which was wholly consumed 
by fire on the altar, and the whole of which, 
except the refUse ashes, " ascended " in the 
smoke to God. The burnt-offering is first 
named in Gen. viiL 20, as ofliered alter the 
Flood. Throughout the whole of the Book 
of Genesis (see xt. 9, 17, xxii. 2, 7, 8, 18} 
it appears to be the only sacrifice referred to ; 
afterwards it became distinguished as one of 
the regular classes of sacrifice under the 
Mosaic law. The meaning of the whole 
burnt-offering was that which is the originnl 

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Digitized by V3OOQ IC 

Digitized by 





idM of all taoriflee, the oflbring by the saorl- 
fioer of himself; soul and body, to Ood, the 
rabmission of his wUI to the WUl of the 
Lord. The oeremoniea of the bornt-offeiing 
are giren in detail in the Book of LeritieoB. 
There were, as public bumUqffifrin^ — 
let. Ths dailjf Immt^erinff* (Ex. zzix. 88- 
42 ; Num. xviU. 8-8). 3ndly. The Sabbath 
hwrnt^ffinring (Num. xxTiii. 9, 10). 8rdly. 
TK0 offering ai the new wuxm, at the three 
great feetivaU, the great Day of Atonement^ 
andfeoH of trumpete. (See Num. xxTiiL 11- 
xxiz. 89). Privaie bumt^eringt were ap- 
pointed at the consecration of priests (Ex. 
xxxix. 15 ; Ler. Tiii. 18, ix. 12), at the pari- 
flcation of women (Ler. xiL 6, 8), at the 
cleansing of the lepers (Lev. xir. 19), and 
romoral of other ceremonial nndeanness (xt. 
15, 80), on any accidental breach of the Na- 
Karitic TOW, or at its conclusion (Nam. ri. ; 
eomp. Acts xxL 26), Ac Bat freeunU burnt- 
f^fftringt were offered and accepted by God 
on any solemn occasions (Num. Til.; 1 K. 

BUSH. The Hebrew word sJ^A oocars 
only in those passages which refer to Jeho- 
rah's appearance to Moses " in the flame of 
fire in the bosh " (Ex. UL 2, 8, 4 ; Deut. 
xxxiii. 16). CeLrius has argued in faroar of 
the iLiAue tmlgariSj i. e. B. frutieosve, the 
bramble or blackberry bush. Sprengel iden- 
tifies the tineh with what he terms the 
Subtti eanetue, and says it grows abnndantly 
near Sinai. It is quite impossible to say 
what kind of thorn bush is intended. 

BUTTER, curdled milk (Oen. xriil. 8; 
Dent, xxxii. 14 ; Judg. t. 25 ; Job xx. 17). 
Milk is generally offered to trarellers in Pa- 
lestine in a curdled or sour state, *< Mben^** 
thick, almost like butter. Hasselquist de- 
scribes the method of making batter onployed 
by the Arab women : " they made butter in a 
leather bag, hung on three poles erected for 
the purpose, in the form of a cone, and drawn 
to and firo by two women." 

BUZ, the second son of Milcah and Nahor 
(Oen. xxli. 21). Ellhu "the Buzite" was 
probably a descendant of Bus. 


AB. [MxASVsss.] 

CA'BUL, a place named as one of the land- 
marks on the boundary of Asher (Josh. xiz. 
27). It may fairly be considered as still exist- 
ing in the modem ZoM/, 8 or 9 miles east of 
AkkOf and about the same distance firom Jefat. 

CAE'SAR, always in the N. T. the Roman 
emperor, the sovereign of Judaea ^John xix. 
12, 15 ; Acts XTiL 7). 

8m. D. B. 

CAESARE'A (Acts TiiL 40, ix. 80, x. 1, 
24, xi. 11, xii. 19, XTiU. 22, xxi. 8, 16, 
xxiiL 28, 88, xxr. 1, 4, 6, 18), wan situated 
on the coast of Palestine, on the line of the 
great road from Tyre to Egypt, and about 
half way between Joppa and Dora. The 
distanc e tram Jerusalem was about 70 mOes ; 
Josephus states it in round numbers as 600 
stadia. In Strabo's time there was on this 
point of the coast merely a town called 
'* Strato's tower " with a landing-place, where- 
as, in the time of Tadtus, Caesarea is spoken 
of as being the head of Judaea. It was in 
this interral that the dty was built by Herod 
the Great. It was the official residence of 
the Herodian kings, and of Festus, Felix, 
and the other Roman procurators of Jadaea. 
Caesarea continued to be a city of some im- 
portance eren in the time of the Crusades, 
and the name still lingers on the site {Katea* 

CAESARE'A PHILIP'PI is menttoned 
only in the two first Gospels (Matt. xri. 18 ; 
Mark Till. 27) and in accounts of the same 
transactions. It was at the easternmost and 
most important of the two recognised sources 
of the Jordan, the other being at TeUeUKadi, 
The spring rises, and the dty was built, on a 
limestone terrace in a valley at the base of 
Mount Hermon. Caesarea Philippi has no 
O. T. history, though it has been not unrea- 
sonably identified with Baal-Oad. There is 
no difficulty in identifying it with the Pa- 
nium of Josephus. Panium became part of 
the territory of Philip, tetrarch of Traoho- 
nitis, who enlarged and embellished the town, 
and called it Caesarea Philippi, partly after his 
own name, and partly after that of the em- 
peror. It is still called Banias, 

CAGE. The term so rendered in Jer. v. 
27, is more properly a trap, in which de- 
coy birds were placed (oomp. Ecclus. xi. 80). 
In Rev. xviii. 2, the Greek term means a 

CAI'APHAS, in full Joseph Caiaphas, 
high-priest of the Jews under Tiberius (Matt, 
xxvi. 8, 57 ; John xi. 49, xviii. 18, 14, 24, 
28; Acts iv. 6). The Procurator Valerius 
Gratus appointed him to the dignity. He 
was son-in-law of Annas. [Ankas.] 

CAIN. The historical facts in the life of 
Cain, as recorded in Gen. iv. are briefly 
these : — ^He was the eldest son of Adam and 
Eve ; he followed the business of agriculture ; 
in a flt of jealousy, roused by the rejection of 
his own sacrifice and Uie acceptance of Abd's, 
he committed the crime of murder, for which 
he was expelled fh>m Eden, and led the life 
of an exile ; he settled in the land of Nod, 
and built a dty which he named after his son 
Enoch ; his descendants are enumerated, to* 

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gcthcr with the inyentions for which they 
were remarkable. 

CAI'NAN. 1. Son of Enos, aged 70 years 
when he beg^t Mahalaleel his son. He lived 
840 years afterwards, and died aged 910 
(Gen. T. 9-14). — 8. Son of Arphaxad, and 
fotber of Sala, according to Luke lii. 35, 36, 
and usually called the second Cainan. He is 
also found in the present copies of the LXX., 
but is nowhere named in the Hebrew MSS. 
It seems certain that his name was intro- 
duced into the genealogies of the Greek O. T. 
in order to bring them into harmony with 
the genealogy of Christ in St. Luke's Gospel. 

CA'LAH, one of the most ancient cities of 
Assyria (Gen. z. 11). The site of Calah is 
probably marked by the NimrHd ruins. If 
this be regarded as ascertained, Calah must 
be considered to have been at one time (about 
B.C. 930-720) the capital of the empire. 

CALAMUS. [Rkkd.] 

CALDRON, a vessel for boiling flesh, 
either for ceremonial or domestic use (2 Chr. 
xxzY. 18; 1 Sam. ii. 14; Mic. iii. 3; Job 
xli. 20). 

Bronxe caldron from EgjptUm TlMbM. (Brit Haa.) 

CA'LEB. 1. According to I Chr. iL 9, 
18, 19, 42, 50, the son of Hezron, the son of 
Pharez, the son of Judah, and the father of 
Hur by Ephrath or Ephratah, and conse- 
quently grandfather of Caleb the spy. — ^8. Son 
of Jephunneh, by which patronymic the illus- 
trious spy is usually designated (Num. xiii. 
6, and ten other places), with the addition of 
that of •' the Kenezite," or " son of Kena«,»' 
in Num. xxxii. 12 ; Joeh. xir. 6, 14. Oaleb 
is first mentioned in the list of the rulers or 
princes who were sent to search the land of 
Canaan in the second year of the Exodus. 
He and Oshea or Joshua the son of Nun 
were the only two of the whole number who 
encouraged the people to enter in boldly to the 
land, and take possession of it. Forty-five 
years afterwards, Caleb came to Joshua and 
claimed possession of the land of the Anakims, 
Kirjath-Arba, or Hebron, and the neighbour- 
ing hill country (Joeh. xiv.). This was im- 

mediately granted to him, and the following 
chapter relates how he took possession of 
Hebron, driving out the three sons of Anak ; 
and how he offered Achsah his daughter in 
marriage to whoeyer would take Kiijath- 
Sepher, «. e. Debir ; and how when Othniel, 
his younger brother, had performed the feat, 
he not only gave him his daughter to wif^ 
but with her the upper and nether springs of 
water which she asked for. It is probable 
that Caleb was a foreigner by birth ; a pro- 
selyte, incorporated into the tribe of Judah. 

CALF. In Ex. xxxii. 4, we ar« told that 
Aaron, constrained by the people in the ab- 
sence of Moses, made a molten calf of the 
golden earrings of the people, to represent 
the Elohim which brought Israel out of Egypt. 
Probably it was a wooden figure Uuninated 
with gold, a process which is known to have 
existed in Egypt "A (filded ox covered 
with a pall " was an emblem of Osiris (Wilk- 
inson, iv. 335). To punish the apostasy Moeea 
burnt the calf, and then grinding it to powder 
scattered it over the water, which he made 
the people drink. The process which he used 
is difficult of explanation. Bochart and Bo- 
senmdller think that he merely cut, ground, 
and filed the gold to powder. It has always 
been a great dispute respecting thia calf and 
those of Jeroboam, whether, I. the Jews in- 
tended them for some Egyptian god, or IL 

BroDse Plgnre of Apli. (Wllklnaoa.; 

for a mere cherubic symbol of Jehovah. Of 
the various sacred cows of Egypt, thoee of 
Isis, of Athor, and of the three kinds of 
sacred bulls. Apis, Basis, and Mnevis, Sir O. 
Wilkinson fixes on the latter as the prototype 
of the golden calf. It seems to uh more likely 
that in this oal^worship the Jews merely 

•* LOmtad their Mak«r to tlM graved ox,** 
or in other words, adopted a well-unders^cod 
cherubic emblem. The calf at Dan was 

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earried away bj T^lath-Pileser, and that of 
Bethel ten years after by his son Shalmaueser. 

CAL'NEH, or CAL'NO, appears in Genesis 
(x. 10) arnon^ the cities of Nimrod. Probably 
the dte is the modem Niffw, In the 8th 
eentnry b.g. Cahieh was taken by one of the 
Assyrian kings, and never reoorered its pros- 
perity (Is. X. 9 ; Am. vi. 3). 

CAL'YA&T, a word ocoorring in the A. T. 
only in Luke xxiiL S3, and there arising from 
the translators having literally adopted the 
word tfo/mria, i. e. a bare scoll, the Yolgate 
rendering of icpovibi'* which again is nothing 
bat the Greek for Golgotha. The popular 
expression "Mount Calvary" is not war- 
ranted by any statement in the accounts of 
the place of our Lord's crucifixion. 

CAMEL. It is clear from Gen. xiL 16 that 
eamels were early known to the Egyptians, 
though no representation of this animal has 
yet been discovered in the paintings or hiero- 
glyphies. The Ethiopians had ** eamels in 
abundance '* (2 Chr. xiv. 15) ; the queen of 
Sheba came to Jerusalem " with camels that 
bare spices and gold and precious stones" 
(1 K. X. 2) ; the men of Kedar and of Haaor 
possessed camels (Jer. xlix. 29, 32) ; David 
took away the camels from the Geshuiites and 
the Amalekites (1 Sam. xxviL 2, xxx. 17) ; 
forty camels' burden of good things were sent 
to Elisha bf Benhadad king of Syria from 

Amfaian Camel. 

Damascus (2 K. viii. 9); the Ishmaelites 
trafficked with Egypt in the precious gums 
of Gilead, carried on the backs of camels 
(Gen. xxxvii. 25) ; the Midianites and the 
Amalekites possessed camels " as the sand by 
the sea-ride for multitude" (Judg. vU. 12) ; 
Job had three thousand camels before his 
affliction (Job L 8), and six thousand aAer- 

wards (xlU. 12). The camel was used for 
riding (Gen. xxiv. 64 ; 1 Sam. xxx. 17) ; as 
a beast of burden generally (Gen. xxxvii. 25 ; 
2 K. viii. 9 ; 1 K. X. 2, &c.) ; mnd for draught 
purpoees (Is. xxL 7). From 1 Sam. xxx. 17 
we learn that camels were used in war. John 
the Baptist wore a garment made of camel's 
hair (Matt. iii. 4 ; Mark i. 6), and some have 
supposed that El^ah ** was clad in a dress of 
the same stufT." Dr. Kitto says " the Arabs 
adorn the necks of their camels with a band 
of cloth or leather, upon which are strung 
small shells called cowries in the form of 
half-moons," this very aptly illustrates Judg. 
viii. 21, 26.* The species of camel which 
was in common use amongst the Jews and 
the heathen nations of Palestine was the Ara- 
bian or one-humped camel (C!r>m«/tw Aror 
Mom). The dromedary is a swifter animal 
than the baggage-camel, and is used chiefly 
for riding purposes ; it is merely a finer breed 
than the other : the Arabs call it the H«iirU, 
The speed of the dromedary has been greatly 
exaggerated, the Arabs asserting that it is 
swifter than the horse ; eight or nine miles 
an hour is the utmost it is able to perform ; 
this pace, however, it is able to keep up for 
hours together. 

CA'MON, the paice in which Jaik the Judge 
was buried (Judg. x. 5). 

CAMP. [Ekcampkents.] 

GAMPHIKE (Heb. There can be 

% The word erroneoarty tr»n»lated " eamels " In I 
tUL 10 probab^ lignliUs " mule* « • *»• »»«•*»• 
G 2 

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no doubt that "camphire" is an ineorreot 
rendering of the Hebrew term, which occurs 
in the sense of some aromatic substance only 
in Cant. i. 14, iv. 13. The margin in both 
passages has " cjpress.'* The substance really 
denoted by cipher is the Lawtonia alba of 
botanists, the henna of Arabian naturalists. 
The inhabitants of Nubia call the henna-plant 
XAq/VsA. The henna-plant grows in Egypt, 
Syria, Arabia, and N. India. The flowers 
are white and grow in clusters and are rery 
fragrant. The whole shrub is trom four to 
six feet high. The Lawsonia aWa^ the only 
known species, belongs to the natural order 

GALILEE, a village or town not far from 
Capernaum, memorable as the scene of Christ's 
first miracle (Johnii. 1, 11, ir. 46) as well 
as of a subsequent one (ir. 46, 54), and also 
as the natiye place of the Apostle Nathanael 
(xxi. 2). The traditional site is at K^ 
Xenna^ a small Tillage about 4| miles north- 
west of Nazareth. The rival site is a village 
situated ftirther north, about 5 miles north 
of 8^\trieh (Sepphoris) and 9 of Nasareth, 
near the present J^at, the Jotapata of the 
Jewish wars. This village still bears the 
name of Kana^l-jelU, The Gospel history 
will not be affected whichever idte may be 
discovered to be the real one. 

CA'NAAN. 1. The fourth son of Ham 
(Gen. z. 6 ; 1 Chr. i. 8) ; the progenitor of 
the Phoenicians ("Zidon"), and of the va- 
rious nations who before the Israelite conquest 
peopled the sea-coast of Palestine, and ge- 
nerally the whole df the country westward of 
the Jordan (Gen. z. 18) ; 1 Chr. i. 18). — ^2. 
The name " Canaan " is sometimes employed 
for the country itself. In several passages 
the word is concealed in the A. Y. by being 
translated. These are : Is. zxiii. 8, " traf- 
fickers," andzxiii. 11, "the merchant city;" 
Hoe. zii. 7, "He is a merchant;" Zeph. L 
11, "merchant-people." 

land," a name denoting the country west of 
the Jordan and Dead Sea, and between those 
waters and the Mediterranean; specially op- 
posed to the " land of GUead," that is the 
high table-land on the east of the Jordan. It 
Is only in later notices, such as Zeph. ii. 5, 
and Matt zv. 22, that we find it applied to 
the low maritime plains of Fhilistia and Phoe- 
nicia (comp. Mark vli. 26). 

CA'NAANITE, THE, the designation of 
the Apostle SmoK, otherwise known as " Si- 
mon Zelotes." It occurs in Matt. z. 4 ; Mark 
iii. 18, and is derived (hun a Chaldee or 
Syriac word, by which the Jewish sect or 
Caption of "the Zealots" was designated. 

The Greek equivalent is Z^Ut (Luke vi. 15 ; 
Acto i. 18). 

CA'NAANITES, THE, a word used m two 
senses : — 1. a tribe which inhabited a parti- 
cular locality of the land west of the Jordan 
before the conquest ; and 2. the people who 
inhabited generally the whole of that country. 
— 1. For the tribe of "the Canaanites" 
only — the dwellers in the lowland. The 
whole of the country west of Jordan was a 
"lowland" as compared with the loftier and 
more extended tracts on the east : but there 
was a part of this western countay which was 
still more emphatically a " lowland." " The 
Canaanite dwells by the sea, and by the side 
of Jordan " (Num. ziiL 29). In Gen. z. 18- 
20 the seats of the Canaanite tribe are given 
as on the sea-shore and in the Jordan Valley 
(comp. Josh. zi. 8). — 2. Applied as agenenu 
name to the non-Israelite inhabitants of the 
land, as we have already seen was the ease 
with " Canaan." Instances of this are. Gen. 
xii. 6 ; Num. xxi. 3 ; Judg. i. 10 ; and Gen. 
xiii. 12. See also Gen. xxiv. 8, 87, oomp. 
xxviii. 2, 6 ; Ex. zlii. 11, comp. 5. Like the 
Phoenicians, the Canaanites were probably 
given to c<»nmeroe ; and thus the name bc^ 
came probably in later times an occasional 
synonym for a merchant (Job zIL 6 ; Prov. 
zzxi. 24; comp. Is. zxiii. 8, 11 ; Hos. zU. 
7; Zeph. i. 11). 

CANDA'CE, a queen of Ethiopia (Mero^), 
mentioned Acts viii. 27. The name was not 
a proper name of an individual, but that of a 
dynasty of Ethiopian queens. 

CANDLESTICK, which Moses was com- 
manded to make for the tabemaeie, is de- 
scribed Ez. zxv. 81-87 ; zzzviL 17-24. It 
is called in Lev. zziv. 4, " the pure," and in 
Ecclus. zzvi. 17, "the holy candlestick." 
With its various appurtenances it required a 
talent of " pure gold," and it was not moulded^ 
but "of beaten work." Josephus, however, 
says that it was of etut gold, and hollow. 
The candlestick was placed on the south 
side of the first apartment of the tabernacle, 
opposite the table of shew-bread (Ez. zzv. 
87), and was lighted every evening and 
dressed every morning (Ez. zzvii. 20, 21, 
zxx. 8 ; oomp. 1 Sam. iii. 2). Each lamp 
was supplied with cotton, and half a log of 
the purest olive-oil (about two wine-glasses), 
which was sufficient to keep them burning 
during a long night. When carried about, 
the candlestick was covered with a cloth of 
blue, and put with its appendages in badgcr- 
skin bags, which were supported on a bar 
(Num. iv. 9). In Solomon's Temple, instead 
of this candlestick, there were ten golden 
candlesticks similarly emboesed, five on the 
right, and five on the left (1 K. viL 49; 

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2 Chr. ir. 7). They were taken to Babylon 
(Jer. lii. 19). In the Temple of Zernbbabel 
there was again a single candlestick (1 Maoo. 
i. 28, iT. 49). 

Caadletllek. (rrom Arch of Tltu*.) 

CANE. [Rked.] 

CANKERWORM. [Locust.] 

CAN'NEH (Ex. xxrii. 28), probably a 
contraction of Calneh, which is the reading 
of one MS. 

CANOPY (Jad. x. 21, xill. 9, xtI. 19). 
The canopy ofHolofemes is the only one 
mentioned. It probably retained the mos- 
quito nets or curtains in which the name 
originated, although its description (Jud. x. 
21) betrays luxury and display rather than 
such simple nseftilness. 

generally described as *'the collection of 
books which form the original and authorita- 
tire written rule of the faith and practice of 
the Christian Church. The word Cawmy in 
classical Greek, is properly a itraighi rod, an 
the rod of a shield, or that used in wearing, 
or a carpenter's rule. In patristic writings 
the word is commonly used both as " a rule " 
in the widest sense, and especially in the 
phrases " the rule of the Church," " the rule, 
of faith," " the rule of truth." As applied 
to Scripture the derivatives of Canon were 
used long before the simple word. The 
dtlo "Canonical" was first given to writings 
in the sense of ** admitted by the rule," and 
not as ** forming part qf and ffiving the rule." 
The first direct application of the term Canon 
\o the Scriptures seems to be in the verses of 

Amphiloebins (c. 880 a.i).)i where the word 
indicates the rule by which the contents of 
the Bible must be determined, an! thus 
secondarily an index of the constituent books. 
Among Latin writers it is oommonly found 
firom the time of Jerome and Augustine, and 
their usage of the word, which is wider than 
that of Greek writers, is the source of its 
modem acceptation. The uncanonical books 
were described simply as " those without," 
or "those uncanoniaed." The Apoeryphal 
books which were supposed to occupy an in- 
termediate position, were called "books 
read," or " ecclesiastical," though the latter 
title was also applied to the canonical Scrip- 
tures. The canonical books were also called 
"books of the Testament," and Jerome 
styled the whole collection by the striking 
name of " the holy library," which happily 
expresses the unity and variety of the Bible. 
Popular belief assigned to Ezra and "the 
great synagogue " the task of collecting and 
promulgating the Scriptures as part of their 
work in organiaing the Jewish Church. 
Doubts have been thrown upon this belief, 
but it is in every way consistent with the his- 
tory of Judaism and with the internal evi- 
dence of the books themselves. After the 
Macoabaean persecution the history of the 
formation of the Canon is merged in the his- 
tory of its contents. The Old Testament 
appears fhmi that time as a whole. The 
complete Canon of the New Testament, as 
commonly received at present, was ratified 
at the third Council or Cakthaob (a.x). 897), 
and firom that time was accepted throughout 
the Latin Church. Respecting the books of 
which the Canon is composed, see the article 


CANTICLES, Song of Songs, i. e. the most 
beautiful of songs, entitled in the A. V. Thk 
Bono op Soloxok. — I. Author and date, — By 
the Hebrew title it is ascribed to Solomon ; and 
so in all the versions, and by the majority of 
Jewish and Christian writers, ancient and 
modem. A few of the Talmudical writers as- 
signed it to the age of Heaekiah. More recent 
criticism, however, has called in question this 
deep-rooted, and well accredited tradition, 
but on the whole it seems unnecessary to 
depart firom the plain meaning of the Hebrew 
title. Supposing the date fixed to the reign 
of Solomon, there is great difficxUty in deter- 
mining at what period of that monarch's life 
the poem was written. — II. Form. — It may 
be called a drama, as it contains the dramatio 
evolution of a simple love-story. — III. Mean' 
ing. — The schools of interpretation may be 
divided into three ; — the mystical, or typical; 
the allegorical ; and the literal. — 1. The mys- 
tical interpreUtion is properly on offshoot 

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of the tUlegoriealt and probably owes iU 
origin to the necesaity which was felt of sup- 
plying a literal basis for the speculation of 
the allegorists. This basis is either the mar- 
riage of Solomon with Pharaoh's daughter, 
or hit marriage with an Israelitish woman, 
the Shulamite. The mystical interpretation 
makes its first appearance in Origen, who 
wrote a roluminous commentary npon the 
Canticles. — 3. Allegorieal. — Notwithstanding 
the attempts which hare been made to dis- 
ooTer the principle of interpretation in the 
LXX. (Cant. iv. 8), Jesus son of Sirach 
(xlYii. 14-17; Wisd. tUL 2), and Josephos 
(e. Apion. i. $ 8), it is impossible to trace 
it with any certainty farther back than 
the Talmud. According to the Talmud the 
belowd is taken to be Qod, the loved one, or 
bride, is the congregation of Itrael. In the 
Christian Church, the Talmudical interpreta- 
tion, imported by Origen, was all but uni- 
Tersally reccired. — 8. The Literal interpre- 
tation. — According to the most generally 
received interpretation of the modem liter- 
alists, the Song is intended to display the 
victory of humble and constant love over the 
temptations of wealth and royalty, — lY. Co- 
nonicity, — ^The book has been rejected ftrom 
the Canon by some critics; but in no case 
has its rejection been defended on external 
grounds. It is found in the LXX., and 
in the translations of Aquila, Symmaohus, 
and Theodotion. It is contained in the cata- 
logue giren in the Talmud, and in the catalogue 
of Melito; and in short we hare the same 
evidence for its canonicit>' as that which is 
commonly adduced fbr the canonicity of any 
book of the O. T. 

CAPER'NAUH was on the western shore 
of the Sea of Galilee (Matt. iv. IS; oomp. 
John vi. 24), and, if recent discoveries are to 
be trusted, was of sufficient importance to 
give to that Sea, in whole or in part, the 
name of the " lake of Capernaum." It was 
in the " land of Gennesaret " (Matt xiv. 84, 
comp. John vi. 17, 21, 24). It was of suffi- 
cient sixe to be always called a " city '* (Matt, 
ix. 1 ; Mark i. 88) ; had its own synagogue, 
in which our Lord frequently taught (John 
vi. 59; Mark i. 21; Luke iv. 88, 88)— a 
synagogue bmlt by the centurion of the de- 
tachment of Roman soldiers which appears to 
have been quartered in the place (Luke vii. 
1, comp. 8 ; Matt. viii. 8). But besides the 
garrison there was also a customs' station, 
where the dues were gathered both by sta- 
tionary (Matt. ix. 9 ; Mark ii. 14 ; Luke v. 
27) and by itinerant (Matt. xvii. 24) officers. 
The only interest attaching to Capernaum is 
as the residence of our Lord and his Apostles, 
the scene of so many miracles and *' gracious 

words." At Nazareth He was "brought 
up," but Capernaum was emphatieally His 
" own city ;" it was when He returned thither 
that He is said to have been ** at home " 
(Mark ii. 1). The spots which lay claim to 
its site are 1. Khan Minyeh, a mound of ruins, 
which takes its name fh>m an old khan hard 
by. This mound is situated close upon the 
sea-shore at the north-western extremity of 
the plain (now SI Ghuweir), 2. Three miles 
north of Kfian Minyeh is the other claimant. 
Tell HCntf — ruins of walls and foundations 
covering a space of " half a mile long by a 
quarter wide," on a point of the riiore pro- 
jecting into the lake and backed by a very 
gently rising ground. Khan Minyeh JSt-Ta- 
bighah, and Tsll Hum, are all, without 
doubt, ancient sites, but it is impossible to 
say which of them represents Capernaum, 
which Chorazin, or which Bethsaida. 

CAPH'TOR, CAPH'TOBIM, thrioe men- 
tioned as the primitive seat of the Philistines 
(Deut. U. 28 ; Jer. xlvii. 4 ; Am. ix. 7), who 
are once called CAPHTORIMS (Dent. ii. 23), 
as of the same race as the Mizraite people of 
that name (Gen. z. 14; " Caphthorim," 
I Chr. i. 12). The position of the country, 
since it was peopled by Mizraites, must be 
supposed to be in Egypt or near to it in 
AlHca, for the idea of the south-west of Pa- 
lestine is excluded by the migration of the 
Philistines. Mr. K. 8. Poole has proposed to 
recognise Caphtor in the ancient Egyptian 
name of Coptos, or the Coptite nome. It is 
probable that the Philistines left Caphtor not 
long after the first arrival of the Mizraite 
tribes, while they had not yet attained that 
attachment to the soil that afterwards so 
eminently characterized the descendants of 
those which formed the Egyptian nation. 

ii. 9; 1 Pet. 1. 1). The range of Mount 
Taurus and the upper course of the Eu- 
phrates may safely be mentioned, in general 
terms, as natural boundaries of Cappadooia 
on the south and east. Its geographical 
limits on the west and north were variable. 
In early times the name reached as far north- 
wards as the Euxine Sea. Cappadooia is 
an elevated table-land intersected by moun- 
tain-chains. It seems always to have been 
deficient in wood ; but it was a good grain 
country, and particularly famous for grazing. 
Its Roman metropolis was Caesarea. The 
native Cappadocians seem originally to have 
belonged to the Syrian stock. 

CAPTAIN. (1.) As a purely miUtary title 
Captain answers to ear in the Hebrew army, 
and "tribune" in the Roman. The "cap- 
tain of the guard" in Acts xxviiL 16 was pro- 
bably the praefectva praetorio. (2.) Kdteittj 

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oecnionmlly rendered cap tmi tt, applies eome- 
times to a military (Joeh. x. 34 ; Jndg. xi. 
6, 11 ; la. xxiL S ; Dan. zi. 18), sometimae 
to a dTU command (e. g. It. L 10, ill. 6). 
(8.) The ** captain of the temple " mentioned 
by St. Luke (xxiL 4 ; Acta It. 1, t. 34) en. 
perintended the guard of prieete and LeTitee, 
who kept watch by night in the Temi^ 

preeent article is confined to the forcible de* 
portation of the Jews fhun their natire land, 
and their forcible detention, under the Assy- 
rian or Babylonian kings. The kingdom of 
Israel was invaded by three or fbur suocessiTe 
kings of Assyria. Pnl or Sardanapalns, ac- 
cording to Rawlinson, imposed a tribute 
(b.0. 771 or 763 RawL) upon Menahem (1 
C3ir. T. 36, and 3 K. xt. 19). Tiglath-Pileser 
carried away (b.o. 740) the trans-Jordanic 
tribes (1 Chr. t. 36) and tha inhabitants of 
Galilee (3 K. xt. 39, comp. Is. ix. 1) to As- 
syria. Shalmaneser twice invaded (3 K. xrii. 
8, 5) the kingdom which remained to Hoshea, 
took Samaria (b.c. 731) after a siege of three 
years, and carried Israel away into Assyria. 
Sennacherib (b.c. 7 IS) is stated to have 
carried into Assyria 300,000 captives firom 
the Jewish cities which he took (3 K. xviiL 
18). Nebnchadneszar, in the first half of 
his reign (b.c. 606-563), repeatedly invaded 
Judaea, besieged Jerusalem, carried away the 
inhabitants to Babylon, and destroyed the 
Temple. Two distinct deportations are men- 
tioned in 3 E. xxiv. 14 (inchiding 10,000 
persons) and xxv. 11. One in 3 Chr. xxxvi. 
30. Three in Jer. lii. 38-80, including 4600 
persons, and one in Dan. i. 3. The two 
principal deportations were, (1) that which 
took place b.c. 598, when Jehoiaohin with all 
the nobles, soldiers, and artificers was carried 
away ; and (3) that which followed the de- 
struction of the Temple and the capture of 
Zedekiah b.c 588. The 70 years of captivity 
predicted by Jeremiah (xxv. 13) are dated 
by Prideaux fhmi B.C. 606. The captivity of 
Ezekiel dates ftrom b.c. 598, when that pro- 
phet, lilu Mordecal the uncle of Esther (Esth. 
ii. 6), accompanied Jehoiachin. The captives 
were treated not as slaves but as colonists. 
The Babylonian captivity was brought to a 
doee by the decree (Ear. i. 3)'of Cyrus (b.c. 
536), and the return of a portion of the 
natlim under Sheshbazaar or Zerubbabel (b.c. 
535), Ezra (b.c. 458), and Nehemiah (b.c 
445). The number who returned upon the 
decree of b.c 536 was 43,360, besides serv- 
ants. Those who were left in Assyria (Esth. 
Tiii. 9, 11), and kept up their national dis- 
tinotions, were known as The Dispersion 
(John vii. 35 ; 1 Pet. L 1 ; James i. 1). Many 
attempts have been made to diseover the ten 

tribes existing as a distinct community. But 
though history bears no witness of their 
present distinct existence, it enaUes us to 
track the fbotsteps of the departing race in 
four directions after the time of the Captivity. 
(1.) Some returned and mixed with the Jews 
(Luke U. 36 ; Phil. iiL 5, ftc). (3.) Some 
were left in Samaria, mingled with the Sa- 
maritans (Ear. vL 31 ; John iv. 13), and be- 
came bitter enemies of the Jews. (3.) Many 
remained in Assyria, and were recognised 
as an integral part of the Dispersion (see 
Acts ii. 9, xxvi. 7). (4.) Most, probably, 
apostatised in Assyria, adopted the usages 
and idolatry of the nations among whom they 
were planted, and became wholly swallowed 
up in them. 

CARBUNCLE. The representative in the 
A. v. of the Hebrew words *dtddeh and bdr- 
kath or 5<2r«AeM.— 1. *Skddeh (Is. Uv. 13) 
may be a general term to denote any bright 
sparkling gfn, but it is impoMible to deter- 
mine its real meaning. — 3. Bdrlfkath, hdre^ 
lw<A (Ex.xxvlii. 17. xxxix. 10; £a. xxviiL 13), 
is supposed to be the smaragdns or emerald. 

CAR'CHEMISH occupied nearly the site 
of the later Mabugt or Hierapolis. It seems 
to have commanded the ordinary passage of 
the Euphrates at Sir, or Btrth-j^. Carohe- 
mish appears to have been taken by Pharaoh- 
Necho shortly after the battle of Megiddo 
(o. B.o. 608), and retaken by Nebuchadneaaar 
after a battle three years later, b.c 605 (Jer. 
xlvi. 3). 

CA'RIA, the southern part of the regi<nL 
which in the N. T. is called Asia, and the 
south-western part of the peninsoJa of Asia 
Minor. At an earlier period we find it men- 
tioned as a separate district (1 Mace. xv. 33). 
A little later it was incorporated in the pro- 
vince of Asia. 

CAR'MEL. 1. A mountain which forms 
one of the most striking and characteristic 
features of the country of Palestine. As if 
to accentuate more distinctly the bay which 
forms the one indentation in the coast, this 
noble ridge, the only headland of lower and 
central Palestine, forms its southern bound- 
ary, running out with a bold bluff promon- 
tory all but into the very waves of the Medi- 
terranean.' From this point it stretches in a 
nearly straight line, bearing about S.8.E., for 
a little more than twelve miles, when it ter- 
minates suddenly in a bluff somewhat corre- 
sponding to its western end, breaking down 
abruptly into the hills of Jmin and Samaria, 
which form at that part the central mass of 
the country. Carmel thus stands as a wall 
between the maritime plain of Sharon on the 
south, and the more inland expanse of Es- 
droelon on the north. Its structure is in the 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 




main the Jura formation (upper oolite), which 
is prevalent in the centre of Western Palea- 
tine — n soft white limestone, with nodules 
and reins of flint. In form Carmel is a 
tolerably continnoas ridge, at the W. end 
about 600, and £. about 1600 feet above the 
sea. There seem to be grounds for believing 
that ftrom very early times it was oonsidered 
as a sacred spot. In later times we know 
that its reputation was not confined to Pales- 
tine. But that which has made the name of 
Carmel most familiar to the modem world is 
its intimate connexion with the history of the 
two great prophets of Israel — £l\jah and 
Elisha. It is now commonly called Mar 
ElyoB ; KGrmel being occasiomdly, but only 
seldom, heard. — 2. A town in the mountain- 
ous counUy of Judah (Josh. xv. 55), familiar 
to us as the residence of Nabal (I Sam. xxv. 
3, 5, 7, 40). 

CARNA'IM, a large and fortified city in " the 
land of Galaad." It was besieged and taken 
by Judas Maccabaeus (1 Maoc. v. 26,43, 44). 
A comparison with 2 Maoc. xii. 21,26, enables 
us to identify it with Ashtksoth-Kaknaxx. 

CARPENTER. [Hawdicraft.] 

CAR'PUS, a* Christian at Troas (2 Tim. iv. 
13). According to Hippolytus, Carpus was 
bishop of BerytuB in Thrace. 

CARRIAGE. This word occurs only six 
times in the text of the A. V., and signifies 
what we now call " baggage." In the margin 
of 1 Sam. xvii. 20, and xxvi. 5-7— and there 
only — " carriage " is employed in the sense 
of a wagon or cart. 

CART, Gen. xlv. 19, 27 ; Num. vii. S, 7, 
8, a vehicle drawn by cattle (2 Sam. vi. 6), 
to be distinguished from the chariot drawn 

EgTpUmn eart with two wheels. (Wflkineon.) 

by horses. Carts and wagons were either 
open or covered (Num. viL 3), and were used 
for conveyance of persons (Gen. xlv. 19), 
burdens (1 Sam. vi. 7, 8), or produce (Am. 
\L 18). The only cart used in Western Asia 

has two wheels of solid wood. But in the 
monuments of ancient Egypt representatioua 
are found of carts with two wheels, having 
fo\ir or six spokes, used for carrying produce, 
and of one used for religioxis purposes having 
four wheels with eight spokes. 

CAS'LUHIM, a Mizraite people or tribe 
(Gen. X. 14 *, 1 Chr. i. 12). The only clue 
we have as yet to the position of the Cas- 
luhim is their place in the list of the sons of 
Mim:aim between the Fathrusim and the 
Caphtorim, whence it is probable that they 
were seated in Upper Egypt. 

CASSIA. The represenUtive in the A. V. 
of the Hebrew words kidddh and ketHoth. — 
1. Kidddh occurs in Ex. xxx. 24, and in £z. 
xxvii. 1 9. The accounts of cassia as given by 
ancient authors are conAised ; and the inves- 
tigation of the subject is a difficult one. It 
is clear that the Latin writers by the term 
eana understood both the Oriental product 
now under consideration, as well as some low- 
sweet herbaceous plant ; but the Greek word 
is limited to the Eastern product. The cassia- 
bark of commerce is yielded by various kinds 
of Cinnamomum, which grow in different 
parts of India. — 2. Ketsidth, only in Ps. 
xlv. 8. This word is generally supposed to 
be another term for cassia : the old versions, 
as well as the etymology of the Hebrew word, 
are in favour of this interpretation. 

CASTLE. [Fortifications.] 

CAS'TOR AND POLLUX (Acts xxviiL 11). 
The twin sons of Jupiter and Leda, were 
regarded as the tutelary divinities of sailors. 
They appeared in heaven as the constellation 
Oemini, In art they were sometimes repre- 
sented simply as stars hovering over a ship, 
but more frequently as young men on horse- 
back, with conical cape and stars above them. 
Such figures were probably painted or sculp- 
tured at the bow of the ship. 

Silver coin of BrutliL Obr. : Head* of Cutor and PoUnx 
to right. Rev. : Caetor and Pollux moanted, adrancing 
to right In the exergue BPETTION. 

CATS occur only in Baruch vi. 22. The 
Greek word, as used by Aristotle, has more 
particular reference to the wild cat. Hero- 
dotus (ii. 66) applies it to denote the domestic 
The contex t of the passage in Bamclk 

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appears to point to the domesticated animal. 
Perhaps the people of Babylon originallj pro- 
cnred the cat fhim Egypt. The domestic cat 
of the ancient Egyptians is supposed by some 
to be identical with the Felit manietUeUa. 

CATERPILLAR. The representatiTe in 
the A.Y. of the Hebrew words ehdnl and 
9eUk.—l, Chd^l occurs in 1 K. riii. 87 ; 
2 Chr. tL 28 ; Ps. Uzviii. 46 ; Is. zxziil. 
4 ; Joel 1. 4 ; and seems to be applied to a 
locust, perhaps in its larva state. — 2. TeUk. 

CAVE. The chalky limestone of which the 
rocks of Syria and Palestine chiefly consist 
presents, as is the case in all limestone for- 
mations, a rast number of caverns and natural 
Assures, many of which have also been artifl- 
dally enlargel and adapted to various pur- 
poses both of shelter and defence. The most 
remarkable caves noticed in Scripture are : — 
1. That in which Lot dw4u after the destruc- 
tion of Sodom (Oen. zix. 80). 8. The cave 
of Maehpelah (zxiU. 17). 8. Cave of Mak- 
kedah (Josh. x. 10). 4. Cave of Adullam 
(1 Sam. xxiL 1). 6. Cave of Engedi (xxiv. 
8). e. Obediah's cave (I K. xviii. 4). 7. Eli- 
jah's cave in Horeb (xix. 9). 8, 9. The rock 
sepulchres of Lazarus, and of our Lord (John 
zl. 88 ; Matt. zzvU. 60). 

CEDAR. The Heb. word erez, invariably 
rendered " cedar " by the A. V., stands for 
that tree in most of the passages where the 
word occurs. The sr«s, or " firmly rooted 
and strong tree,*' from an Arabic root which 
has this signification, is particularly the name 
of the cedar of Lebanon {Cedrut IAban{) ; but 
that the word is used in a wider sense to de- 
note other trees of the Conifera$ is clear from 
some Scriptural passages where it occurs. 
For instance, the ** cedar wood " mentioned 
in Lev. ziv. 6 can hardly be the wood of the 
Lebanon cedars, seeing that the Cedrus Li- 
tnuii could never have grown in the peninsula 

of Sinai. There is another passage (£z. 
zzvii. 5), in which perhaps eres denotes some 
fir ; in all probability the jPotus HaUperuis, 
which grows in Lebanon, and is better fitted 
for ftimishing ship-masto than the wood of 
the Ctdnu Libani. The Cednu Libani, FinuM 
HcUepmsiSt and Jumpenu exoelsar were pro- 
bably all included under the term erez; 
though there can be no doubt that by this 
name is more especially denoted the cedar of 
Lebanon, as being the firmest and grandest 
of the conifers. As far as is at present 
known, the cedar of Lebanon is confined in 
Syria to one valley of the Lebanon range, 
viz., that of the Kedisha river, which fiows 
from near the highest point of the range 
westward to the Mediterranean, and enters 
the sea at the port of Tripoli. The grove is 
at the very upper part of the valley, about 15 
miles from the sea, 6500 feet above that level, 
and ite position is moreover above that of all 
other arboreous vegetation. 

CE'DRON. In this form is given in the 
N. T. the name of tbe brook Kidron in the 
ravine below the eastern wall of Jerusalem 
(John zviil. 1, only). Beyond it was the 
garden of Gethsemane. [Kidron.] 

CEILING. The descriptions of Scripture 
(1 K. vi. 9, 15, vU. 8 ; 2 Chr. iii. 5, 9 ; Jer. 
zxii. 14 ; Hag. i. 4), and of Josephus, show 
that the ceilings of the Temple and the palaces 
of the Jewish kings were formed of cedar 
planks applied to the beams or Jointe crossing 
fh>m wall to wall, probably with sunk panels, 
edged and ornamented with gold, and carved 
with incised or other patterns, sometimes 
painted (Jer. zzU. 14). 


CEN'CHREA (accurately CENCHREAE), 
the eastern harbour of Corinth (t. e. ite harbour 
on the Saronio Gulf) and the emporium of its 
trade with the Asiatic shores of the Mediter- 
ranean, as Lechaeum on the Corinthian Gulf 
connected it with Italy and the west. St. Paul 
sailed from Cenchreae (Acto xviii. 18) on his 
return to Syria from his second missionary 
Journey; and when he wrote his epistle to 
the Romans in the course of the third journey, 
an organised church seems to have been 
formed here (Rom. xvi. 1). 

CENSER. A ranall portable vessel of metal 
fitted to receive burning coals from the altar, 
and on which the incense for burning was 
sprinkled (2 Chr. xxvi. 18 ; Luke L 9). The 
only distinct precepts regarding the use of the 
censer are found in Num. iv. 14, and in Lev. 
zvi. 12. Solomon prepared "censers of pure 
gold '* as part of the same furniture (1 K. vii. 
50 ; 2 Chr. iv. 22). Possibly their general 
use may have been to take up coals from the 
brazen altar, and convey Uie incense while 

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barnlnff to fhe ** golden alUr," or *' altar of 
incense/' on which itwaa to be offered mom- 
ingr and evening (Ex. xxx. 7, 8). So Uisiah, 
vben he was intending **to bom incense 
upon the altar of incense,** took a censer in 
his hand" (3 Chr. xxtI. 16, 19). The word 
rendered "censer" in Hebr. ix. 4 probably 
means the ** altar of incense." 

CENSUS. [Taxing.] 


CEPHAS. [Pbtbk.] 

CHAFF. The Heb. words rendered ehaf 
in A. v. do not seem to hare preciselj the 
same meaning: ehiUhath^dry gran, haj; 
and oooors twice only in O. T., via., Is. t. 
24, xxxiii. 11. Mots is chaff separated by 
winnowing fk-om the grain— the husk of the 
wheat. The carrying away of chaff by the 
wind is an ordinary Scriptural image of the de- 
struction of the wicked, and of their power- 
lessneas to resist God's Judgments (Ps. i. 4 ; 
Is. xTiii. 13 ; Hos. xiii. 3 ; Zeph. iL 3). 

CHAIN. Chains were need, 1. as badges 
of office ; 2. for ornament ; 8. for confining 
prisoners. 1. The gold chain placed about 
Joseph's neck (Gen. xli. 42), and that pro^ 
mised to Daniel (Dan. t. 7), are instances of 
the first use. In Ex. xvi. U» the chain is 
mentioned as the symbol of sovereignty. 
2. Chains for ornamental purposes were worn 
by men as well as women in many coimtries 
' both of Europe and Asia, and probably this 
was the ease among the Hebrews (Prov. i. 9). 
The necklace consisted of pearls, corals, fto., 
threaded on a string. Besides the necklace, 
other chains were worn (Jud. x. 4) hanging 
down as far as the waist, or even lower. 
Some were adorned with pieces ci metal, 
shaped in the form of the moon ("round 
tires like the moon," A. V. ; Is. ill. 18). 
The Midianites adorned the necks of their 
camels with it (Judg. viii. 31, 26). To other 
chains were suspended various trinkets— as 
scent-bottles (Is. iii. 20) and mirrors (Is. ill. 
38). Step-chains were attached to the ankle- 
rings, which shortened the step and produced 
a mindng gait (U. iiL 16, 18). 8. The 
means adopted for confining prisoners among 
the Jews were fetters similar to our handcuffii 
(Judg. xvi. 21 ; 8 Sam. iii. 34 ; 3 K. xxv. 7 ; 
Jer. xxxix. 7). Among the Romans, the 
prisoner was handoufliBd to one, and occa- 
sionally to two guards (Acts xii. 6, 7, xxi. 38). 

CHALCEDONY, only in Rev. xxi. 19. 
The name is applied in modem mineralogy to 
one of the varieties of agate. There can, 
however, be little doubt that the stone to 
which Theophrastus refers, as being found in 
the island opposite Chaloedon and used as a 
solder, must have been the green transparent 
oarbonata of copper, or our copper emerald. 

CHALDE'A, more oorreotly CHALDAE'A, 
properly only the most southern portion ol 
Babylonia, is used in Scripture to signify 
that vast alluvial plain which has been fbrmed 
by the deposits of the Euphrates and tb0 
Tigris— at least so far as it lies to the west of 
the latter stream. This extraordinary flat, 
unbroken except by the works of man, ex- 
tends a distance of 4O0 miles along the course 
of the rivers, and is on an average aboat 
100 miles in width. The general aspect of 
the country is thus described by a modem 
traveller, who well contrasts its ccmdition 
now with the appearance which it must hare 
presented in ancient times. ** In fonner days,'* 
he says, "the vast plains of Babylon were 
nourished by a complicated system of canals 
and watercourses, which spread over the sur- 
face of the country like a networiL. The wants 
of a teeming population were supplied by a 
rich soil, not less bountifhl than that on the 
banks of the Egyptian Nile. like islanda 
rising ftrom a golden sea of waving com* 
stood fk«quent groves of palm-trees and plea<- 
sant gardens, affording to the idler or tra^ 
veller their gratefhl and highly-valued shade. 
Crowds of passengers hurried along the dusty 
roads to and firom the busy city. The land 
was rich in com and wine. How changed ia 
the aspect of that region at the present day ! 
Long lines of mounds, it is true, mark the 
courses of those main arteries which formerly 
diffused life and vegetation along their banka, 
but their channels are now bereft of moisture 
and choked with drifted sand; the smaller 
ofRihoots are wholly eflkced. * A drought is 
upon her waters,* says the prophet, 'and 
they shall be dried up I * All that remains of 
that ancient civilisation — that 'glory of 
kingdoms,' — * the praise of the whole earth,* — 
is recognisable in the numerous mouldering 
heaps of brick and rubbish which overspread 
the surfoce of the plain. Instead of the 
luxurious fields, the groves and gardens* 
nothing now meets the eye but an arid 
waste— the dense population of former times 
is vanished, and no man dwells there.** 
(Loftus's Chaldaea^ pp. 14-15). The true 
Chaldaea is always in the geographers a dis- 
tinct region, being the most southern portion 
of Babylonia, lying ohiefiy (if not solely) on 
the right bank of the Euphrates. Babylonia 
above this is separated into two districts, 
called respectively Amordacia and AwamitU. 
The former is the name of the central ter- 
ritory round Babylon itself; the latter is ap- 
plied to the regions towards the north, where 
Babylonia borders on Assyria. CStfet. — 
Babylonia was celebrated at aU times for the 
number and antiquity of its cities. The most 
important of those which have been identified 

Digitized by 





are Borsippa {Birs-Ifimrwi)t Sippara or Se- 
pharvaim {Mo$ttib), Catha (IbraMm), Calneh 
(J^i^), Erech {JTarka), Ur {Mughsir), Chil. 
mad {Kaheadha), Laranoha {Senkereh), Is 
(Bit)t Dnraba (Akkerkuf) ; bat besides these 
there were a miiltitade of others, the sites of 
which haTO not been determined. The ex- 
traordinary fertility of the Chaldaean soil has 
been noticed by rarioas writers. It is said to 
be the only coontry in the world where wheat 
grows wild. Herodotus declared (1. 193) 
that grain commonly retorned 200-fold to the 
sower, and occasionally 800-fold. The palm 
was nndonbtedly one of the principal objects 
of caltiTation. The soil is rich, bat there is 
now little coltiration, the inhabitants sabsist- 
inir chiefly upon dates. More than half the 
eoontry is left dry and waste from the want 
of a proper system of irrigation ; while the 
remaining half is to a great extent corered 
with marshes owing to the same neglect. 

CHALDE'ANS, or CHAL'DEES, appear in 
Scripture, until the time of the Captirity, as 
the people of the coontry which has Babylon 
for its eapital, and which is itself termed 
Shinar ; but in the Book of Daniel, while this 
meaning is still foond (r. 80, and ix. 1), a 
new sense shows itself. The Chaldeans are 
classed with the magicians and astronomers ; 
and eridently form a sort of priest clasa, who 
hare a peculiar " tongue *' and ** learning " 
(L 4), and are consulted by the king on re- 
ligious subjects. The same rariety appears 
in profane writers. It appears .that the 
Chaldeans {Kaldai or XaUU) were in the 
earliMt times merely one out of the many 
Cushite tribes inhabiting the great aUurial 
plain known afterwards as Chaldaea or Baby- 
lonia. Their special seat was probably that 
southern portion of the country which is 
found to have so late retained Uie name of 
Chaldaea. Here was Ur " of the Chaldees," 
the modem Mugheir, which lies south of the 
Eaphrates, near its Junction with the SluU' 
el-Hie, In process of time, as the Kaldi 
grew in power, their name gradually pre- 
railed over those of the other tribes inhabit- 
ing the country ; and by the era of the Jewish 
eaptirity it had begun to be used generally 
for all the inhabitants of Babylonia. It had 
come by this time to hare two senses, both 
ethnic : in the one it was the special appel- 
latire of a particular race to whom it had be- 
longed from the remotest times, in the other 
it designated the nation at large in which 
this race was predominant. It has been ob- 
sen-ed abore that the Kaldi proper were a 
Cushite race. This is proved by the remains 
of their language, which closely resembles the 
Oalla or ancient language of Ethiopia. Now 
it appears by the inscriptions that while, both 

in Assyria and in later Babylonia, the Shemitio 
type of speech preTailed for civil purposes, 
the ancient Cushite dialect was retained, as a 
learned language for scientific and religious 
literature. This is no doubt the ** learning *' 
and the ** tongue*' to which reference is 
made in the Book of Daniel (i. 4). The 
Chaldeans were really the learned class; 
they were prietfts, magicians, or astronomers, 
and in the last of the three capacities they 
probably eflRBcted discoveries of great import- 
ance. In later times they seem to have de- 
generated Into mere fortune-tellers. 

CosltunM of the Chaldeana. (Bawllnton. Prom 

CHALDEES. [Chaloxaks.] 

CHAMBERLAIN. Erastus, "the ehom- 
herktin** oT the city of Corinth, was one of 
those whose salutations to the Roman Chris- 
tians are given at the end of the Ep. ad- 
dressed to them (Rom. xvL 28). The office 
which he held was apparently th&t of public 
treasurer, or oreartus, as the Tulgate renders 
his title. These aroarU were inferior ma- 
gistrates, who had the charge of the public 
chest {area jmbliea)t and were under the 
authority of the senate. They kept the ac- 
counts of the public revenues. The office 
held by Blastus, ** the king's ehamberUnt^" 
was entirely different ft*om this (Acts xii. 20). 
It was a post of honour which involved great 
intimacy and infloence with the king. The 
margin of our version gives '* that was over 
the king's bedchamber." For Chambbrlain 
as used in the O. T., see Eukxjcb. 

CHAMELEON, the translation of the 
Hebrew eS&ckf which occurs in the sense of 
some kind of unclean animal in Lev. xi. 80. 
Others suppose it to be the lixard, known by 
the name of the " Monitor of the Nile " 
{Monitor NUoUoue, Grey), a large strong 

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reptile common in Egypt and other parts of 

CHAMOIS, the translation of the Hebrew 
zemer in Dent. xiv. 5. But the translation is 
incorrect ; for there is no eridence that the 
chamois has ever been seen in Palestine or 
the Lebanon. It is probable that some moun- 
tain sheep is intended. 

CIIA'NAAN, the manner in which the 
word Canaan is spelt in the A. Y. of the 
Apocrypha and N. T. (Jad. r. 3, 9, 10 ; Bar. 
iU. 32 ; Sus. 56 ; 1 Maco. ix. 37 ; ActsviL 11, 
xlU. 19). 

CHAPITER, the capital of a pillar ; also 
possibly a roll moulding at the top of a 
building or work of art, as in the case (1) of 
the pillars of the Tabernacle and Temple, and 
of the two pillars called especially Jachin and 
Boaz ; and (2) of the layers belonging to 
the Temple (Ex. xxxviU. 17 ; 1 K. vii. 27, 
31, 88). 

CHARGER, a shaUow resscl for re- 
ceiving water or blood, also for presenting 
offerings of fine flour with oil (Num. Tii. 79). 
The daughter of Herodias brought the head 
of St. John the Baptist in a charger (Matt. 
xiv. 8) : probably a trencher or platter. 

CHARIOT, a rehicle used either for war- 
like or peaceful purposes, but most commonly 
the former. Of the latter use the following 
only are probable instances as regards the 
Jews, 1 K. xviii. 44, and as regards other 
nations, Gen. xli. 43, xM. 29 ; 2 K. t. 9 ; 
Acts viii. 28. The earUest mention of chariots 
in Scripture is in Egypt, where Joseph, as a 
mark of distinction, was placed in Pharaoh's 
second chariot (Gen. xli. 48) and later when 
he went in his own chariot to meet his father 
on his entrance into Egypt from Canaan 
(xM. 29). In the funeral procession of 
Jacob chariots also formed a part, possibly 
by way of escort or as a guard of honour 
(1.9). The next mention of Egyptian chariots 
is for a warlike purpose (Ex. xiv. 7). In 
this point of view chariots among some 
nations of antiquity, as elephants among 
others, may be regarded as filling the place 
of heavy artillery in modem times, so that 
the military power of a nation might be esti- 
mated by the number of its chariots. Thus 
Pharaoh in pursuing Israel took with him 
600 chariots. The Canaanites of the valleys 
of Palestine were enabled to resist the 
Israelites successfully in consequence of the 
number of their chariots of iron, i. e. perhaps 
armed with iron scythes (Josh. xvii. 18 ; 
Judg. i. 19). Jabin, king of Canaan, had 
000 chariots (Jndg. iv. i). The Philistines 
in Saul's time had 30,000 (1 Sam. xiii. 5). 
David took from Hadadezer, king of Zobah, 

1000 chariots (2 Sam. viii. 4), and from the 
Syrians a little later 700 (x. 18), who, in order 
to recover their ground, collected 32,000 
chariots (1 Chr. xix. 7). Up to this time the 
Israelites possessed few or no chariots, partly 
no doubt in consequence of the theocratic pro- 
hibition against multiplying horses, for fear of 
intercourse with Egypt, and the regal despot- 
ism implied in the possession of them (Deut. 
xvii. 16 ; 1 Sam. viii. 11, 12). But to some 
extent David (2 Sam. viii. 4), and in a much 
greater degree Solomon, broke through the 
prohibition. He raised, therefore, and main- 
tained a force of 1400 chariots (1 K. x. 25) by 
taxation on certain cities agreeably to Eastern 
custom in such matters (1 K. ix. 19, x. 25). 
From this time chariots were regarded as 
among the most important arms of war, 
though the supplies of them and of horse* 
appear to have been mainly drawn f^om 
Egypt (1 K. xxU. 34 ; 3 K. ix. 16, 21, xiii. 
7, 14, xviu. 24, xxiii. 80; Is. xxxi. 1). 
Most commonly two persons, and sometimes 
three, rode in the cluuiot, of whom the third 
was employed to carry the state umbrella 
(2 K. ix. 30, 24 ; 1 K. xxii. 84 ; Acts viii. S8). 
A second chariot usually accompanied the 
king to battle to be used in case of necessity 
(2 Chr. XXV. 84). The prophets allude fire- 
quently to chariots as typical of power (Ps. 
XX. 7, civ. 3 ; Jer. li. 21 ; Zeeh. vL 1). In 
the N. T., the only mention made of a chariot, 
except in Rev. ix. 9, is in the case of the 
Ethiopian or Abyssinian eunuch of Queen 
Candaoe (Acts viii. 28, 29, 38). Jewish 
chariots were no doubt imitated fh>m Egyp- 
tian models, if not actually imported from 

AmttUd ehurlot. 

CHE'BAR, a river in the "land of the 
Chaldaeans " (Ea. i. 8), on the banks of which 
some of the Jews were located at the time of 
the captivity, and where Ezekiel saw his 
earUer visions (Ex. 1. 1, ill. 15, 23, ftc}. It 
is commonly legarded as identical with the 

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Habor, or rirer of Oosan, to which tamt por- 
tion of the Israelites were remoTed by the 
AssjTiAns (S K. xvii. 6). Bat this is a mere 
conjectore. Perhaps the Chcbar of Esckiel 
is the J^ToAr Malcha or Royal Canal of Nebu- 
chadneszar— the greaUH of all the cuttings 
in Mesopotamia. 

CHEDORLAC/lfER, a king of Elaxn, in 
the time of Abraham, who with three other 
chiefii made war npon the kings of Sodom, 
Oomorrah, Admah, Zeboim, and Zoar, and 
reduced them to serritude (Oen. xiv. 17). 
The name of a king is found upon the bricks 
recently diaooTered in Chaldaea, which is 
read Ztfdor-aiajmto. This man has been sup- 
posed to be identical with Chedorlaomer, and 
the opinion is oonflrmed by the fkct that 
he is ftarther distinguished by a title which 
may be translated ** Rarager of the west." 

CHEESE is mentioned only three times in 
the Bible, and on each occasion under a dif- 
ferent name in the Hebrew (Job x. 10 ; 1 Sam. 
zTii. 18 ; 2 Sam. xriL 29). It is difficult to 
decide how far these terms correspond with 
our notion of ohtne \ for they simply express 
various degrees of coagulation. It may be 
obeerred that cheese is not at the present 
day common among the Bedouin Arabs, 
butter being decidedly preferred ; but there 
is a substance, closely corresponding to those 
mentioned in 1 Sam. xrii. ; 2 8am. xTii., con- 
sisting of coagulated buttermilk, which is dried 
until it becomes quite hard, and is then 
ground : the Arabs eat it mixed with butter. 

CHEM'ARIMS, THE. This word only 
occurs in the text of the A. Y. in Zeph. i. 4. 
In 2 K. xxiii. 5 it is rendered " itloUtrous 
priests," and in Hos. x. 5 ** priests," and in 
both cases **chemarim" is giren in the 
margin. So ikr as regards the Hebrew usage 
of the word it is exdusiTely applied to the 
priests of the false worship, and was in aU 
probability a term of foreign origin. 

CHE'MOSH, the national deity of the 
Moabites (Num. xxL 29; Jer. xlTiii. 7, 13, 
46). In Judg. xi. 24, he also appears as the 
god of the Ammonites. Solomon introduced, 
and Josiah abolished, the worship of Cbemosh 
at Jerusalem (I K. xi. 7 ; 2 K. xxiii. 18). 
Jerome identifies him with Baal-Peor ; others 
with Baal-Zebub, on etymological grounds; 
others with Mars, and others with Saturn. 

life-guards of King DaTid (2 Sam. TiU. 18, 
XT. 18, XX. 7, 28 ; 1 K. i. 88, 44 ; 1 Chr. 
xviii. 17). These titles are commonly said 
to signify " executioners and couriers." It 
is plain that these royal guards were em- 
ployed as executioners (2 K. xL 4), and as 
couriers (1 K. xir. 27). But it has been con- 
jectured that they may hare been foreign 

mercenaries. They are connected with the 
Gittites, a foreign tribe (2 Sam. xt. 21) ; and 
the Cherethites are mentioned as a nation 
(1 8am. XXX. 14), dweUing apparentiy on the 
ooast, and therefore probably Philistines, of 
which name Pelethites may be only another 

CHE'RITH, THE BROOK, the torrent-bed 
or vad>y in which El^ah hid himself during 
the early part of the three years' drought 
(1 K. xtU. 8, 5). The position of the 
Cherith has been much disputed. The argu- 
ment firom probability is in farour of the 
Cherith being on the east of Jordan, and the 
name may possibly be disoorered there. 

CHER'UB, CHER'UBIM. The symbolical 
figure so called was a composite creature- 
form, which finds a parallel in the religious 
insignia of Assyria, Egypt, and Persia, e.g. the 
sphinx, the winged bulls and lionn of Ninereh, 
ftc. The Hebrew idea seems to limit the 


number of the cherubim. A pair (Ex. xxv. 
18, &o.) were placed on the mercy-seat of the 
ark : a pair of colossal size orershadowed it 
in Solomon's Temple with the canopy of their 
contiguously extended wings. Esekiel, L 
4-14, speaks of four, and similarly the apo- 
calyptic ** beasts" (Rer. ir. 6) are four. So 
at the front or east of Eden were posted *' the 
cherubim," as though the whole of some re- 
cognised number. The cherubim are placed 
beneath the actual presence of Jehorah, whose 
moving throne they appear to draw (Gen. iii. 
24 ; Es. L 5, 25, 26, x. 1, 2, 6, 7 ; Is. vi. 
2, 8, 6). The glory symbolising that pre- 
sence which eye cannot see rests or rides 
on them, or one of them, thence dismounts 
to the temple threshold, and then departs 
and mounts again (Es. x. 4, 18 ; comp. 
ix. 8; Ps. xriii. 10). There is in them 
an entire absence of human sympathy, and 
even on the mercy-seat they probably ap- 
peared not merely as admiring and wonder- 
ing (1 Pet. i. 12), but as guardians of the 
oorenant and arengers of its breach, llioee 

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on the urk were to be placed with wings 
stretched forth, one at each end of the mercy- 
teat, and to be made **of the mercy-seat." 
They are called the cherubim of glory (Heb. 
ix. 5), as on them the glory, when TiBible, 
rested. They were anointed with the holy 
oil, like the ark itself, and the other sacred 
fiimiture. Their wings were to be strrtehed 

iMyrtan OtTpboa. (Liqrard, IL 459.) 

upwards, and their faoes ** towards each otiier 
and towards the mercy-seat." It is remark- 
able that with such precise directions as to 
their position, attitude, and material, nothing, 
sare that they were winged, is said oonoem- 
ing their shape. On the whole it seems 
likely that the word "chemb" meant not 
only the composite oreature-fiirm, of which 
the man, lion, ox, and eagle were the ele- 
ments, but, ftirther, some peculiar and mystical 
form, which Esekiel, being a priest, would 
know and recognise as "the flsoe of a cHxnvB " 
(Ex. X. 14) ; but which was kept secret tram 
all others; and snoh probably were thoae 
on the ark, though those on the hangings 
and panels might be of the popular derice. 
What this peculiar oherubio form was is per- 
haps an impenetrable mystery. It might 
well be the symbol of Him whom none oould 
behold and lire. For as symbols of Divine 
attributes, e. g. omnipotence and <»nniscienoe, 
not as representations of actual beings, the 
cherubim should be r^arded. 

CHB'SALON, a place named as one of the 
landmarks on the west part of the north 
boundary of Judah (Josh. xt. 10), probably 
K«»la, about six miles to the N.E. of Ain- 
themt^ on the western mountains of Judah. 

CHE'SIL, a town in the extreme south of 
Palestine, named with Hormah and Ziklag 
(Josh. XT. 30). In Josh. xix. 4 the name 
Bbthx)L occurs in place of it, whence we may 
conclude that Cheail was an early Tariation of 

CHESTNX7T-TREE (Heb. *armSni Gen. 
XXX. 87 ; Esek. xxxL 8) : it is spoken of as 
one of the glories of Assyria, for which the 

** plane-tree " ought probably to have been 
substituted. The context of the passages 
where the word occurs indicates some tTe« 
which thriyes best In low and rather moist 
situations, whereas the chestnut-tree is a 
tree which prefers dry and hilly ground. 

CHESUL'LOTH (Ut "the loins"), one of 
the towns of Issachar, deriring its name, 
perhaps, fhnn its situation on the slope of 
some mountain (Josh. xix. 18). From its 
position in the lists it appears to be between 
Jexreel and Shunem [Saiam). 

CHET'TIIM, 1 Maoc. i. I. [CHrrmf.] 
CHE'ZIB, a name which occurs but (moe 
(Oen. xxxriii. 5), probably the same as 


CHTDON. the 'name which in 1 Chr. 
xiii. 9 is given to the threshing-floor mt 
which the accident to the ark toox p.aee. In 
the parallel account in 3 Sam. tL the name 
is giyen as Nachom. 

CHILDREN. The bleesing of offisprlng, 
but especially of the male sex, is highly 
valued among all Eastern nations, while the 
absence is regarded as one of the severest 
punishments (Oen. xvi. 3 ; Deut. viL 14 ; 

1 Sam. L 6 ; 2 Sam. vi. 23 ; 2 K. iv. 14 ; la. 
xlvii. 9 ; Jer. xx. 15 ; Ps. cxxviL 8, 5). As 
soon as the child was bom, it was washed in 
a bath, rubbed with salt, and wrapped in 
swaddling clothes. Arab mothers sometimes 
rub their children with earth or sand (£z. 
xvi. 4 ; Job xxxviiL 9 ; Luke U. 7). On the 
8th day the rite of circumcision, in the ease 
of a boy, was performed, and a name given, 
sometimes, but not usually, the same as that 
of the father, and generally conveying some 
special meaning. At the end of a certain 
time the mother was to make an offering of 
purification of a lamb as a bumt-ofllering, 
and a pigeon or turtle-dove as a sin-offning, 
or in case of poverty, two doves or pigeons, 
one as a burnt-offering, the other as a sin- 
offering (Lev. xii. 1-8 ; Luke ii. 22). The 
period of nursing appears to have been some- 
times prolonged to three years (Is. xlix. 15 ; 

2 Maoc. viL 27). Nurses were employed In 
cases of necessity (Ex. ii. 9 ; Oen. xxiv. 69, 
XXXV. 8 ; 2 Sam. iv. 4 ; 2 K. xi. 2 ; 2 Chr. 
xxiL 11). The time of weaning was an oc- 
casion of rejoicing (Oen. xxi. 8). Arab 
children wear little or no clothing for four or 
five years : the young of both sexes are 
usually carried by the mothers on the hip or 
the shoulder, a custom to which allusion is 
made by Isaiah (Is. xlix. 22, Ixvi. IS). 
Both boys and girls in their early years were 
under the care of the women (Prov. xxxi. 1). 
Afterwards the boys were taken by the father 
under his charge. Those in wealthy fkmilies 
had tutors or governors, who were B<nnetimea 

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eunuchs (Nmn. xi. 12 ; S K. x. 1. 5 ; Is. 
xlix. 2S ; Old. ilL 24 ; Esth. U. 7). Daughters 
QsosUy remained In the women's apartments 
till marriage, or, among the poorer claases, 
were employed in honsehold work (Ley. xxi. 
9 ; Num. xil. 14 ; 1 Bam. ix. 11 ; Fror. xxxi. 
19, 2S ; Ecdus. liL 25, xlii. 9 ; 2 Maec. 
iiL 19). The lirstbom male children were 
regarded as deroted to God, and were to !» 
redeemed by an offering (Ex. xiii. 13 ; Nam. 
xriU. 15; Luke ii. 22). The authority of 
parents, especially of the tcUher, over children 
was rery great, as was also the rererenoe 
enjoined by the law to be paid to parents. 
The disobedient child, the striker or rerller 
of a parent, was liable to capital punishment, 
though not at the independent will of the 
parent. The inheritance was dirlded equally 
between all the sons except the eldest, who 
reoeired a double portion (Dent. xxi. 17 ; 
Gen. xxT. 81, xlix. 8 ; 1 Chr. r. 1, 2 ; Judg. 
xi. 2, 7). Daughters had by right no portion 
in the inheritance ; but if a man had no son, 
his inheritance passed to his daughters, who 
were forbidden to marry out of their father's 
tribe (Num. xxTiL 1, 8, xxxri. 2, 8). 

CHIL'EAB. [AbioaiIm] 

CHIM'HAM, a follower, and probably a 
MO of BansiUai the GUeadite, who returned 
firom beyond Jordan with Darid (2 Sam. xix. 
87, 38, 40). Darid appears to hare be- 
stowed on him a po ssess ion at Bethlehem, on 
which, in later times, an inn or Khan was 
standing (Jer. xli. 17). 

CHIN'NERETH, SEA OP (Num. xxxir. 
11 ; Josh. xiii. 27), the inland sea, which is 
most funlliarly known to us as the " lake of 
Gennesareth." It seems likely that Chinne- 
reth was an ancient Canaanite name existing 
long prior to the Israelite conquest. 

CHfOS. The position of this island in re- 
ference to the neighbouring islands and 
coasts could hardly be better described than 
in the detailed account of St. Paul's return 
▼oyage fhnn Troas to Caesarea (Acts xx. 
xxi.). Haring come tram Assoc to Mitylene 
In Lesbos (xx. 14), he arriyed the next day 
orer against Chios (r. 15), the next day at 
Samos and tarried at Trogyllinm (<&.) : and 
the following day at Miletus (<&.) : thence he 
went by Cos and Rhodes to Patara (xxi. 1). 
Chios is separated fhmi the mainland by a 
strait of only 5 miles. Its length is about 82 
miles, and in breadth it Taries fhun 8 to 18. 

CHIS^U . [MO!«THS.] 

CmrTlM, KITTIM, a funlly or race de- 
scended fhnn Jaran (Gen. x. 4 ; 1 Chr. L 7 ; 
A. T. Krrmf ), closely related to the Dodanim, 
and remotely to the other descendants of 
Jaran. Chittim is frequently noticed in Scrip- 
ture : Balaam predicto that a Heet should 

thence proceed for the destruction of Assyria 
(Num. xxiv. 24) : in Is. xxiii. 1, 12, it appears 
as the resort of Uie fleets of Tyre : in Jer. 
ii. 10, the "isles of Chittim" are to the far 
west, as Kedar to the east of Palestine : the 
Tyrians procured thence the cedar or box- 
wood, which they inlaid with iyory for the 
decks of their Tessels (Ex. xxrii. 6) : in Dan. 
xL 80, •* ships of Chittim " adranoe to the 
south to meet the king of the north. At a 
later period we find Alexander the Great de- 
scribed as coming fh>m the land of Chbttiix 
(1 Maco. i. 1), and Perseus as kii^ of the 
CiTois (1 Bfacc. Tiii. 5). Joeephus considered 
Cyprus as the original seat of the Chittim, 
adducing as cridenoe the name of its prin- 
cipal town, CStium. Citiam was without 
doubt a Phoenician town. From the town 
the name extended to the whole island of 
Cyprus, which was occupied by Phoenician 
colonies. The name Chittim, which in the 
first instance had applied to Phoenicians only, 
passed over to the islands which they had 
occupied, and thence to the people who suc- 
ceeded the Phoenicians in the occupation of 
them. Thus in Mace., Chittim eridently<= 


CHLO'E, a woman mentioned in 1 Cor. 

CHORA'ZIN, one of the cities In which 
our Lord's mighty works were done, but 
named only tn His denunciation (Matt. xi. 
21 ; Luke x. 18). St. Jerome describes it as 
on the shore of the lake, two miles fhnn 
Capernaum, but its modem site is uncertain. 

CHRIST. [Jastrs.] 

CHRISTIAN. The dlseiples, we are told 
(Acts xi. 26), were first called Christians at 
Antioch on the Orontes, somewhere about 
A.D. 48. The name, and the place where it 
was conferred, are both significant. It is 
clear that the appellation ** Christian" was 
one which could not hare been assumed by 
the Christians themselTcs. They were known 
to each other as brethren of <me fiunily, as 
disciples of the same Master, as belieyers in 
the same fkith, and as distinguished by the 
same endeayours after holiness and conseera- 
ti<m of life; and so were called Weihrm^ 
(Acts xy. 1, 28 ; 1 Cor. yii. 12), diaeiplet 
(Acts ix. 26, xi. 29), heliever$ (Acts y. 14), 
•aimU (Rom. yiii. 27, xy. 25). But the outer 
world could know nothing of the true force 
and significance of these terms. To the con- 
temptuous Jew they were Nasarenes and 
Galilaeans, names which carried with them 
the infuny and turbulence of the places 
whence they sprung, and firom whence no- 
thing good and no prophet might come. The 
Jews could add nothing to the scorn which 

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these names expressed, and had they endea- 
voured to do so they would not hare defiled 
the glory of their Messiah by applying his 
title to those whom they oould not but regard 
as the followers of a pretender. The name 
*' Christian," then, which. In the only other 
cases where it appears In the N. T. (Acts 
xxri. 28; 1 Pet. ir. 16), is used con- 
temptuously, could not have been applied by 
the early disciples to tbemsclres, nor could it 
hare come to them from their own nation the 
Jews ; it must, therefore, have been imposed 
upon them by the Gentile world, and no place 
could hare so appropriately given rise to it 
as Antloch, where the first Church was planted 
among the heathen. Its inhabitants were 
celebrated for their wit and a propensity for 
conferring nicknames. The Emperor Julian 
himself was not secure fh)m their Jests. 
ApoUonios of Tyana was driven fh)m the city 
by the insults of the inhabitants. Their wit, 
however, was often harmless enough; and 
there is no reason to suppose that the name 
" Christian ** of itself was intended as a term 
of scurrility or abuse, though it would natu- 
rally be used with contempt. Suidas says the 
name was given In the reign of Claudius, 
when Peter appointed Evodius bishop of 
Antiooh, and they who were formerly called 
Nazarenes and Galllacans had their name 
changed to Christians. 

BOOKS OF, the name originally given to the 
record made by the appointed historiographers 
in the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. In the 
LXX. these books are called Paralyxmfina 
{i. e. things omitted), which is understood as 
meaning that they are supplementary to the 
books of Kings. The Yulgate retains both 
the Hebrew and Greek name in Latin cha- 
racters, Dibre Jammim, or Aq/amtm, and 
Paralipomenon. The constant tradition of 
the Jews is that these books were for the 
most part compiled by Ezra. In fact, the 
internal eridenoe as to the time when the 
book of Chronicles was compiled, seems to 
tally remarkably with the tradition concern- 
ing its authorship. As regards the plan of 
the book, of which the book of Ezra is a con- 
tinuation, forming one work, it becomes ap- 
parent immediately we consider it as the 
compilation of Ezra or some one nearly con- 
temporary with him. One of the greatest 
difficulties connected with the captivity and 
the return must have been the maintenance 
of that genealogical distribution of the lands 
which yet was a vital point of the Jewish 
economy. Another difficulty intimately con- 
nected with the former was the maintenance 
of the temple senrioes at Jerusalem. This 
oould only be eifected by the residence of the 

priests and Levites in Jerusalem in the order 
of their courses : and this zesidenoe was only 
practicable in case of the payment of the ap- 
pointed tithes, first-fruits, and other ofiTerings. 
But then agahi the registers of the Levitical 
genealogies were necessary, in order that it 
might be known who were entitled to such 
and such allowances, as porters, as singers, 
as priests, and so on ; because all these offices 
went by families ; and again the payment of 
the tithes, flrst-fhiits, fto., was dependent 
upon the different families of Israel being 
estabUsbed each in his inheritance. Obviously 
therefore one of the most pressing wants of 
the Jewish community after their return trom 
Babylon would be trusty geneal<^cal records. 
But further, not only had Zerubbabel, and 
after him Ezra and Nehemiah, laboured most 
earnestly to restore the temple and the public 
worship of God there to the condition it had 
been in under the kings of Judah ; but it ap- 
pears dearly fh)m their policy, and tram the 
language of the oontemporaiy prophets, 
Haggai and Zechariah, that they had it much 
at heart to re-inftise sometiiing of national 
life and spirit into the heart of the people, 
and to make them feel that they were still the 
inheritors of God's covenanted mercies, and 
that the captivity had only temporarily inter- 
rupted, not dried up, the stream of God's 
favour to their nation. Now nothing oould 
more effectually aid these pious and patriotio 
, designs than setting before the people a ccun- 
pendious history of the kingdcm of David, 
which should embrace a full account of its 
prosperity, should trace the sins which led 
to its overthrow, should carry the thread 
through the period of the captivity, and con- 
tinue it as it were unbroken on the other 
side ; and those passages in their former his- 
tory would be especially important which 
exhibited their greatest and best kings as 
engaged in building or restoring the temple, 
in reforming all corruptions in religion, and 
zealously r^ulating the services of the house 
of God. As regards the kingdom of Israel or 
Samaria, seeing it had utterly and hopelessly 
passed away, and that the existing inhabitants' 
were among the bitterest "adversaries of 
Judah and Bei^jamin," it would naturally en- 
gage very little of t^e compUer*s attention. 
These considerations explain exactly the plan 
and scope of that histotical work which con- 
sists of the two books of Chronicles and the 
book of Ezra. For after having in the first 
eight chapters given the genealogical divisions 
and settlements of the various tribes, the 
compiler marks distinctly his own age and 
his own purpose, by informing us in ch. ix. 1 
of the disturbance of those settlements by 
the Babylonish captivity, and, in the follow* 

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ing Terses, of the partial restoration of them 
at the return from Babylon (2-34) ; and that 
this list refers to the Cunilies who had re- 
tamed from Babylon is clear, not only fh)m 
the context, but from its reinsertion, Neh. xi. 
8-SS, with additional matter eridently ex- 
tracted from the public arehiyes, and relating 
to times subsequent to <he return fh>m 
Babylon, extending to Neh. xii. 37, where 
Nehemiah's narratiTe is again resumed in 
continuance with Neh. xi. S. Haring thus 
shown the re-establishment of the returned 
families, each in their own inheritance ao- 
oording to the houses of their fttthers, the 
compiler jyroceeds to the other part of his 
plan, which is to gire a continuous history of 
the kingdom of Judah from DaTid to his own 
times, introduced by the closing scene of 
Saul's life (ch. x.), which introduction is itself 
prefaced by a genealogy of the house of Saul 
(ix. 85-44). As regards the maUriaU used 
by Esra, they are not difficult to discorer. 
The genealogies are obriously transcribed 
from some register, in which were preserred 
the genealogies of the tribes and fomilies 
drawn up at different times ; while the history 
iff mainly drawn from the same documents as 
those used in the Books of Kings. [Kings, 
Books of.] 

CHBT80LITE, one of the precious stones 
in the foundation of the hearenly Jerusalem 
(Rer. xxL 20). It has been already stated 
[BsaTi.] that the chrysolite of the ancients is 
identical with the modem Oriental topas, 
the tar$huk of the Hebrew Bible. 

CH&TS0PRA8E occurs only in Rer. zxi. 
SO. The true chrysoprase is sometimes 
found in antique Egypidan jewellery set alter- 
nately with bits of lapis-lasuli ; it is not im- 
probable therefore tiiat this is the stone 
which was the tenth in the walls of the 
heaTenly Jerusalem. 

CHUB, the name of a people in alliance 
with Egypt in the time of Nebuchadnezsar 
(Es. XXX. S), and probably of northern Africa, 
or of the lands near Egypt to the South. 

CHUN, a city of Hadadexer (1 Chr. xviiL 
8), called Berothai in 2 Sam. TiiL 8. 

CHURCH. I. The deriration of the word 
ehnreh is unoertain. It is generally said to be 
derired tnm. the Greek kuriakcn (xvpuuctSi'), 
•• belonging to the Lord." But the deriration 
has been too hastily assumed. It is probably 
eonneeted with kirk, the Latin otrctis, eircu- 
Ins, the Greek kukla$ (ki^kAik).-!!. JBoelema 
{hucXrivta), the Greek word for Church, 
originally meant an assembly called out by 
the magistrate, or by legitimate authority. 
This is the ordinary classical sense of the 
word. But it throws no light on the nature 
of the institution so designated in the New 

8if.D. B. 

Testament For to the writers of the N.T. 
the word had now lost its primary significa- 
tion, and was either used generally for any 
meeting (Acts xix. 32), or more particularly, 
it denoted (1) the religious assemblies of the 
Jews (Deut. It. 10. xtIU. 16) ; (2) the whole 
assembly or congregation of the Israelitish 
people (Acta Tii. 88 ; Heb. U. 12 ; Ps. xxii. 
22; Deut. xxxi. 30). It was in this hist 
sense that the word was adopted and applied 
by the writers of the N. T. to the Christian 
congregation. The chief difference between 
the words "eoclesia" and "church," would 
probably consist in this, that "ecclesia" 
primarily signified the Christian body, and 
secondarily the place of assembly, while the 
first signification of ** church " was the place 
of assembly, which imparted its nsme to the 
body of worshippers. — III. The Chweh as 
described in the GoepeU, — The word occurs 
only twice. Each time in St. Matthew (Matt. 
xTi. 18, "On this rock wiU I buUd my 
Church;" xtUI. 17, "TeU it unto the 
Church "). In every other case it is spoken 
of as "the kingdom of heayen" by St. 
Matthew, and as " the kingdom of God " by 
St. Mark and St. Luke. St. Mark, St. Luke, 
and St. John, never use the expression 
** kingdom of heaven." St. John once uses 
the phrase "kingdom of God" (iil. 8). St. 
Matthew occasionally speaks of "the king- 
dom of God" (vi. 88, xxL 81, 48), and 
sometimes simply of " the kingdom" (iv. 23, 
xiU. 19, xxiv. 14). In xiiL 41 and xvi. 28, 
it is " the Son of Man's kingdom." In xx. 
21, "thy kingdom," i. s. Christ's. In the 
one Gospel of St. Matthew Uie Church is 
spoken of no less than thirty-six times as 
" the kingdom." Other descriptions or titles 
are hardly found in the Evangelists. It is 
Christ's household (Matt. x. 25), the salt and 
light of the world (v. 18, 15), Christ's floek 
(Matt. XX vi. 81 ; John x. 1), its members 
are the branches growing on Christ Uie Tine 
(John XV.) ; but the general description of 
it, not metaphorically but directly, is, that it 
is a kingdom (Matt xvi. 19). From the 
Gospel then, we learn that Christ was about 
to establish His heavenly kingdom, on earth, 
which was to be the substitute for the Jewish 
Church and kingdom, now doomed to destruc- 
tion (Matt xxL 48).— IV. The Chmreh at 
described in the AeU and in the Jfyistlee-^itt 
Orifftn, Nahtre, and Constitution. — From the 
Gospels we leam little in the way of detail as 
to the kingdom which was to be established. 
It was in the great forty days which inter- 
vened between the Resurrection and the 
Ascension that our Lord explained specifically 
to His Apostles " tiie things pertaining to tlie 
kingdom of God " (Acts i. 8), that is, his 

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future Church.— Jto Origin. — The remoral of 
Christ firom the earth had left hia followers a 
shattered company with no bond of external 
or internal cohesion, except the memory of 
the Master whom they had lost, and the 
recollection of his injunctions to unity and 
lore. They continued together, meeting for 
prayer and supplication, and waiting for 
Christ's promise of the gift of the Holy Ghost. 
They numbered in all some 140 persons, 
namely, the eleren, the faithftil women, 
the Lord's mother, his brethren, and 130 
disciples. They had fidth to believe that 
there was a work before them which they 
were about to be called to perform ; and that 
they might be ready to do it, they filled up 
the number of the TweWe by the i^polntment 
of Bfatthias ** to be a true witness *' with the 
elcTen ** of the Resurrection." The Day of 
Pentecost is the birth-day of the Christian 
Church. The Spirit, who was then sent by 
the Son tnm. the Fa^er, and rested on each 
of the Disciples, combined them once more 
into a whole— combined them as they neyer 
had before been combined, by an internal 
and spiritual bond of cohesion. Before they 
had been indiridual followers of Jesus, now 
they beeame his mystical body, animated by 
His Spirit.— /iCs JVoitire.— "Then they that 
gladly reoelTed his word were baptised .... 
and they oontinned stedfiutly in the Apostles' 
doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of 
bread and in prayers ** (Acts iL 41). Here 
we haTO indirectly exhibited the essential 
eonditiims of Chureh Communion. They are 
(I) Baptism, Baptism implying on the part of 
the recipient repentanoe and faith; (3) 
ApoetoUo Doctrine ; (S) FeUowship with the 
Apostles; (4) the Lord's Supper; (f) Publio 
Worship. Erery requisite ftnr churoh-mem- 
bership ii here enumerated not only for the 
ApostoUa days, tet fbr future ages. St. 
Luke's treatise being historical, not dogma- 
tieal, he does not directly enter further into 
the essential nature of the Churoh. The 
eommunity of goods, which he desoribes as 
being uniTersal amongst the members of the 
infiuit society (iL 44, iy. S8), is speciaUy 
declared to be a roluntary practice (▼. 4), 
not a necessary duty of Christians as sueh 
(eomp. Acts ix. 86, S9, xL 30). From the 
Ulostrations adopted by St. Paul in his 
Epistles, we hare additional light thrown 
upon the nature of the Church. The 
passage whieb is most illnstratiTe of oar sub- 
ject in the Epistles is Eph. ir. 8, 6. Here 
we see what it is that constitutes the unity of 
the Choroh in the ndnd of the Apostle : (1) 
unity of Headship, **one Lord;" (3) unity 
of beUef, "one faith;" (8) unity of Sacra- 
' (4) unity of hope 

of eternal life, ** one hope of your calling ;'* 
(5) unity of love, ** unity of the Spirit in the 
bond of peace ; " (6) unity of organiaatioii, 
"one body." The Church, then, at this 
period was a body of baptized men and 
women who believed in Jesus as the Christ, 
and in the revelation made by Him, who 
were united by having the same faith, hope, 
and animating Spirit of lore, the same Sacra- 
ments, and the same spiritual invisible Head. 
—What was tU Constitution qf fkU hod^ t-^ 
On the evening of the Day of Pentecost, the 
8140 members of which it consisted were (1) 
Apostles, (3) previous Disciples, (8) converts. 
At this time the Church was not only morally 
but actually one congregation. Soon, how- 
ever, its numbers grew so oonaiderably that 
it was a physical impossibility that aU its 
members shoxild come together in one qMt. 
It became, therefore, an aggregate of con- 
gregations, though without losing its essential 
unity. The Apostles, who had been eloeest 
to the Lord Jesus in his UDb on earth would 
doubtless have formed the centres of the 
several oongr^ations. Thus the Qiureh 
continued for apparently some seven years, 
but at the end of that time ** the number of 
disciples was" so greatly "multiplied" (Acts 
vi. 1) that the twelve Apostles found them- 
selves to be too few to carry out these works 
unaided. They thereupon for the first time 
exercised the powers of mission intrusted to 
them (John xx. 31), and by laying their 
hands on the Seven who were reoommended 
to them by the general body of Christians, 
they appointed them to fUlfil the secular task 
of distributing the common stock. It is a 
question which cannot be certainly answered 
whether the oflloe of these Seven is to be 
identified with that of the deac o ns elsewhere 
found. We incline to the hypothesis 
which makes the Seven the originals of the 
Deacons. From this time therefore, or Arom 
about this time, there existed in the Chureh 
— (1) the Apostles; (3) the Deacons and 
Evangelists; (8) the multitude of the faithfUL 
We hear of no other Church-offlcer tUl the 
year 44, seven years after the appointment of 
the deacons. We find that there were then 
in the Churoh of Jerusalem oflSoers named 
Presbyters (xL 80) who were the assistants of 
James, the chief administrator of that Chureh 
(xiL 17). The droumstances of their first 
appointment are not recounted. No doubt 
^ey were similar to those under which the 
Deacons were appointed. The name of 
Presbyter or Elder implies that the men 
selected were of mature age. By the year 
44, therefore, there were in the Church of 
Jerusalem — (1) the Apostles bedding the 
government of the whole body In their own 

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bands : (S) Presbyters inTested by tbe 
AposUes with authority for oondaoting public 
worship in each congregation ; (8) DeaooDs 
or ETangelists similarly inrested with the 
lesser power of preaching and of baptising 
onbelieTers, and of distributing the common 
goods among the brethren. The lame order 
was established in the Oentile Churches 
founded by St. Paul, the only difference 
being that those who were called Presbyters 
in Jerusalem bore indifferently the name of 
Bishops (PhiL L 1 ; 1 Tim. iii. 1, 3; Tit. i. 
7) or of Presbyters (1 Tim. r. 17 ; Tit L 6) 
elsewhere. It was in the Church of Jerusa- 
lem that another order of the ministry found 
its exempler. James the brother of the 
Lord remained unmolested during the perse- 
cation of Herod Agrippa in the year 44, and 
from this time he is the acknowledged head 
of the Church of Jerusalem. A consideration 
of Acts zii. 17, XT. 18, 19 ; Oal. ii. 2, 9, 12 ; 
Acts xxL 18, will remore all doubt on this 
point. WhateTer his pre-eminence was, he 
appears to have borne no special title indi- 
cating it. The example of the Mother 
Church of Jerusalem was again followed by 
the Pauline Churches. Timothy and Titus 
bad probably no distinctiTe title, but it is 
impossible to read the Epistles addresaed to 
them without seeing that they had an 
authority superior to that of the ordinary 
Udiops or priests (1 Tim. ilL, r. 17, 19 ; 
Tit. i. 5). Thus, then, we see that where the 
Apostles were themselres able to superintend 
the Churches that they had fDunded, the 
Church-officers consisted of — (1) Apostles; 
(2) Bishops or Priests; (8) Deacons and 
Brangelists. When the Apostles were 
unable to gire personal superintendence, 
they delegated that power which they had in 
eommcHi to one of themselves, as in Jerusa- 
lem, or to one in whom they had confidence, 
as at Epbesus and in Crete. As the Apostles 
died oll^ these Apostolic Delegates necessarily 
multiplied. By the end of the first century, 
when St. John was the only Apostle that 
now surriTcd, they would hare been esta- 
blished in erery country, as Crete, and in 
erery large town where there were several 
bishops or priests, such as the seven towns of 
Asia mentioned in. the Bocdc of Revelation. 
These superintendents appear to be addressed 
by St. John under the name of Angels. 
With St. John's death the Apostolic CoUege 
was extinguished, and the Apostolic Delegates 
or Angels were left to fiir their places in the 
government of the Church, not with the fhll 
unrestricted power of the Apostles, but with 
authority only to be exercised in limited dis^ 
tricts. In the next century we find that 
thase officers bore the name of Bishops, while 

those who in the first century were called 
indifferently Presbyters or Bishops had now 
only the title of Presbyters. We conclude, 
therefore, that the title bishop was gradually 
dropped by the second order of the mintetry, 
and applied specifically to those who repre- 
sented what Jamn, Thnothy, and Titus had 
been in the Apostolic age. 

CHUSH'AN-RISdATHAlM, the king of 
Mesopotamia who oppressed Israel during 
eight years in the generation immediately 
following Joshua (Judg. iii. 8). The seat of 
his dominion was probably the region between 
the Euphrates and the Khabour, Chushan- 
Rishathaim*s yoke was broken fhnn the neck 
of the people of Israel at the end of eight 
years by Othniel, Caleb's nephew (Judg. iii. 
10), and nothing more is heard <k Mesopo- 
tamia as an aggressive power. The rise of 
the Assyrian empire, about b.o. 1270, would 
naturally reduce the bordering nations to 

CHU'ZA (properly CHUZAS), the house- 
steward of Herod Antipas (Luke viiL 8). 

CILICIA, a maritime province in the S.E. 
of Asia Minor, bordering on Pamphylia in 
the W., Lycaonia and Cappadoda in the N., 
and Syria in the E. The connexion between 
the Jews and Cilicia dates firom the time 
when it became part of the Syrian kingdom. 
In the Apostolic age they were still there in 
considerable numbers (Acts vi. 9). Cilicia 
was fl*om its geographical position the high 
road between Syria and the West, it was 
also the native country of St. Paul ; hence it 
was visited by him, firstly, soon after his 
conversion (Oal. i. 21 ; Acts Ix. 80} ; and 
again in his second apostolical Journey, when 
he entered it on the side of Syria, and crossed 
Antitaurusby the Pylae Ciliciae into Lycaonia 
(Acts XV. 41). 

CINNAMON, a well-known aromatic sub- 
stance, the rind of the Launu dfrnamomutn^ 
called Konmda-gaukdh in Ceylon. It is 
mentioned in Ex. xxx. 28 as one of Uie com- 
ponent parts of the holy anointiDg oil, which 
Moses was commanded to prepare— in Prov. 
vii. 17 as a perftime for the bed— and in 
Cant. iv. 14 as one of the plants of the 
garden which is the image of the spouse. In 
Rev. xviii. 18 it is enumerated among the 
merchandise of Uie great Babylon. It was 
imported into Judaea by the Phoenicians or 
by the Arabians, and is now ftmnd in Suma- 
tra, Borneo, China, Ac, but chiefly, and of 
the best quality, in the 8.W. part of Ceylon. 

CIN'NEROTH, ALL, a district named 
with the "land of Naphtali" and other 
northern places as having been laid waste by 
Renhadad (1 K. xv. 20). It was possibly 
I the small enclosed district north of Tiberiasy 
U 2 

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and by the side of the lake, afterwards known 
as " the plain of Oennesareth." 

CIRCUMCISION was peculiarly, though 
not exclusively, a Jewish rite. It was 
enjoined upon Abraham, the father of the 
nation, by God, at the institution, and as the 
token, of the Covenant, which assured to him 
and his descendants the promise of the 
Messiah (Gen. xvii.). It was thus made a 
necessary condition of Jewish nationality. 
Every male child was to be circumcised when 
eight days old (Lev. xii. 8) on pain of death. 
If the eighth day were a Sabbath the rite was 
not postponed (John vlL 22, 23). Slaves, 
whether homeborn or purchased, were cir- 
cumcised (Gen. xvii. 12, 13) ; and foreigners 
must have their males circumcised before 
they could be allowed to partake of the 
paasover (Ex. xii. 48), or become Jewish 
oitisens. It seems to have been customary 
to name a child when it was circumcised 
(Luke i. 59). The use of circumcision by 
other nations besides the Jews is to be 
gathered almost entirely fh)m sources ex- 
traneous to the Bible. The rite has been 
found to prevail extensively both in ancient 
and modern times. The biblical notice of 
the rite describes it as distinctively Jewish ; 
so that in the N. T. *' the circumcision " and 
"the unclrcumcision " are frequently used 
as synonyms for the Jews and the Gentiles. 
Circumcision certainly belonged to the Jews 
as it did to no other people, by virtue of its 
divme institution, of the religious privileges 
which were attached to it, and of the strict 
regulations which enforced its observance. 
Moreover, the O.T. history incidently discloses 
the fact that many, if not all, of the nations 
with whom they came in contact were undr- 
eumcised. The origin of the custom amongst 
one large section of those Gentiles who follow 
it, is to be found in the biblical record of the 
eiroomoision of Ishmael (Gen. xvii. 25). 
Though Mohammed did not enjoin circum- 
cision in the Koran, he was circumcised him- 
self, according to the custom of his country ; 
and droumcision is now as common amongst 
the Mohammedans as amongst the Jews. The 
process of restoring a circumcised person to 
his natural condition by a surgical operation 
was sometimes undergone. Some of the 
Jews in the time of Antiochus Eplphanes, 
wishing to assimilate themselves to the 
heathen around them, "made themselves 
nndrcumcised " (1 Maco. L 15). Against 
having recourse to this practice, from an 
excessive anti-Jndaistio tendency, St. Paul 
cautions the Corinthians (1 Cor. vii. 18). 
The attitude which Christianity, at ito intro- 
dncUon, assumed towards circumcision was 
foe of absolute hostility, so fkr as the 

necessity of the rite to salvation, or its 
possession of any religious or moral worth 
were concerned (Acts xv. ; Gal. v. 2). The 
Abyssinian Christians still practise circum- 
cision as a national custom. 

CIS, the father of Saul (Acts xiiL 21), 
usually called Kish. 

CISTERN, a receptacle for water, either 
conducted ftrom an external spring, or pro- 
ceeding firom rainfall. The dryness of the 
summer months between May and September, 
in Syria, and the scarcity of springs in many 
parts of the country, make it necessary to 
collect in reservoirs and cisterns the rain- 
water, of which abundance folia in the inter- 
mediate period. The larger sort of pubUe 
tanks or reservoirs are usually called in A. Y. 
"pool,*' while for the smaller and more 
private it is convenient to reserve the name 
cistern. Both pools and cisterns are frequent 
throughout the whole of Syria and Palestine. 
On the long forgotten way firom Jericho to 
Bethel, " broken cisterns " of high antiquity 
are found at regular intervals. Jemnlem 
depends mainly for water upon its cisterns, 
of which almost every private house possesses 
one or more, excavated in the rock on which 
the city is built. The cisterns have usually 
a round opening at the top, sometimes built 
up with stonework above and furnished with 
a curb and a wheel for tlie bucket (Eocl. xii. 
6), so that they have externally much the 
appearance of an ordinary well. The water 
is conducted into them from the roofs of the 
houses during the rainy season, and with 
care remains sweet during the whole summer 
and autumn. In this manner most of the 
larger houses and public buildings are 
supplied. Empty cisterns were sometimes 
used as prisons and places of confinement. 
Joseph was oast into a " pit " (Gen. xxxvii. 
22), and his " dungeon ** in Egypt is called 
by the same name (xU. 14). Jeremiah was 
thrown into a miry though empty cistern^ 
whose depth is indicated by the cords used to 
let him down (Jer. xxxviii. 6). 

CITHERN (1 Mace ir. 54), a musical 
instrument, resembling a guitar, most pro- 
bably of Greek origin, employed by the 
Chaldeans, and introduced by the Hebrews 
into Palestine on their return thither after 
the Babylonian captivity. 

CITIES OF REFUGE. 8U Levitieal cities 
specially chosen for refbge to the involuntary 
homicide until released from banishment by 
the death of the high-priest (Num. xxxr. 6, 
18, 15 ; Josh. XX. 2 , 7, 9). There were 
three on eaoh side of Jordan. 1. Kkdksr, in 
NaphtaU (1 Chr. vi. 76). 2. Sbbcbbm, in 
Mount Ephraim (Josh. xxi. 21 ; 1 Chr. vi. 
67 ; 2 Chr. x. 1). 8. Hxbjiom, in Jodah 

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(JO0U. zxi. 18 ; 2 Sam. t. 5 ; 1 Chr. ri. 55, 
xxix. 37 ; 2 Cbr. zl. 10)! 4. On th« E. 
Bide of Jordan — Bezxr, in the tribe of 
Reuben, in the plains of Moab (Deut. iT. 4S ; 
Josh. XX. 8, xxL 36 ; 1 Mace. r. 26). 5. 
Eamoth-Oiubad, in the tribe of Gad (Dent, 
ir. 43 ; Josh. xxi. 38 ; IK. xxiL 3). 6. 
GoLAK, in Bashan, in the half-tribe of 
Hanasseh (Deut. iy. 43 ; Josh. xxi. 27 ; 1 
Chr. y\. 71). 

CiriMS, 1 Mace. rilL 5. [CHrrnii.] 

CrriZENSUIP. The use of this term in 
Scripture has exclusire reference to tht 
usages of the Roman empire. The privilege 
ot Roman citizenship was originally acquired 
in various wajs, as by purchase (Acts xxii. 
28), by military senrioes, by favour, or by 
manumission. The right once obtained de- 
scended to a man's children (Acts xxii. 28). 
Among the privileges attached to oitiaenship, 
we may note that a man could not be bound 
or imprisoned without a formal trial (Acts 
xxii. 29), still less be scourged (Acts xvi. 
87 ; Cic. m Verr. v. 63, 66). Another 
privilege attaching to citixenship was the 
appeal firom a provincial tribunal to the 
emperor at Rome (Acts xxv. II). 

CITRON. [Apple Treb.] 

CLAUDA (Acto xxviL 16), a small island 
nearly due W. of Cape Matala on the S. coast 
of Crete, and nearly due 8. of Phokmick, now 

CLAU'DIA, a Christian woman mentioned 
in 2 Tim. iv. 21, as saluting Timotheus. 
There is reason for supposing that this 
Claudia was a British maiden, daughter of 
king Cogidubnus, an ally of Rome, who took 
the name of his imperial patron, Tiberius 
Clandins. She appears to have become the 
wife of Pudens, who is mentioned in the 
same verse. 

CLAU'DIUS, fourth Roman emperor, 
reigned from 41 to 54 A.n. He was the son 
ot Nero Drusus, was born in Lyons Aug. 1, 
B.C. 9 <»* 10, and lived private and unknown 
till the day of bis being called to the throne, 
Jaaoary 24, a.d. 41. He was nominated to 
the supreme power mainly through the 
iniioenoe of Herod Agrippa the First. In 
the reign of Claudius there were several 
fkmines, arising from unfavourable harvests, 
and one such occurred in Palestine and Syria 
(Acts xL 28-30) under the procurators 
Cuspiiu Fadus and Tiberius Alexander, which 
perhaps lasted some years. Claudius was 
induced by a tumult of the Jews in Rome, to 
expel them from the city (cf. Acts xviii. 2). 
The date of this event is uncertain. After a 
weak and foolish reign he was poisoned by 
his fourth wife Agripplna, the mother of 
Nero, Oct. 13, a.X/. 54. 


CLAY. As the sediment of water remain- 
ing in pits or in streets, the word is used 
firequenUy in 0. T. (Is. IvU. 20 ; Jer. xxxviil. 
6 ; Ps. xviii. 42), and in N. T. (John ix. 6), 
a mixture of saud or dust with spittle. It is 
also found in the sense of potter's clay (Is. 
xh. 25). The great seat of the pottery of 
the present day in Palestine is Gs^ where 
are made the vessels in dark blue clay so 
frequently met with. Another use of clay 
was for sealing (Job xxxviii. 14). Wine 
Jars in Egypt were sometimes sealed with 
clay ; mummy pits were sealed with the 
same substance, and remains of clay are still 
found adhering to the stone door-jambs. 
Our Lord's tomb may have been thus sealed 
(Matt, xxvii. 66), as also the earthen vessel 
containing the evidences of Jeremiah's pur- 
chase (Jer. xxxiL 14). The seal used for 
public documents was rolled on the moist 
clay, and the tablet was then placed in the 
fire and baked. The practice of sealing doors 
with clay to facilitate detection in case of 
malpractice is still common in the East. 

CLEM'ENT (PhU. iv. 8), a feUow-labourer 
of St. Paul, when he was at PhilippL It was 
generally believed in the ancient church, that 
this Clement was identical with the Bishop 
of Rome, who afterwards became so cele- 

CLE'OPAS, one of the two disciples who 
were going to Emmaus on the day of the re- 
surrection (Luke xxiv. 18). It is a question 
whether this Cleopas is to be considered as 
identical with Clkophas (accur. Clopas) or 
Alphaeus in John xix. 25. On the whole, it 
seems safer to doubt their identity. 

CLEOPAT'KA. 1. The ♦'wife of Ptolemy" 
(Esth. xi. 1) was probably the granddaughter 
of Antiochus, and wife of Ptol. VI. Philo- 
metor. — S. A daughter of Ptol. VI. Philometor 
and Cleopatra (1), who was married first to 
Alexander Balas b.c. 150 (1 Mace. x. 58), 
and afterwards given by her father to Deme- 
trius Nicatorwhen he invaded Syria (1 Mace, 
xi. 12). During the captivity of Demetrius 
in Parthia, Cleopatra married his brother 
Antiochus VII. Sidetes. She afterwards mur- 
dered Seleucus, her eldest son by Demetrius ; 
and at length was herself poisoned b.c. 120 
by a draught which she had prepared for her 
second son Antiochus Vlll. 

CLE'OPHAS. [Cleopas; Alphaeus.] 

CLOTHING. [Deess.] 

CLOUD. The shelter given, and refresh- 
ment of rain promised, by clouds, give them 
their peculiar prominence in Oriental imagery, 
and the individual cloud in an ordinary cloud- 
less region becomes well defined and is dwelt 
upon like the individual tree in the bare 

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Itmdfloape. When a oload appears, rain is 
ordinarily apprehended, and thus the ** doud 
without rain" becomes a proverb for the man 
of promise without performance (Pror. xvL 
15; Is. zviii. 4, zxv. 5; Jude 12; comp. 
Prov. xxT. 14). The cloud is a figure of 
transitoriness (Job xxx. 15 ; Hos. Ti. 4), and 
of whateyer intercepts diiine favour or human 
supplication (Lam. ii. 1, iii. 44). Being the 
least substantial of risible forms, it is the one 
amongst material things which suggests most 
easily spiritual being. Hence it is the recog- 
nised machinery by which supernatural ap- 
pearances are introduced (Is. idx. 1 ; Ez. 1. 4 ; 
Rev. i. 7). A bright cloud, at any rate at 
times, visited and rested on the Mercy Seat 
(Bx. xxix. 42, 48 ; 1 K. vili. 10, 11 ; 2 Chr. 
T. 14 ; Ez. xliii. 4) and was by later writers 
named Shechinah. 

CLOUD, PILLAR OF. This was the active 
form of the symbolical glory-cloud, betoken- 
ing God's presence to lead His chosen host, 
or to inquire and visit offences, as the 
luminous cloud of Uie sanctuary exhibited 
the same under an aspect of repose. The 
cloud, which became a pillar when the host 
moved, seems to have rested at other times 
on the tabernacle, whence God is said to have 
" come down m the pillar " (Num. xlL 5 ; so 
Ex. xxxiii. 9, 10). It preceded the host, 
apparently resting on the ark which led the 
way (Ex. xiii. 21, xl. 86, &c.; Num. ix. 
15-28, X. 84). 

CNI'DUS is mentioned in 1 Maoo. xv. 23, 
as one of the Greek cities which contained 
Jewish residents in the 2nd century b.c, and 
in Acts zxvii. 7, as a harbour which was 
passed by St. Paul after leaving Myra, and 
before running under the lee of Crete. It 
was a city of great consequence, situated at 
the extreme S.W. of the peninsula of Asia 
Minor, on a promontory now called Cap« 
Orioy which projects between the islands of 
Cos and Rhodes (see Acts xxi. 1). 

COAT. [Dbsss.] 

COCK. In the N. T. the " cock" is men- 
tioned in reference to St. Peter's denial of 
our Lord, and indirectly in the word ** cock- 
crowing" (Matt. xxvL 84 ; Mark xiv. SO, 
xiii. 85, ftc.). We know that the domestic 
oock and hen were early known to the ancient 
Greeks and Romans, and as no mention is 
made in the 0. T. of tiiese birds, and no 
figures of them occur on the Egyptian monu- 
ments, they probably came into Judaea with 
the Romans, who, as is well known, prized 
these birds both as articles of food and for 


COCKLE (Heb. bo»hAh) occurs only in Job 
sxzL 40. We are inclined to believe that the 

hoth&h denotes any bad weeds or fhiit, and 
may in Job signify bad or smutted barley. 

COELE-SYR'IA, " the hoUow Syria," was 
(strictly speaking) the name given by the 
Greeks, after the time of Alexander, to the 
remarkable valley or hollow which intervenes 
between Libanus and Anti-Iibanus, stretch- 
ing a distance of nearly a hundred miles. 
But the term was also used in a much wider 
sense. In the first place it was extended so 
as to include the inhabited tract to the east 
of the Anti-Iibanus range, between it and 
the desert, in which stood the great city of 
Damascus ; and then it was ftirther carried 
on upon that side of Jordan, through Tra- 
chonitis and Peraea, to Idumaea and the 
borders of Egypt. The only distinct refer- 
ence to the region, as a separate tract of 
country, which the Jewish Scriptures con- 
tain, is probably that in Amos (L 5), where 
"the inhabitants of the plain of Aven" are 
threatened in conjunction wiUi those of 
Daniascus. In the Apocryphal Books there 
is frequent mention of Coele-Syria in a some- 
what vague sense, nearly as an equivalent 
for Syria (1 Esd. ii. 17, 24, 27, iv. 48, vl. 29, 
vii. 1, viii. 67 ; 1 Mace. x. 69 ; 2 Mace. iU. 
5, 8, iv. 4, viii. 8, x. 11). Inall these cases 
the word is given in A. Y. as Cslostbia. 

COFFIN. [Burial.] 

COLLEGE, THE. In 2 K. xzli. 14 U is 
said in the A. Y. that Huldah the prophetess 
"dwelt in Jerusalem in the oollegt** (Heb. 
mishneh), or, as the margin has it, "in the 
second part." The same part of the dty is 
undoubtedly alluded to in Zeph. L 10 (A. Y. 
"the second"). It is probable that the 
mishneh was the " lower city," built on the 

COLONY, a designation of Philippi, in 
Acts xvi. 12. After the battle of Actium, 
Augustus assigned to his veterans those parts 
of Italy which had espoused the cause of 
Antony, and transported many of the ex- 
pelled inhabitants to Philippi, Dyrrachlum, 
and other cities. In this way Philippi was 
made a Roman colony with the "Jos Ita- 

COLOS'SE (more properly COLOSfSAE), a 
city in the upper part of the basin of the 
Maeander, on one of its aflBuents named the 
Lycus. HierapoUs and Laodicaea were In 
its immediate neighbourhood (Col. ii. 1, iv. 
18, 15, 16 ; see Rev. L 11, iii. 14). Colossae 
fell, as these other two cities rose in import- 
ance. It was situated close to the great road 
which led tram Ephesus to the Euphrates. 
Hence our Impulse would be to conclude that 
St. Paul passed this way, and founded or 
confirmed the Golossian Church on his third 
missionary Journey 'Acts zviiL 23, xix. 1). 

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The most eompetent eonunentaton, however, 
agree in thinking that CoL ii. 1, prorea that 
St. Paul had never been there, when the 
Bpirtle was written. That the Apostle hoped 
to visit the place on being delivered from 
bis Boman imprisonment is dear from Phi- 
lemon 32 (compare PhU. ii. 24). 

was written by the AposUe Bt. Paul during 
his flrst captivity at Rome (Acts zzviii. 16), 
and apparently in that portion of it (CoL iv. 
S, 4) when the Apoctle*8 impriscmment had 
not assumed the more severe character which 
■eems to be reiieeted in the Epistle to the 
Philippians (ch. L 20, 21, 80, IL 27), and 
which not improbably sncoeeded the death 
of Barms in ▲.». 62, and the decline of the 
iwHwawwa of Seneca. This epistle was ad- 
dressed to the Christians of the city of Colos- 
sae, and was delivered to them by Tyobicos, 
whom the Apostle had sent both to them 
(ch. iv. 7, 8) and to the church of Ephesos 
(eh. vL 21), to inquire into their state and 
to administer exhortation and comfort. The 
epistle seems to have been called forth by 
the information St. Paul had received from 
Epaphras (ch. iv. 12 ; Philem. 28) and 
from Oneeimaa, both of whom appear to have 
been natives of CoLossae. The main ol^eet 
of the epistle is to warn the Colossians against 
a spirit of semi-Judaistio and semi-Oriental 
philosophy which was corrupting the simpli- 
city of their belief; and was noticeably tend- 
ing to obscure the eternal glory and dignity 
of Christ. The striking similarity between 
many portions of this epistle and of that of 
the Ephesians may be accounted for, (1) by 
the proximity in time at which the two epis- 
tles were written; (2) by the high probabi- 
lity that in two dties of Asia within a mo- 
derate distance fhun one another, there would 
be many doetrinal pr^udioes, and many sodal 
relations, that would call forth and need pre- 
cisely the same language of warning and ex- 
hortstian. The shorter and perhaps more 
vividly expxessed Epistle to the Colossians 
seems to have been first written, and to have 
suggested the more comprehensive, more 
systematic, but less indiridualiaing, epistle 
to the ehnreh of Ephesos. 

CONCUBINE. The difDerence between 
wife and eoDonhine was less marked among 
the Hebrews than among us, owing to the 
absence of moral stigma. The concubine's 
eowUtton was a definite one, and quite inde- 
pendent of the foot of there being another 
woman having the rights of wife towards 
the same man. The difference probably lay 
in the absence of the right of the bUl of di- 
voroe, without which the wife could not be 
With regard to the children of 

wife and concubine, there was no such diflisr- 
ence as our illegitimacy implies; the latter 
were a supplementary flunily to the former, 
their names occur In the patriarchal gene- 
alogies (Gen. xxii. 24; 1 Chr. L 32), and 
their position and provision would depend 
on the father's will (Qen. xxv. 6). The 
stote of concubinage is assumed and pro>lded 
for by the law of Moses. A concubine would 
generally be either (1) a Hebrew girl bought 
of her fkther ; (2), a gentile captive taken in 
war; (8), a foreign slave bought, or (4), a 
Canaanitish woman, bond or f^ree. The rights 
of (1) and (2) were protected by law (Ex. 
xxL 7 ; Deut. xxL 10-14), but (8) was un- 
recognised, and (4) prohibited. Free Hebrew 
women also might become concubines. So 
Gideon's concubine seems to have been of a 
family of rank and influence in Shechem, and 
such was probably the state of the Lerite's 
concubine (Judg. xx.). The ravages of war 
among the male sex, or the impoverishment 
of families might often induce this condition. 
The case (1) was not a hard lot (Ex. xxi.). 
The provisions renting to (2) sre merciful 
and considerate to a rare degree. In the 
books of Samuel and Kings the concubines 
mentioned belong to the king, and their con- 
dition and number oease to be a guide to the 
general practice. A new king stepped into 
the lights of Us predecessor, and by Solo- 
mon's time the custom had approximated to 
that of a Persian harem (2 Sam. xii. 8, xvi. 
21 ; 1 E. ii. 22). To seise on royal conou- 
bines for his use was thus an usurper's first 
act. Such was probably the intent of Ab- 
ner's act (2 Sam. iii. 7), and similarly the 
request on behalf of Adon^Jah was construed 
(1 K. ii. 21-24% 

CONET, {ShdphAi), a gregarious animal of 
the class Pachydermata, which is found in 
Palestine, living in the oaves and clefts of 
the rocks, and has been erroneously identi- 
fied with the Rabbit or Coney. Its sdentiflc 
name is ffyrax Syriaeus, In Lev. xL 6 and 
in Deut. xiv. 7 it is declared to be unclean, 
because it chews the cud, but does not divide 
the hoof. In Ps. civ. 18 we are told ** the 

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rocks are a refuge for the coneys/' and in 
ProT. XXX. 36 that *' the coneys are but a 
feeble folk, yet make they their houses in the 
rocks.*' The Hyrax satLsfles exactly the ex- 
pressions in the two last passages. Its colour 
is grey or broim on the back, white on the 
belly ; it is like the alpine marmot, scarcely 
of the size of the domestic eat, baring long 
hair, a very short tail, and round ears. It 
is found on the Lebanon and in the Jordan 
and Dead Sea ralle^. 

CONGREGATION. This describes the He- 
brew people in its collective capacity under 
its peculiar aspect as a holy community, held 
together by religious rather than political 
bonds. Sometimes it is used in a broad sense 
as inclusiye of foreign settlers (Ex. xii. 19) ; 
but more properly, as exclusively appro- 
priate to the Hebrew element of the popu- 
lation (Num. XT. 15). Every circumcised 
Hebrew was a member of the congregation, 
and took part in its proceedings, probably 
from the time that he bore arms. The con- 
gregation occupied an important position 
under the Theocracy, as the eomitia or na- 
tional parliament, invested with legislative 
and Judicial powers ; each house, family, and 
tribe being represented by its head or father. 
The number of these representatives being 
inconveniently large for ordinary business, 
a farther selection was made by Moses of 70, 
who formed a species of standing committee 
(Nunu xi. 16). Occasionally indeed the 
whole body of the people was assembled at 
the door of the tabernacle, henoe Qsuallj 
called the tabernacle t/ ihs eongregatioH 
(Num. X. 3). The people were strictly bound 
by the acts of their representatives, even in 
cases where they disapproved of them (Josh, 
ix. 18). After the occupation of the land of 
Canaan, the oongregation was assembled 
only on matters of the highest importance. 
In the later periods of Jewish history the 
congregation was represented by the San- 



CONVOCATION. This term is applied in- 
variably to meetings of a rdigiaut character, 
in contradistinction to ecngregatUm, With 
one exception (Is. L 18), the word is peculiar 
to the Pentateuch. 

CO'OS, Acts xxi. 1. [Cos.] 

COPPER, Heb. mchSaheth, in the A.T. 
always rendered "brass," except in Ear. 
viii. 27, and Jer. xv. 13. This metal is 
usually found as pyrites (sulphuret of copper 
and iron), malachite (carb. of copper), or in 
the state of oxide, and occasionally in a native 
state, principally in the New World. It was 
cimost exclusively used by the ancients for 

common purposes ; for which its elastic and 
ductile nature rendered it practically avail- 
able. We read in the Bible of copper, pos- 
sessed in countless abundance (2 Chr. iv. 18), 
and used for every kind of instrument; as 
chains (Jndg. xvi. 31), pillars (1 K. vU. 15- 
21), lavers, the great one being called "the 
copper sea" (3 K. xxv. 13 ; 1 Chr. xviii. 8), 
and the other temple vessels. These were 
made in the foundry, with the assistance of 
Hiram, a Phoenician (1 K. vii. 13), although 
the Jews were not ignorant of metallurgy 
(Ez. xxii. 18 ; Deut. iv. 30, &o.), and appear 
to have worked their own mines (Deut. viiL 
9 ; Is. li. 1). We read also of copper mirrors 
(Ex. xxxviiL 8 ; Job xxxvii. 18), and even 
of copper arms, as helmets, spears, ftc (I 
Sam. xvii. 5, 6, 38 ; 8 Sam. xxi. 16). The 
expression ** bow of steel," in Job xx. 84 ; 
Ps. xviiL 84, should be rendered "bow of 
copper." They could hardly have applied 
copper to these purposes without posse«sing 
some Judicious system of alloys, or perhaps 
some forgotten secret for rendering the metal 
harder and more clastic than we can make 
it. The only place in the A. Y. where 
"copper" is mentioned is Ear. viii. 87 (of. 
1 Esd. viii. 57). These vessels may have 
been of oriohaloum, like the Persian or Indian 
vases found among the treasures of Darius. 
In Ex. xxviL 13 the importation of copper 
vessels to the markets of Tyre by merchants 
of Javan, Tubal, and Meshech is alluded to. 
Probably these were the Moechl, ftc^ who 
worked Uie copper-mines in the neighbour- 
hood of Mount Caucasus. In 3 Tim. iv. 14 
XoAmv^ is rendered "coppersmith," but the 
term is perfectly general. 

CORAL occurs only, as the somewhat 
doubtftil rendering of the Hebrew rSm^th^ 
in Job xxviil. 18, and in £s. xxvii. 16. But 
"coral" has decidedly the best claim of any 
other substances to represent r6mSth, With 
regard to the estimation in which ooral was 
held by the Jews and other Orientals, it 
must be remembered that coral varies in 
price with us. Pliny says that the Indians 
valued ooral as the Bomans valued pearls. 

COBBAN, an offering to God of any sort, 
bloody or bloodless, but particularly in ftdfll- 
ment of a vow. The law laid down rules for 
vows, 1. affirmative; 8. negative (Lev. 
xxvii. ; Num. xxx.). Upon these rules the 
traditionists enlarged, and laid down that a 
man might interdict himself by vow, not only 
fhnn using for himself, but fhmi giving to 
another, or receiving fjrom him some parti- 
cular oliiJect whether of food or any other 
kind whatsoever. The thing thus interdicted 
was considered as Corban. A person might 
thus exempt himself from any inconvenient 

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obligation under plea of corban. It was prac- 
tices of this sort that our Lord reprehended 
(Matt XT. 5 ; Mark rii. 11), aa annulling the 
spirit of the lav. 

COR'E, Jude 11. [Eokah, 1.] 
CORIANDER. The plant called Cbrian- 
drum aatkwn is found in Egypt, Persia, and 
India, and has a round tall stalk ; it bears 
umbelliferous white ot reddish flowers, fh>m 
which arise globular, greyish, spicy seed- 
eoms,marlEed with fine striae. It is mentioned 
twice in the Bible (Ex. xri. 81 ; Num. xi. 7). 
CORINTH. This city is alike remarkable 
for its distinetlTe geographical position, its 
eminence in Oredc and Roman history, and 
its close c<mnexion with the early spread of 
Christianity. Geographically its situation 
was so marked, that the name of its IHhmtu 
has been giren to erery narrow neck of land 
between two seas. But, besides this, the site 
of Corinth is distinguished by another con- 
spicuous physical feature— Tiz. the Aerooo- 
HmtkuMf a vast dtadel of rook, which rises 
abruptly to the height of 2000 feet abore the 
lerel of the sea, and the summit of which is 
to extensire that it once contained a whole 
town. The situation of Corinth, and the 
possession of its eastern and western har- 
bours (CxMCHaxAB and Lxchakvm), are the 
seorets of its history. In the latest pas- 
sages of Greek history Corinth held a con- 
spieuous place. It is not the true Greek 
Corinth with which we have to do in the life 
of St Paul, but the Corinth which was re- 
built and establi^ed as a Roman colony. 
The distinotion between the two must be care- 
fully remembered. The new city was hardly 
less distinguished than the old, and it ac- 
quired a tnah importance as the metropolis 
of the Roman province of Acuaia. Corinth 
was a place of great mental activity, as well 
as of eomroerdal and manufacturing enter- 
prise. Its wealth was so celebrated as to be 
proverbial; so were the vice and profligacy 
of its inhabitants. The worship of Venus 
here was attended with shamefU licentious- 
ness. All these points are indirectly illus- 
trated by passages in the two epistles to the 
Corinthians. Corinth is still an episcopal see. 
The city has now shrunk to a wretched village, 
on the old site, and bearing the old name, 
which, however, is corrupted into Ooriho, 
The Posidonium, or sanotnary of Neptune, 
the scene of the Isthmian games, tnm which 
St Paul borrows some of his most striking 
imagery in 1 Cor. and other epistles, was a 
short distance to the N.E. of Corinth, at the 
narrowest part of the Isthmus, near the har- 
bour of Sehoenus (now KaUtmiki) on the Sa- 
rooio gulf. The exact site of the temple is 
doubtftil ; but to the south are the remains 

of the stadium, where the foot-races were 
run (1 Cor. ix. 84) ; to the east are those of 
the theatre, which was prolmbly the scene of 
the pugilistic contests (ib. 26) : and abundant 
on the shore are the small green pine-trees 
which gave the fading wreath (ib. 25) to the 
victors in the games. 

THE, was written by the Apostle St Paul 
toward the close of his nearly three-years* stay 
at Ephesus (Acts xix. 10, xx. 81), which we 
learn from 1 Cor. xvi. 8, probably termi- 
nated with the Pentecost of a.d. 57 or 58. 
The bearers were probably (according to the 
c<Hnmon subscription) Stephanus, Portunatus, 
and Aohaicus, who had been recently sent to 
the Apostle, and who, in the conclusion of 
this epistle (ch. xvi. 17), are especially com- 
mended to the honourable r^^rd of the 
church of Corinth. This varied and highly 
characteristic letter was addressed not to any 
party, but to the whole body of the large 
(Acts xviiL 8, 10) Judaeo-Oentile (Actsxviii. 
4) church of Corinth, and appears to have 
been called forth, 1st, by the information the 
Apostle had received from members of the 
household of Chloe (ch. i. 11), of the divi- 
sions that were existing among them, which 
were of so grave a nature as to have already 
induced the Apostle to desire Timothy Xa 
visit Corinth (ch. iv. 17) after his Journey 
to Macedonia (Acts xix. 22) ; 2ndly, by the 
information he had received of a grievous 
case of incest (ch. v. 1), and of the defective 
state of the Corinthian converts, not only in 
regard of general habits (ch. vL 1, sq.) and 
church discipline (ch. xi. 20 sq.), but, as it 
would also seem, of doctrine (ch. xv.) ; 8rdly, 
by the inquiries that had been spedally ad- 
dressed to St Paul by the church of Corinth 
on several matters relating to Christian prac- 
tice. Two special points deserve separate 
consideration :—l. ThettaU of parHu at Co- 
rinth at the time of the Apostle's writing. 
The few facts supplied to us by the Acts of 
the Apostles, and the notices in the epistle, 
appear to be as follows: — ^The Corinthian 
church was planted by the Apostle himself 
(1 Cor. ilL 6), in his second missionary 
Journey (Acts xviii. 1, sq.). He abode in the 
city a year and a half (ch. xviii. 11). A short 
time after the Apostle had left the city the 
eloquent Jew of Alexandria, Apollos, went to 
Corinth (Acts xix. 1). This circumstance of 
the visit of Apollos, appears to have formed 
the commencement of a gradual division into 
two parties, the followers of St Paul, and 
the followers of Apollos (oorop. ch. iv. 6). 
These divisions, however, were to be multi- 
plied; for, as it would seem, shortly after 
the departure of Apollos, Judsising teachers^ 

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tapplied probably with letters of commenda- 
tion (2 Cor. iii. 1) from the ehoroh of Je- 
nualem, appear to hare come to Corinth and 
to hare preached the Gospel in a spirit of 
direct antagonism to 8t Panl pertmallf. To 
this third party we may perhaps add a fourth 
that, under the name of "the followers of 
Christ *' (ch. i. 1 2), sought at first to separate 
themseWes ft-om the factious adherence to 
particular teachers, but erentually were driren 
by antagonism into positions equally secta- 
rian and inimical to Uie unity of the church. 
At this momentous period, before parties had 
become consolidated, and had distinctly with- 
drawn from communion with one another, 
the Apostle writes ; and in the outset of the 
epistle (ch. L-ir. 21) we have bis noble and 
impassioned protest against this fourfold 
rending of the robe of Christ. — 2. The mm- 
her of epi$tle$ written by St Paul to the Co- 
rinthian church will probably remain a 
subject ofcontrorersy to the end of time. The 
well-known words (ch. t. 9) do certainly 
seem to point to some former epistolary com- 
munication to the church of Corinth. The 
whole context seems in ftiTour of this riew, 
though the Greek commentators are of the 
contrary opinion, and no notice has been 
taken of the loft epistle by any writers of 

THE, was written a few months subsequently 
to the first, in the same year, — and thus, 
if ttie datea assigned to the former epistle 
be eorreet, about the autumn of a.d. 57 or 
58, a short time previous to the Apostle's 
three months' suy inAehaia (Acts xx. 8). 
The place whence it was written was clearly 
not Ephesus (see ch. i. 8), but Macedonia 
(oh. TiL 5, rilL 1, ix. 2), whither the Apostle 
went by way of Troas (ch. iL 12), after 
waiting a short time in the latter place for 
the return of Titus (ch. ii. 19). The Vatican 
MS., the bulk of later MSS., and the old Syr. 
Tersion, assign Philippi as the exact place 
whence it was written ; but for this assertion 
we have no certain grounds to rely on : that 
the bearers, however, were Titus and his as- 
sociates (Luket) is apparently sabetantiated 
by ch. viiL 28, ix. 8, 5. The epistle v 
occasioned by the information which the 
Apostle had received firom Titos, and also, as 
it would certainly seem probable, from Ti- 
mothy, of the reception of the first epistle. 
This information, as it would seem tnm our 
present epistle, was mainly favourable ; the 
better part of the church were returning back 
to their spiritual allegiance to their founder 
(ch. i. 18, 14, vii. 9, 15, 16), but there was 
stUl a fhction, possibly of the Judaising mem- 
bers (eomp. ch. zL 22), that were sharpened 

into even a more keen animosity against the 
Apostle personally (ch. x. I, 10), and nu»re 
strenuously denied his claim to Apottleahip. 
The contents of this epistle are thus very va- 
ried, but may be divided into fJWiM parts : — 1st, 
the Apostle's account of the character of his 
spiritual labours, accompanied with notices of 
his affectionate feelings towards his c o nvei U 
ch. i.-vii.) ; 2ndly, directions about the col- 
lections (ch. viiL, ix,) ; 8rdly, defence of hie 
own Apostolical chanoter (eh. x.-xlii. 10). 
The principal historical difficulty ecnmeoted 
with the epistle relates to the number <^ viaita 
made by the Apostle to the ehureh of Corinth. 
The words of this episUe (ch. xiL 14, xUL 
1, 2) seem distinctly to imply that St. Paul 
had visited Corinth twice before the time at 
which he now writes. St Luke, however, 
only mentions one visit prior to that time 
(Acts xviiL 1, sq.) ; for the visit recorded in 
Acts XX. 2, 8, is confessedly subsequent 
We must assume that the Apostle made a 
visit to Corinth which St Luke did not record, 
probably during the period of his three years' 
residence at Ephesus. 

CORMORANT. The representative in the 
A. Y. of the Hebrew words kdath and $M6l4e. 
As to the former, see Psltoam. Sh6l4e occurs 
only as the name of an unclean bird in Lev. 
xL 17 ; Deut xiv. 17. The word has been 
variously rendered. The etymology points 
to tame plunging bird : the ccMounon cormorant 
{PKaiwsrocmroK eorfto), which some writers 
have identified with the Sk$i6»^ is unknown 
in the eastern Mediterranean ; anoUier spedes 
is found S. of the Red Sea, but none on the 
W. coast of Palestine. 

CORN. The most oommon kinds were 
wheat, barley, spelt (A. T., Ex. ix. 82, and 
Is. xxviiL 25, "rie;" Ex. iv. 9, "fitchea*'), 
and millet ; oats are mentioned only by rab- 
binical writers. Com-erops are still reckoned 
at twentyfold what was sown, and were an- 
ciently much more. ** Seven ears on <me 
stalk " (Gen. xU. 22) is no unusual pheno- 
menon in Egypt at this day. The many- 
eared stalk is also common in the wheat of 
Palestine, and it is of course of the bearded 
kind. Wheat (see 2 Sam. iv. 6) was stored 
in the house for domestic purposes. It is at 
present often kept in a dry well, and perhaps 
the "ground com** of 2 Sam. xvii. 19 was 
meant to imply that the well was so used. 
From Solomon's time (2 Chr. iL 10, 15), as 
agriculture became developed under a settled 
government, Palestine was a corn-exporting 
country, and her grain was largely taken by 
her commercial neighbour Tyre (Ea. xxvii, 
17 ; comp. Am. viiL 5). " Plenty of com" 
was part of Jacob's bleaslBg (Gen. xxviii. 28 ; 
comp. Ps. Ixv. 18). 

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CORNE'LIUS, % Soman oentarion of the 
Italian cohort stationed in Caeaarea (Acts x. 
1, &c.)> ^ man taU of good works and alms- 
deeds. With his household he ma baptised 
by St. Peter, and thus Cornelius became the 
first-fruits of the Gentile world to Christ. 

CORNER. The ** comer " of the field was 
not allowed (Ler. xix. 9) to be whollj reaped. 
It formed a right of the poor to carry off 
what was so left, and this was a part of the 
maintenance from the soil to which that class 
were entitled. On the principles of the Mo- 
saio polity every Hebrew fiunlly had a hold 
on a eotain fixed estate, and could by no 
ordinary and casual calamity be wholly beg- 
gared. Hence its indigent members bad the 
claims of kindred on the " comers," fto., of 
the field which their landed brethren reaped. 
In the later period of the prophets their con- 
stant complaints concerning the deftttudlng 
the poor (Is. x. 2 ; Am. t. 1 1, yiii. 6) seem 
to show that such laws had lost their prac- 
tical force. Still later, under the Scribes, 
minute legislation fixed one-sixtieth as the 
portion of a field which was to be left for 
the legal "corner.** The proportion being 
thus fixed, all the grain might be reaped, 
and enough to satisfy the r^ulation subse- 
quently separated firom the whole crop. This 
** coma* " was, like the gleaning, tithe-fr«e. 

CORNER-STONE, a quoin or comer-atone, 
of great importance in binding together the 
sides of a building. Some of the comer-stones 
in the ancient work of the Temple founda- 
tions are 17 or 19 feet long, and 7| feet thick. 
At Ninereh the comers are sometbnes formed 
of one angular stone. The phrase " corner- 
stone '* is somrtimes used to denote any prin- 
cipal person, as the princes of Egypt (Is. xix. 
18), and is thus applied to our Lord (Is. 
zxTlii. 16 : Matt xxi. 42 ; 1 Pet. iL 6, 7). 

CORNET (Heb. SMphSr), a loud-sounding 
instrument, made of the horn of a ram or of 
a chamois (sometimes of an ox), and used by 
the ancient Hebrews for signals, for an- 
nouncing the **Jubile'* (Ler. xxr. 9), for 
proclaiming the new year, for the purposes 
of war (Jer. !▼. 6, 19 ; oomp. Job xxxix. 25), 
as well as for the sentinels placed at the 
watch-towers to giro notice of the approach 
of an enemy (£s. xxxiii. 4, 5). ShSphdr 
is generally rendered in the A. V. "trum- 
pet," but "comet" (the more correct trans- 
lation) is used in 2 Chr. xt. 14 ; Ps. xcTiii. 
6 ; Hoc. T. 8 ; and 1 Chr. xt. 28. " Comet " 
is also employed in Dan. iii. 5, 7, 10, 15, for 
the Chaldee Kerm (literally a horn). The 
silrer trumpets which Moses was charged to 
fUmish for the Israelites, were to be need for 
the fUlowing purposes : for the calling toge- 
ther of the assembly, for the Journeying of 

camps, for sounding the alarm of war, and 
for o^brating the sacrifices on festivals 
and new moons (Num. x. 1-10). In the age 
of Solomon the " silrer trampets " were in- 
creased in number to 120 (2 Chr. t. 12) ; 
and, independently of the objects for which 
they had been first introduced, they were 
now employed in the orchestra of the Temple 
as an accompaniment to songs of thanks- 
giring and praise. The sounding of the 
comet was the distinguishing ritual feature 
of the festiral appointed by Moees to be held 
on the first day of the ecTenth month under 
the denomination of " a day of blowing tram- 
pets" (Num. xxix. 1), or ** memorial of 
blowing of trumpets" (Ler. xxiU. 24). 
[TxinmTS, Fxast of.] 

COS or CO'OS (now Skmckio or Stamko). 
This small island of the Grecian Archipelago 
has ecTeral interesting points of connexion 
with the Jews. It is spedfled as one of the 
places which contained Jewish residents (1 
Bfacc. XT. 28). Julius Ca esar issued an edict 
in &Toor of the Jews of Cos. Herod the 
Great conferred many fliTours on the island. 
St. Paul, on the return fr<nn his third mis- 
sionary Journey, passed the night here, after 
sailing from Milxtub. The chief town (of 
the same name) was on the N.E. near a pro- 
montory called Scandarium : and perhaps it 
is to the town that reference is made in the . 
Acts (xxi. 1). 

COTTON, Heb. eairpa$ (comp. Lat. car' 
battu) Esth. i. 6, where the Vulg. has cor&o- 
gini eolorii, as if a colour, not a material (so 
in A. V. " green ") were intended. There is 
a doubt whether under Shith, in the earlier, 
and £4Uf in the later books of the O. T., 
rendered in the A. T. by " white linen," " fine 
linen," Ac, cotton may haTc been included as 
well. The dress of the Egyptian priests, at 
any rate in their ministrations, was without 
doubt of linen (Herod. iL 87). Cotton is now 
both grown and manufiustnred in Tarious 
parts of Syria and Palestine ; but there is no 
proof that, till they came in contact with 
Persia, the Hebrews generally knew of it as 
a distinct fabric finom linen. [Linxn.] 

COUCH. [BxD.] 

COUNCIL. 1. The great council of the 
Sanhedrim, which sat at Jerusalem. [Sam- 
HXDBXx.] 2. The lesser courts (Matt x. 17 ; 
Mark xilL 9), of which there were two at 
Jerusalem, and one in each town of Palestine. 
The constitution of these courts is a doubtftil 
point The existence of local courts, how- 
CTer constituted, is clearly implied in the 
passages quoted trom the N. T. ; and perhaps 
the "Judgment" (Matt t. 21) applies to 
them. 8. A Idnd of Jury or priTy council 
(Acts xxT. 12), consisting of a certain num^ 

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ber of assesiiors, who assisted Roman go- 
vernors in the administration of Justice and 
other public matters. 

COUBT (Heb. ehdt*^)^ an open endosore, 
applied in the A. V. most commonly to the 
enclosures of the Tabernacle and the Temple 
(Ex. xxTii. 9, xl. 83 ; Lev. tL 16 ; 1 K. ri. 
36, tU. 8 ; 2 K. xxiU. 12 ; 2 Chr. xxziiL 
5, &c.) 

CO VENANT. The Heb. birtth means pri- 
marily " a cutting/* with reference to the 
custom of cutting or dividing animals in two, 
and passing between the parts in ratifying a 
covenant (Gen. xv. ; Jer. xxxiv. 18, 19). 
In the N. T. the corresponding word is dui- 
thicf {SuxBi^iai), which is frequently, though 
by ne means imiformly, translated teitammt 
in the Authorised Version. In its Biblical 
meaning of a compact or agreement between 
two parties, the word is used — 1. Improperly ^ 
of a covenant between God and man. Man not 
being in any way in the position of an inde- 
pendent covenanting party, the phrase is 
evidently used by way of accommodation. 
Strictly speaking, such a covenant is quite 
unconditional, and amounts to a promise 
(Gal. iii. 15 ff.) or act of mere favour (Ps. 
Ixxxix. 28). llius the assurance given by 
God after the Flood, that a like judgment 
should not be repeated, and that the recur- 
rence of the seasons, and of day and night, 
should not cease, is sailed a covenant (Gen. 
ix. ; Jer. xxxiii. 20). ConsistenUy with this 
representation of God's dealings with man 
under the form of a covenant, such covenant 
is said to be confirmed, in conformity to 
human custom, by an oath (Deut. iv. 81 ; 
Ps. Ixxxix. 3), to be sanctioned by curses to 
fall upon the unfaithful (Deut. xxix. 21), and 
to be accompanied by a sign, such as the 
rainbow (Gen. ix.), circumcision (Gen. xvii.), 
or the Sabbath (Ex. xxxi. 16, 17).— 2. Pro- 
perly^ of a covenant between man and man, 
i, e. a solemn compact or agreement, either 
between tribes or nations (1 Sam. xi. 1 ; 
Josh. ix. 6, 15), or between individuals (Gen. 
xxxi. 44), by which each party bound him- 
self to ftdfll certain conditions, and was as- 
sured of receiving certain advantages. In 
making such a covenant God was solemnly 
invoked as witness (Gen. xxxi. 50), and an 
oath was sworn (Gen. xxL 31). A sign or 
witness of the covenant was sometimes (hmied, 
such as a gift (Gen. xxi. 80), or a pillar, or 
heap of stones erected (Gen. xxxL 52). The 
marriage compact is called " the covenant of 
God** (Prov. U. 17 ; see Mai. iL 14). The 
word covenant came to be applied to a sure 
ordinance such as that of the shew-bread 
(Lev. xxiv. 8); and is used figuratively in 
such expressions as a covenant with death 

(Is. xxviiL 18), or with the wild beasts (Hoe. 
ii. 18). 

COW. [Bull.] 

CRANE. There can be little doubt that 
the A. y. is incorrect in rendering eiU by 
*' crane,'* which bird is probably intended by 
the Hebrew word *dgtlr, truislated *' swal- 
low,'* by the A. Y. [Swallow.] Mention is 
made of the ede in Hesekiah's prayer (Is. 
xxxviiL 14), **Like a «t2< or an '4^ so did 
I twitter *' ; and again in Jer. viiL T these two 
words occur in the same order, fkt>m which 
passage we leam that both birds were mi- 
gratory. According to the testimony of 
most of the ancient versions, eUt denotes a 
" swallow.** 

CRES'CENS (2 Tim. iv. 10), an assistant 
of. St. Paul, said to have been one of the 
seventy disciples. According to early tradi- 
tion, he preached the Gospel in Oalatia. 
Later tradition makes him preach in Qau^ 
and found the Church at Vienne. 

CRETE, the modem Cbndia. This large 
island, which closes in the Greek Archipelago 
on the S., extends through a distance of 140 
miles between its extreme points of Cape 
Salmohk (Actsxxvii. 7) on the E. and Gape 
Criumetopon beyond F^oEMica or Phoenix 
(«&. 12) on the W. Though extremely bold 
and mountainous, this island has very fhiit- 
toX Talleys, and in early times it was cele- 
brated for its hundred cities. It seems likely 
that a very early acquaintance existed be- 
tween the Cretans and the Jews. There is 
no doubt that Jews were settled in the island 
in considerable numbers during the period 
between the death of Alexander the Great 
and the final destruction of Jerusalem. Oor- 
tyna seems to have been their chief residence 
(1 Mace. XV. 23). Thus the special mention 
of Cretans (Acts ii. 11) among those who 
were at Jerusalem at the great Pentecost is 
just what we should expect. No notice is 
given in the Acts of any more direct evan- 
gelisation of Crete ; and no absolute proof 
can be adduced that St. Paul was ever there 
before his voyage fh)m Caesarea to PuteolL 
The circumstances of St. Paul's recorded visit 
were briefly as follows : — The wind being ccm- 
trary when he was off Cnidus (Acts xxvii. 7), 
the ship was forced to run down to Cape 
Salmone, and thence under the lee of Crete 
to Faia Havxhs, which was near a city called 
Lasaxa (v. 8). Thence, after some delay, an 
attempt was made, on the wind becoming 
favourable, to reach Phoenice for the purpose 
of wintering there (v. 12). The next point 
of connexion between St. Paul and this island 
is found in the epistle to Titus. It is evident 
ftom Tit i. 5, that the Apostle himself was 
here at no long interval of time before he 

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irrote the letter. In the ooone of the letter 
(Tit. i 12} St. Paul adduces from Epimenides, 
a Cretan aage and poet, a quotation in which 
the rices of hia countrymen are described in 
dark colours. The truth of their statement 
ifl abundantly confirmed by other ancient 

CBETES (Acta iL 11). Cretans, inhabit- 
ants of Crete. 

CKIS'PUS, ruler of the Jewish synagogue 
at Corinth (Acts xviil. 8) ; baptized with his 
ftunily by St. Paul (1 Cor. i. 14). According 
to tradition, he became afterwards Bishop of 

CROSS. As the emblem of a slave's death 
and a murderer's punishment, the cross was 
naturally looked upon with the profoundest 
horror. But after the celebrated rision of 
Oonstantlne, he ordered his firiends to make 
a cross of gold and gems, such as he had 
seen, and " the towering eagles resigned the 
flags unto the cross," and " the tree of curs- 
ing and shame " "sat upon the sceptres and 
was engraved and signed on the foreheads of 
kings " (Jer. Taylor, IAS9 of Christy iii. xt. 
1). The new standards were called by the 
name Labarum, and may be seen on the 

TIm LabaniBi. (From a ooIb In the BrMih 3f uMom.) 

coins of Constantine the Great and his nearer 
successors. The Latin cross, on which our 
Lord suffered, was in the form of the letter 
T, and had an upright above the crossbar, on 
which the •* title " was placed. There was a 
projection txom the central -tibm <*& which 

the body of the sufferer rested. This was to 
prevent the weight of the body from tearing 
away the hands. Whether there was also a 
support to the feet (as we see in pictures), 
is donbtfuL An inscription was generally 
placed above the criminal's head, briefly ex* 
pressing his guilt, and generally was carried 
before him. It was covered with white gyp- 
sum, and the letters were black. It is a 
question whether tying or binding to the 
cron was the more common method. That 
our Lord was naUedt according to prophecy, 
is certain (John xx. 35, 27, Ac. ; Zeoh. xii. 
10 ; Ps. xxii. 16). It is, however, extremely 
probable that both methods were used at 
once. The cross on which our Saviour suf- 
fered is said to have been discovered in a.d. 
826, and to this day the supposed title, or 
rather fragments of it, are shown to the 
people once a year in the church of Sta. Croce 
in Oemsalemme at Rome. It was not till 
the 6th century that the mnblem of the cross 
became the image of the crucifix. As a symbol 
the use of it was frequent in the early Church. 
It was not till the 2nd century that any par- 
ticular efficacy was attached to it. [Cauci- 

CROWN. This ornament, which is both 
ancient and universal, probably originated 
from the fillets used to prevent the hair from 
being didievelled by the wind. Such fillets 
are still common, and they may be seen on 
the sculptures of Persepolis, Nineveh, and 
Egypt; they gradually developed into tur- 
bans, which by the addition of ornamental or 
precious materials assumed the dignity of 
mitres or crowns. Both the ordinary priests 
and the high-priest wore them. The common 
*• bonnet" (Ex. xxviii. 87, xxix. 6, &c)., 
formed a sort of linen fillet or crown. The 
mitre of the high-priest (used also of a regal 
crown, £z. xxL 26) was much more splendid 
(Ex. xxvilL 36 ; Lev. viii. 9). It had a 
second fillet of blue lace, and over it a golden 
diadem (Ex. xxix. 6). The gold band was 
tied behind with blue lace (embroidered with 
flowers), and being two fingers broad, bore 
the inscription ** Holiness to the Lord" 
(oomp. Rev. xvii. 5). There are many words 
in Scripture denoting a crown besides those 
mentioned: the head-dress of bridegrooms 
(Is. Ixi. 10; Bar. v. 2; Es. xxiv. 17), and 
of women (Is. iil. 20) ; a head-dress of great 
splendour (Is. xxviii. 5) ; a wreath of flowers 
(Prov. L 9, iv. 9) ; and a common tiara or 
turban (Job xxix. 14 ; Is. iii. 28). The 
general word is 'atdrdh, and we must attach 
to it the notion of a costly twbon irradiated 
with pearls and gems of priceless vidue, 
which often form Higrettes for feathnv, as in 
the crowns of rauUem Asiatio sovereign*. 

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Such was probably the orown, which 'nith its 
precioTXs stones weighed (or rather "was 
worth ") a talent, taken by David from the 
king of Ammon at Babbah, and used as the 
state crown of Judah (2 Sam. xii. 30). In 
Rev. xii. 8, xix. 13, allosion is made to 
" many crowns " worn in token of extended 
dominion. The laurel, pine, or parsley crowns 
given to victors in the great games of Greece 
are finely alluded to by St. Paul (1 Cor. ix. 
25 ; 2 Tim. ii. 5, &c.). 

Clowns worn bjr AisjrUn klnn. 
and KonTnqJDO. 

(F^rom Nlmrond 

CROWN Ot THORNS, Matt, xxvli. 29 
Our Lord was crowned with thorns in mock- 
ery by the Roman soldiers. The object seems 
to have been insult, and not the infliction of 
pain as has generally been supposed. The 
Rhamnus or Spina Christi, although abundant 
in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem, cannot be 
the plant intended, because its thorns are so 
strong and large that it could not have boen 
woven into a wreath. Had the acacia been 
intended, as some suppose, the phrase would 
have been different. Obviously some small 
flexile thorny shrub is meant ; perhaps Cbp- 
paris spmosa. 

CRUCIFIXION was in use among the 
Egyptians (Gen. zl. 19), the Carthaginians, 
. the Persians (Esth. vii. 10), the Assyrians, 
Scythians, Indians, Germans, and ttom the 
earliest times among the Greeks and Romans. 
Whether this mode of execution was known 
to the ancient Jews is a matter of dispute. 
Probably the Jews borrowed it firom the 
Romans. It was unanimously considered the 
most horrible form of death. Among the 
Romans also the degradation was a part of 
the infliction, and the punishment if applied 
to freemen was only used in the ease of the 
vilest criminals. Our Lord was condemned 
to it by the popular cry of the Jews (Matt. 
xxvii. 23) on the charge of sedition against 
Caesar (Luke xxiil. 2), although the San- 
hedrim had previously condemned him on 
the totally distinct charge of blasphemy. The 

scarlet robe, crown of thorns, and other in- 
sults to which our Lord was subjected were 
illegal, and arose ft-om the spontaneous petu- 
lance of the brutal soldiery. But the punish- 
ment properly commenced with scourging, 
after the criminal had been stripped. It was 
inflicted not with the comparatively mild 
rods, but the more terrible scourge (2 Cor. 
xi. '24, 25), which was not used by the Jews 
(Deut. XXV. 8). Into these scourges the sol- 
diers often stuck nails, pieces of bone, 8n^ to 
heighten the pain, which was often so intense 
that the sufferer died under it. In our Lord's 
case, however, this infliction seems neither to 
have been the legal scourging after sentence, 
nor yet the examination by torture (Acts xxii. 
24), but rather a scourging hpfore the sen- 
tence, to excite pity and procure immunity 
from ftirther punishment (Luke xxiil. 22 ; 
John xix. 1). The criminal carried his own 
cross, or at any rate a part of it. The place 
of execution was outside the city (1 K. xxi. 
13; Acts vii. 58; Heb. xiU. 12), often in 
some public road or other conspicuous place. 
Arrived at the place of execution, the sufferer 
was stripped naked, the dress being the per- 
quisite of the soldiers (Matt xxvii. 85). The 
cross was then driven into the ground, so 
that the feet of fhe condemned were a foot or 
two above the earth, and he was lifted upon 
it, or else stretched upon it on the ground, 
and then lifted with it. Before the nailing 
or binding took place, a medicated cup was 
given out of kindness to conftise the senses 
and deaden the pangs of the sufllerer (Prov. 
xxxi. 6), usually "of wine mingled with 
myrrh," because myrrh yas soporific Our 
Lord reftised it that his sensies might be clear 
(Matt, xxvii. 84 ; Mark xv. 28). He was 
crucified between two " thieves " or " male- 
factors," according to prophecy (Is. liii. 12) ; 
and was watched according to custom by a 
party of four soldiers (John xix. 23) with 
their centurion (Matt, xxvii. 66), whose ex- 
press office was to prevent the stealing of the 
body. This was necessary fh>m the lingering 
character of the death, which sometimes did 
not supervene even for three days, and was 
at last the result of gradual benumbing and 
starvation. But for this guard, the persons 
might have been taken down and reoovered, 
as was actually done in the case of a friend 
of Josephus. Fracture of the legs was espe- 
cially adopted by the Jews to hasten death 
(John xix. 81). But the unusual rapidity of 
our Lord's death was due to the depth of His 
previous agonies, or may be sufficiently ac- 
counted for simply fh>m peculiarities of con- 
stitution. Pilate expressly satisfied himself 
of the actual death by questioning the oen 
lurion (Bfark zv. 44). In most cases the 

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body wM suffered to rot on the eroee hj the 
aetkm of son and rain, or to be devoured by 
birds and beasts. Sepolture was generally 
therefore forbidden ; bat in oonseqoence of 
Dent. xxL S3, 28, an express national exeep- 
tion was made in fkrour of the Jews (Matt. 
xxYiL 58). This aoeorsed and awAil mode 
of punishment was happily abolished by Con- 

CRUSE, a Teenel for holding water, such 
as was carried by Saul when on his night 
expedition after David (1 Sam. xxvi. 11, 13, 
16), and by Elijah (1 K. xix. 6). In a simi. 
Jar ease in the present day this would be a 
globular vessel of blue porous clay about 
9 inches diameter, with a neck of about 
3 inches long, a smigdl handle below the neck, 
and opposite the handle a straight spout, with 
an orifice about the sise of a straw, through 
which the water is drunk or sucked. 

CRYSTAL, the representotive in the A. T. 
of two Hebrew words. — 1. ZeeHcith occurs 
only in Job xxriii. 17, where "glass" pro- 
bably is intended. — 3. Zeraeh occurs in nu- 
merous passages in the O. T. to denote *' ice," 
** frost,'* Ac. ; but once only (Ea. L 33), as 
is generally understood, to signify " crystal." 
The andents supposed rock-crystal to be merely 
ioe congealed by intense cold. The similarity of 
appearanoe between ice and crystal caused no 
doubt the identity of the terms to express 
these substances. The Greek word occurs 
in Rev. iv. 6, xxii. 1. It may mean either 
"ice "or "crystal." 


CUCKOO (Heb. thacKaph). There does 
not appear to be any authority for this trans- 
latioa of the A. T. ; the Heb. word ocours 
twice only (Lev. xL 16 ; Deut. xiv. 15), as 
the name of some unclean bird, and may pro- 
bably in d icate some of the larger petrels, 
which abound in the east of the Mediter- 

CUCUlfBERS(Heb.M»Asik<rm). This word 
occurs, in Num. xi. 5, as one of the good 
things of Egypt for which the Israelites 
longed. There is no doubt as to the meaning 
of the Hebrew. Egypt produces excellent 
caeombers, melons, &c., the Cuoumit ohate 
being the best of its tribe yet known. This 
plant grows in the fertile earth around Cairo 
after the inundation of the Nile, and not 
elsewhere in Egypt. The C, ehaU is a va- 
riety only of the common melon {C. melo) ; 
it was once cultivated in England and called 
'* the round-leaved Egyptian melon ;" but it 
is rather an insipid sort Besides the Ouett- 
•MS ehaUt the common cucumber {C. $aUoiu)t 
of which the Arabs distinguish a number of 
varieties, is common in Egypt. " Both Ou- 
cumU ehaU and C so/spm," says Mr. Tris- 

tram, " are now grown in great quantities in 
Palestine: on visiting the Arab school in 
Jerusalem (1858) I observed that the dinner 
which the children brought with them to 
school consisted, without exception, of a piece 
of barley-cake and a raw encumber, which 
they eat rind and all." The "lodge in a 
garden of cucumbers " (Is. L 8) is a rude 
temporary shelter, erected in the open grounds 
where vines, cucumbers, gourds, &c., are 
grown, in which some lonely man or boy is 
set to watch, either to guard the plants firom 
robbers, or to scare away the foxes and 
Jackals ftrom the vines. 

CUMMIN, one of the culUvated phints of 
Palestine (Is. xxvilL 35, 37 ; Matt, xxiii. 38). 
It is an umbelliferous plant something like 
fennel. The seeds hare a bitterish warm 
taste with an aromatic flavour. The Maltese 
are said to grow it at the present day. and to 
thresh it in the manner described by Isaiah. 

CUP. The cups of the Jews, whether of 
metal or earthenware, were possibly bor- 
rowed, in point of shape and design, from 
Egypt and from the Phoenicians, who were 
celebrated in that branch of workmanship. 
Egyptian cups were of various shapes, either 
with handles or without them. In Solomon's 
time all his drinking-vessels were of gold, 
none of sUver (1 K. x. 31). Babylon is com- 
pared to a golden cup (Jer. li. 7). The great 
laver, or " sea," was made with a rim like 
the rim of a cup (O^), "with flowers of 
liUes " (1 K. vii. 36), a form which the Per- 
sepolitan cups resemble. The common form 
of modem Oriental cups is represented in 
the accompanying drawing. The cups of the 
N. T. were often no doubt formed on Greek 
and Roman models. They were sometimes 
of gold (Rev. xvii. 4). 

CUPBEARER. An officer of high rank 
with Egyptian, Persian, Assyrian, as well as 
Jewish monarohs (1 K. x. 5). The chief cup- 
bearer, or butler, to the king of Egypt was 
the means of ndsing Joseph to his high po- 
sition (Gen. xl. 1, 31, xU. 9). Rabshakeh 
appears from his name to have filled a like 
office in the Assyrian court (3 K.xviii. 17). 

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Nehemiah was eupbearer to Artoxerxea 
Longimanns king of Penda (Neh. i. 11, iL 1). 

CUSH, the name of a son of Ham, appar- 
ently the eldest, and of a territory or terri- 
tories oooapied by his descendants. — 1. In 
the genealogy of Noah's children Cush seems 
to be anindividaal, for it is said " Cash begat 
Nlmrod" (Gen. x. 8 ; 1 Chr.i. 10).— 8. Cush 
as a country appears to be AfHcan in all pas- 
sages except Oen. iL IS. We may thus dis- 
tinguish a primeval and a post-diluvian Cush. 
The former was encompassed by Gihon, the 
second river of Paradise : it would seem 
therefore to have been somewhere to the 
northward of Assyria. It is possible that 
the African Cush was named trma this elder 
country. In the ancient Egyptian inscrip- 
tions Ethiopia above Egypt is termed Keesh 
or Kesh, and this territory probably perfectly 
corresponds to the AfHcan Cosh of the Bible. 
The Cushites however had dearly a wider 
extension, like the Ethiopians of the Greeks, 
but apparently with a more definite ethnic 
relation. The Cushites appear to have spread 
along tracts extending fh)m the higher Nile 
to the Euphrates and Tigris. History affords 
many traces of this relation of Babylonia, 
Arabia, and Ethiopia. Zerah the Cushite 
(A. T. ** Ethiopian ") who was defeated by 
Asa, was most probably a king of Egypt, cer- 
tainly the leader of an Egyptian army. 

CU'SHAN (Hah. Ui. 7), possibly the same 
as Cushan-rishathaim (A. V. Chushan-) king 
of Mesopotamia (Judg. ili. 8, 10). 

CU'SHI. Properly "the Cushite,»' "the 
Ethiopian,'* a man apparently attached to 
Joab's person (S Sam. xviii. 21, 22, 23, 81, 

CUTH or CU'THAH, one of the countries 
whence Shalmaneser introduced colonists into 
Samaria (2 K. xvii. 24. 30). Its position is 
undecided ; but it may perhaps be identified 
with the Cossaei, a warlike tribe, who occu- 
pied the mountain ranges dividmg Persia and 


hibition (Lev. xix. 28) against marks or 
cuttings fai the flesh for the dead must be 
taken in connexion with the parallel passages 
(Lev. xxi. 5 ; Deut xiv. 1), in which shaving 
the head with the same view is equally for- 
bidden. The ground of the prohibition will 
be found in the superstitious or inhuman 
practices prevaibng among heathen nations. 
The priests of Baal cut themselves with knives 
to propitiate the god " after their manner " 
(I K. xviiL 28). Lucian, speaking of the 
Syrian priestly attendants of this mock deity, 
says, that using violent gBstares they cat 

their arms and tongues with swords. The 
prohibition, therefore, is directed against 
practices prevailing not among the Egyptians 
whom the Israelites were leaving, but among 
the Syrians, to whom they were about to be- 
come neighbours. But there is another usage 
contemplated more remotely 1^ the prohibi> 
tion, vix., that of printing marks, tattooing, 
to indicate allegiance to a deity, in the same 
manner as soldiers and slaves bore tattooed 
marks to indicate allegiance or adscription. 
This is evidently alluded to in the Bevelation 
of St. John (xiii. 16, xvii. 5, xix. 20), and, 
though in a contrary direction, by Esekiel 
(ix. 4), by St. Paul (GaL vl. 17), in the Reve- 
lation (vii. 3), and perhaps by Isaiah (xliv. 
5) and Zechariah (xiii. 6). 

CYMBAL, CYMBALS, a percussive mu- 
sical instrument. Two Unds of cymbals are 
mentioned in Ps. d. 5, " loud cymbals '* or 
ceutagnette$f and "high-sounding cymbals." 
The former consisted of four small plates of 
brass or of some other hard metal; two 
plates were attached to each hand of the per- 
former, and were struck together to produce 
a great noise. The latter consisted of two 
larger plates, one held in each hand, and 
struck together as an accompaniment to other 
instruments. The use of cymbals was not 
necessarily restricted to the wordiip of the 
Temple or to sacred occasions: they were 
employed for military purposes, and also by 
Hebrew women as a musical aooraipaniment 
to their national dances. Both kinds of cym- 
bals are still conunon in the East in military 
music, and Niebuhr often refers to them in 
his travels. The "bells" of Zeoh. xiv. 20, 
were probably concave pieces or plates of 
brass which the people of Palestine and Syria 
attached to horses by way of ornament. 

CYPRESS (Heb. tin&h). The Heb. word 
is found only in Is. xliv. 14. We are quite 
unable to amign any definite rendering to it. 
The true cypress is a native of the Taurus. 
The Hebrew word points to some tree with a 
hard grain, and this is all that can be posi- 
tively said of it. 

CY'PRUS. This island was in early 
times in dose commerdal oonnezion with 
PhoenicU ; and there is Uttle doubt that it 
is referred to in such passages of the O. T. a» 
Ex. xxvii. 6. [CHrrriM.] Possibly Jews may 
have settled in Cyprus before the time of 
Alexander. Soon after tus time they were 
numerous in the island, as is distinctly im- 
plied in I Mace. xv. 28. The first notioe of 
it in the N. T. is in Acts iv. 36, where it i> 
mentioned as the native place of Barnabas. 
In Acts xi. 19, 20, it appears prominently 
in connexion with the earliest spreading of 
Christianity, and is again mentioned in con- 

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coxioQ vlth the minionary Jonmeys of St. 
Paul (Acts ziiL 4-18, zr. 89, xxL 8), and 
with his Toyage to Rome (xxrii. 4). The 
ielaiid became a Boman province (b.c. 58^ 
under droomstanees disci«ditable to Rome. 
At first its administration was Joined with 
that of Cilida, bat after the batUe of Actium 
it was separately goremed. In the first di- 
Tision it was made an imperial province ; but 
the emperor afterwards gave it up to the 
Senate. The prooonsnl appears to have re- 
sided at Paphos on the west of the island. 

CTRE'NE, the principal dty of that part 
of northern AfHea, which was anciently called 
Cyrenaioa, and also (flrom its five chief cities) 
Pentapolitana. This district was that wide 
projecting portion of the coast (correspond- 
ing to the modem Tr^/oli)^ which was sepa- 
rated Ihnn the territory of Carthage on the 
«ne hand, and that of Egypt on the other. 
The points to be noticed in refierenoe to Gy- 
rene as connected with the N. T. are these, — 
tiiat, thoogh on the AfHcan coast, it was a 
Greek dty ; that the Jews were settled there 
in large numbers, and that under the Romans 
it was politically connected with Crete. The 
Greek colonisation of this part of AfHca under 
Battus began as early as b.c 681. After the 
death of Alexander the Great, it became a 
dependency of Egypt. It \b in this period 
that we find the Jews established there with 
great privileges, having been introduced by 
Pudemy the son of Lagus. Soon after the 
Jewish war they rose against the Roman 
power. In the year b.c. 75 the territory of 
Cyrene was reduced to the form <^ a pro- 
vince. On the conquest of Crete (b.c 67) 
the two were united in one province, and 
together flwquently called Creta-Cyrene. The 
numbers and position of the Jews in Cyrene 
prepare us for the fluent mention at the 
place in the N. T. in connexion with Chris- 
tianity. Simon, who bore our Saviour's cross 
(Matt. xxvU. SS ; Mark xv. 21 ; Luke xxiU. 
S6) was a native of Cyrene. Jewish dwellers 
in Cyrenaiea were in Jerusalem at Pentecost 
(Acts iL 10). They even gave thdr name to 
one of the synagogues in Jerusalem (lb. vi. 
9). Christian converts fkmn Cyrene were 
among those who contributed activdy to the 
(brmation of the first Gentile church at An- 
tioch (xL 20). Ludus of Cyrene (xiii. 1) 
>« traditionally said to have been the first 
bishop of his native district. 

CTRE'NIUS, the literal English rendering 
in the A. V. of the Greek name, which is 
Itadf the Gre^ form of the Roman name 
of QuxmxKvs. The ftiU name is Publius Sul- 
pidus Quirinus. He was consul b.c 12, and 
made governor of Syria after the banishment 
of Arebelans ta a.d. 6. He was sent to make 

as. D. B. 

an enrolment of property in Syria, and made 
accordingly, both there and in Judaea, a 
census or ivoypafi(. But this oensus seems 
in Luke (iL 2) to be identified with one 
which took place at the time of the birth 
of Christ. Hence has arisen a considerable 
difficulty, but there is good reason for be- 
lieving that Quirinus was notee governor of 
Syria, and that his first governorship ex- 
tendi from B.C. 4 (the year of Christ's 
birth) to B.O. I, when he was sacoeeded by 
M. LoUius. 

CT'RUS, the firander of the Persian empire 
(see Dan. vi. 28, x. I, 18 ; 2 Chr. xxxvi 22, 
28), was, aooording to the common legend, 
the son of Mandane, the daughter of Asiyages 
the last king of Media, and Cambyses a Per- 
sian of the royal family of the Achaemenidae. 
In consequence of a dream, Astyages, it is 
said, designed the death of his infiant grand- 
son, but the child was spared by those whom 
he chafed with the comminion of the crime; 
and was reared in obscurity under the name 
of Agradates. When he grew up to manhood 
his courage and genius placed him at the head 
of the Persians. The tyranny of Astyages 
had at that time alienated a large faction of 
the Medes, and Cyrus headed a revolt which 
ended in the defeat and capture of the Median 
king B.C. 559, near Pasargadae. Alter con- 
solidating the empire which he thus gained, 
Cyrus entered on that career of conquest 
which has made him the hero of the east. 
In B.c 546 (!) he defiaated Croesus, and the 
kingdom of Lydia was the prise of his suc- 
cess. Babylon fell before his army, and the 
andent dominions of Assyria were added to 
his empire (b.c. 538). Afterwards he at- 
tacked the Massagetae, and according to He- 
rodotus fell in a battle against them b.c 520. 
His tomb is still shown at Pasargadae, the 
scene of his first decirive victory. Hitherto 
the great kings, with whom the Jews had 
been brought into contact, had been open 
oppressors or seductive allies ; but Cyrus was 
a generous liberator and a Just guardian of 
their rights. An inspired prophet (Is. xliv. 
28) recognised in him "a shepherd" of the 
Lord, an " anointed" king (Is. xlv. 1). The 
edict of Cyrus for the rebuilding of the 
Temple (2 Cbr. xxxvi. 22, 28 ; Ear. i. 1-4, 
ilL 7, iv. 8, V. 18, 17, vi. 8) was in fact the 
beginning of Judaism ; and the great changes 
by which the nation was transformed into & 
church are oleariy marked 

DAB'AREH (Josh. xxL 28), or Dabsratu, 
a town on the boundary of Zebulun 
(Josh. xix. 12) named as next to Chisloth- 
Tabor. Bat in 1 Chr. vL 72, and in Josh, 

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xxi. 28, it is said to belong to Issachar. 
Under the name of Debarieh it utill lies at 
the weatcm foot of Tabor. 

DA'QON, apparently the maMuline (1 Sam. 
T. 3, 4) correlative of Atargatis, was the na- 
tional god of the Philistines. The most fa- 
mous temples of Dagon were at Gau, (Jadg. 
XTi. 21-30) and Ashdod (1 Bam. t. 5, 6 ; 
1 Chr. X. 10). The latter temple was de- 
stroyed by Jonathan in the Maccabaeau wars 
(1 Maoc. X. 83, 84, xi. 4). Traces of the 
worship of Dagon likewise appear in the 
names Caphar-Dagon (near Jamnia), and 
Beth-Dagon in Judah (Josh. xr. 41) and 
Asher (Josh. xix. 27). Dagon was repre- 
sented with the face and hands of a man and 
the Uil of a fish (1 Sam. ▼. 5). The fish-like 
form was a natural emblem of firuitfiilness, 
and as such was likely to be adopted by sea- 
faring tribes in the representation of their 

Wih-fod. From 


DAI'SAN, 1 Esd. ▼. 31 = Rxxnc (Ear. iL 
48), by the commonly repeated change of 

DALAI 'AH. The sixth son of Elioenai, a 
descendant of the royal family of Judah (1 
Chr. iU. 24). 

DALMANU'THA, a town on the west side 
of the Sea of Galilee near Magdala (Matt. 
XT. 39 and Mark viU. 10). [Maodala.] 
Dalmanutha probably stood at the place called 
*Ain-«l'Bdrideht ** the cold Fountain." 

DALM A'TIA, a mountainous district on the 
eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, extending 
fh>m the river Naro in the S. to the Sarus in the 
N. St. Paul sent Titus there (2 Tim. iv. 10), 
and he himself had preached the Gospel in its 
immediate neighbourhood (Rom. xr. 19). 

DAM'ARIS, an Athenian woman converted 
to Christianity by St. Paul's preaching (Acts 
xvii. 34). Chrysostom and others held her 
to have been the wife of Dionysius the Areo- 

DAMASCUS, one of the most ancient and 
most important of the cities of Syria. It is 
sitiiated in a plain of vast size and of extreme 
fertility, which lies east of the great chain 
of Anti-Libanus, on the edge of the desert. 
This fertile plain, which is nearly circular, 
and about 30 miles in diameter, is due to the 
river BaradOf which is probably the '*AlMina '* 
of Scripture. Two other streams, the Wady 
Hdbcn upon the north, and the Avqj upon 
the south, which flows direct ttom Hermon, 
increase the fertility of the Damascene plain, 
and contend for the honour of representing 
the " Pharpar " of Scripture. According to 
Josephus, Damascus was founded by Uz, the 
son of Aram, and grandson of Shem. It is 
flrst mentioned in Scripture in connexion with 
Abraham (Gen. xiv. 15), whose steward was 
a native of the place (xv. 2). Nothing more 
is known of Damascus until the time of David, 
when "the Syrians of Damascus cametosuc- 
oour Hadadezer, king of Zobah,'* with whom 
David was at war (2 Sam. viii. 5 ; 1 Chr. 
xviii. 5). On this occasion David " slew of 
the Syrians 22,000 men ; " and in oonsequenoe 
of this victory became completely master of 
the whole territory, which he garrisoned with 
IsraeUtes (2 Sam. viii. 6). It appears that 
in the reign of Solomon, a certain Reson, 
who had been a subject of Hadadcxer, king of 
Zolmh, and had escaped when David conquered 
Zoboh, made himself master of Damascus, 
and established his own rule there (1 K. xL 
23-25). Afterwards the family of Hadad 
appears to have recovered the throne, and a 
Benhadad, grandson of the antagonist of Da- 
vid, is found in league with Baasha, king of 
Israel, against Asa (1 K. xv. 19 ; 2 Chr. xvi. 
3), and afterwards in league with Asa against 

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Baasha (1 K. xr. 20). He was auoceeded by 
bis son, Hadad IV. (the Benhadad II. of Scrip- 
ture), who was defeated by Ahab (IK. xx.). 
rbree years afterwards war broke out afresh, 
through the claim of Ahab to the city of Ka- 
moth-GUead (1 K. xxU. 1-4). The defeat 
and death of Ahab at that place (lb. 15-37) 
seem to have enabled the Syrians of Dvunas- 
cus to resume the offensiTe. Their bands 
raTaged the lands of Israel during the reign 
of Jehoram ; and they even undertook at this 
time a second siege of Samaria, which was 
frustrated miraculously (2 K. t1. 24, tU. 6, 7). 
After this, we do not hear of any more at- 
tempts against the Israelite capital. The 
omeifbrm inscriptions sbow that towards the 
eloee of his reign Benhadad was exposed to 
the assaults of a great conqueror, who was 
bent on extending the domiaion of Assyria 
OTer Syria and Palestine. It may haTo been 
these circumstances which encouraged Haxael, 
the serrant of Benhadad, to murder him, and 
seise the throne, which Elisha had declared 
would certainly one day be his (2 K. Till. 15). 
Shortly after tiie accession of Hasael (about 
B.C. 884) he was in his turn attacked by the 
Assyrians who defeated him with great loss 
amid the fastnesses of Anti-Libanus. How- 
erer, in his wars with Israel and Judah he 
was more fortunate, and his son Benhadad 
followed up his succeoes. At last a deliverer 
appeared (rerse 5), and Joash, the son of 
Jehoahaz, '* beat Hasael thrice, and reoorered 
the cities of Israel " (verse 25). In the next 
reign still ftirther advantages were gained by 
the Israelites. Jeroboam II. (ah. b.c. 886) 
is said to have recovered Damascus (2 K. 
xiv. 28), and though this may not mean that 
he captured the city, it at least implies that 
he obtained a certain influence over it. A 
century later (ab. b.o. 742) the Sjrrians ap- 
pear as allies of Israel against Judah (2 K. 
XV. 87). It seems to have been during a 
pause in the strode against Assyria that 
Seidn king of Damascus, and Pekah king of 
Israel, resolved conjointly to attack Jerusalem, 
intending to depose Ahaa and set up as king 
a creature of their own (Is. viL 1-6 ; '2 K. 
xvi. 5). Jerusalem successfully maintained 
itself against the combined attack. Abaa was 
induced to throw himself into the arms of 
TIglath-Piloser, to ask aid from him, and to 
accept voluntarily the position of an Assyrian 
feudatory (ib. xvi. 7, 8). The aid sought 
was given, with the important result, that 
Resin was slain, the kingdom of Damascus 
brought to an end, and the city itself de- 
stroyed, the inhabitants being carried captive 
into Assyria (2 K. xvL 9 ; comp. Is. vii. 8 
and Am. L 5). It was long before Damascus 
recovered from this serious blow. We do 

not know at what time Dainascus was rebuilt ; 
but Strabo says that it was the most famous 
place in Syria during the Persian period. At 
the time of the Gospel history, and of the 
apostle Paul, it formed a part of the kingdom 
of Aretas (2 Cor. xL 82), an Arabian prince, 
who held his kingdom under the Romans. 
Damascus has always been a great centre for 
trade. It would appear ftrom £z. xxvii. that 
Damascus took manufactured goods from tiie 
Phoenicians, and supplied them in exchange 
with wool and wine. But the passage trade 
of Damascus has probably been at all times 
more important than its direct commerce. — 
Certain localities in Damascus are shown as 
the site of those Scriptural events which es- 
pecially interest us in its history. A ** long 
wide thoroughfare," leading direct ftrom one 
of the gates to the Castle or palace of the 
Pasha, is *' caUed by the guides < Straight ' " 
(Acts ix . 1 1 ) ; but the natives know it among 
themselves as *' the Street of bazaars." The 
house of Judas is shown, but it is not in the 
street " Straight." That of Ananias is also 
pointed out. The scene of the conversion is 
confidently said to be an open green spot, 
surrounded by trees, and used as the Christian 
burial-ground ; but four distinct spots have 
been pointed out at different times, so that 
little confidence can be placed in any of them. 
The point of the walls at which St. Paul was 
let down by a basket (Acts ix. 25 ; 2 Cor. xL 
88) is also shown. 

DAN. 1. The fifth son of Jacob, and the 
first of Bilhah, Rachel's maid (Gen. xxx. 6). 
The origin of the name is given in the excla- 
mation of Rachel — "God hath judged me 
(ddiuumi) . . . and given me a sbn, there- 
fore she odled his name Dan," •'. e. "judge." 
In the blessing of Jacob (Gen. xlix. 16) this 
play on the name is repeated — "Dan shall 
Jud{fe (ydcUn) his people." The records of 
Dan are unusually meagre. Only one son Is 
attributed to him (Gen. xlvi. 23) ; but when 
the people were numbered in the wilderness 
of Sinai, his tribe was, with the exception of 
Judah, the most numerous of all, containing 
62,700 men able to serve. The position of 
Dan during the march through the desert 
was on the north side of the tabernacle 
(Num. ii. 25), the hindmost of the long pro- 
cession (U. 31, X. 25). It arrived at the 
threshold of the Promised Land, and passed 
the ordeal of the rites of Baal-peor (Num. 
XXV.) with an increase of 1700 on the earlier 
census. In the division of the Promised Land 
Dan was the last of the tribes to receive his 
portion, and that portion, according to the 
record of Joshua, strange as it appears in the 
face of the numbers Just quoted, was the 
smallest of the twelve (Josh. xlx. 48). But 
I 2 

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notwithstanding its amallneM it had eminent 
natural advantages. On the north and east 
It was completely embraced by its two brother- 
tribes Ephraim and Benjamin, while on the 
south-east and south it joined Judah, and was 
thus surrounded by the three most powerftil 
states of the whole confederacy. From Japho 
— afterwards Joppa, and now J^A*-— on the 
north, to Ekron and Gathrimmon on the south, 
a length of at least 14 miles, that noble tract, 
one of the most fertile in the whole of Pales- 
tine, was aUotted to this tribe. But this rich 
district, the com-fleld and the garden of the 
whole south of Palestine, was too valuable to 
be given up without a struggle by its original 
possessors. The Amorites accordingly ** forced 
the children of Dan into the mountain, for they 
would not suffer them to come down into the 
vaUey" (Judg. i. 34). With the help of 
Ephraim, Dan prevailed against the Amorites 
for a time, but in a few years the Philistines 
took the place of the Amorites and with the 
same result. These considerations enable us 
to understand how it happened that long after 
the partition of the land all the inheritance 
of the Danites had not fiedlen to them among 
the tribes of Israel (Judg. xviii. 1). They also 
explain the warlike and independent charac- 
ter of the tribe betokened in the name of their 
head-quarters Mahaneh-Dui, " the camp, or 
host of Dan," in the fact specially insisted on 
and reiterated (xviU. 11, 16, 17) of the com- 
plete equipment of their 600 warriors ** ap- 
pointed wkh weapons of war,"— and the law- 
less f^eebooting style of their behavioiir to 
Micah. In the "security" and "quiet" 
(Judg. xviii. 7, 10) of their rich northern 
poeeession the Danites enjoyed the leisure and 
repose which had been denied them in their 
original seat But of the fate of the city to 
which they gave " the name of their father " 
(Josh. xix. 47) we know scarcely anything. 
In the time of David Dan still kept its place 
among the tribes (1 Chr. xii. 85). Asher is 
omitted, but the «• prince of the tribe of Dari " 
is mentioned in the list of 1 Chr. xxvii. 22. 
But ftpom this time forward the name as ap- 
plied to the tribe vanishes ; it is kept alive 
only by the northern city. In the genealogies 
of 1 Chr. iL-xii. Dan is omitted entirely. 
Lastly, Dan is omitted firom the list of those 
who were sealed by the Angel in the vision 
of St. John (Rev. vii. 5-7).— 8. The weU- 
known city, so familiar as tiie most northern 
landmark of Palestine, in the common ex- 
pression ** f^om Dan even to Beersheba." The 
name of the place was originally Laish or 
LssHXM (Joeh. xix. 47). Its inhabitants Uved 
** after the manner of the Zidonians," i, e. 
engaged in commerce, and without defence. 
Living thus ** quiet and secure," they fell an 

easy prey to the active and practised f^ree- 
boo^rs of the Danites. They conferred upon 
their new acquisition the name of their own. 
tribe, " after the name of their father who 
was bom unto Israel " (Judg. xviii. 29 ; Josh, 
xix. 47), and Laish became Dan. After the 
establishment of the Danitee at Dan it became 
the acknowledged extremity of the country. 
Dan was, with other northern cities, laid waste 
by Benhadad (1 K. xv. 20 ; 2 Chr. xvi. 4), 
and this is the last mention of the place. 
With regard to the mention of Dan in Oen. 
xiv. 14 it is probable that the passage origin- 
ally contained an older name, as Laish ; and 
that when that was supereeded by Dan, the 
new name was inserted in the MS8. The 
Tell el-Kadi, a mound firom the foot of which * 
gushes out one of the largest fountains in the 
world, the main source of the Jordan, is very 
probably the site of the town and citadel of 
Dan. The spring is called el LeddSn, possibly 
a corruption of Dan, and the stream firom the 
spring Nahr ed Dhimt while the name. Tell 
el Kadi, " the Judge's mound," agrees in 
signification with the ancient name. — 8. Ap- 
parently the name of a city, associated with 
Javan, as one of the places in Southern Arabia 
from which the Phoenicians obtained wrought 
iron, cassia, and calamus (Es. xxviL 19). 

DANCE. The dance is spoken of in Holy 
Scripture tmiversally as symbolical of some 
rejoicing, and is often coupled for the sake of 
contrast with mourning, as in Eod. iii. 4 
(comp. Ps. XXX. 11 ; Matt. xi. 17). In the 
earlier period it is found combined with some 
song or reflrain (Ex. xv. 20, xxxii. 18, 19 ; 
1 Sam. xxi. 11) ; and with the tambourine 
(A.V. ** timbrel "), more especially in those 
impulsive outbursts of popular fseling which 
cannot find sufficient vent in voice or in 
gesture singly. Dancing fbnned a part of 
the religious ceremonies of the Egyptians, 
and was also common in private entertain- 
ments. The ** feast unto the Lord," which 
Moses proposed to Pharat^ to hold, was 
really a dance. Women, however, among 
the Hebrews made the duioe their especial 
means of expressing their fsellngs; and so 
welcomed their husbands or friends on their 
return firom battle. The '* eating and drink- 
ing and dancing" of the Amalekites is 
recorded, as is the people's ** rising up to 
play," with a tacit censure. The Hebrews, 
however, save in such moments of tempta- 
tion, seem to have eft dancing to the women. 
But more especially, on such occasions of 
triumph, any woman whose nearness of kin 
to the champion of the moment gave her a 
public character among her own sex, seems 
to have felt that it was her part to lead such 
a demonstration of triumph, or of welcome 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 




(Ex. XT. 20 ; Jndg. xi. 84). This marks the 
peculiarity ot Darid's eondaet, when, on the 
return of the Ark of God f^om its long 
ftojoom among strangers and borderers, he 
(2 Sam. ▼!. $-S2) was himself the leader of 
the dance ; and here too the women, with 
their tlmhrda (see especiallf tt. 5, 19, 20, 
22), took an important share. This fuX 
brings oat more markedly the feelings of 
8Aal*s daughter Michal, keeping aloof from 
the occasion, and '* looking through a win- 
dow " at the scene. She should, in accord- 
ance with Uie examples of Miriam, ftc, have 
herself led the female choir, and so come out 
to meet the Ark and her lord. She stays 
with the *' household " (rer. 20), and '* comes 
orit to meet " him with reproaches, perhaps 
feeling that his seal was a rebuke to her 
apathy. Ftom the mention of ''damsels," 
•*timbrels,»' and "dances" (Ps. Ixriii. 25, 
exUx. S, oL 4), as elements of religious wor- 
ship, it may perhaps be inferred that Darid's 
feeling led hhn to incorporate in its rites that 
popular mode of festire celebration. In the 
earlier period of the Judges the dances of the 
Tirgins in ShUoh (Judg. xxi. 19-29) were 
eertainly part of a religions festivity. Danc- 
ing also had its place among merely festire 
amusements apart from any religious cha- 
racter (Jer. xxxi. 4, IS ; Lam. r. 15; Mark 
▼i. 22 ; Luke xt. 25). 

DANCE. By this word is rendered in the 
A. T. the Hebrew term, mdehol, a musieal 
Instrument of percussion, supposed to hare 
been need by the Hebrews at an early period 
of their history. In the grand Hallelujah 
Psalm (cL) which doses that magnificent 
colleetion, the sacred poet exhorts mankind 
to praise Jehorah in His sanctuary with all 
kinds of music ; and amongst the instruments 
mentioned at the Srd, 4th, and 5th rerses is 
ftmnd mSehlU. It is generally belicTed to 
luTe been Made of metal, open like a ring : 

MadMl iMtnioMiita. Dmiml (MmdclMolRi). 

it bad many small bells attached to its border, 
and was played at weddings and merry. 
maUng by women, who accompanied it with 
DANlEU — ^1. The second son of David by 

Abigail the CarmeUtess (1 Chr. iii. 1). In 2 
8«m. iii. 8, he is called Chileab.~S. The 
fourth of " the greater prophets." Nothing 
is known of his parentage or family. Ho 
appears, however, to have been of royal or 
noble descent (Dan. i. 8), and to have 
possessed considerable personal endowments 
(Dan. i. 4). He was taken to Babylon in 
««the third year of Jehoiakim" (b.c. 604), 
and trained for the king's service with his 
three companions. like Joseph in earlier 
times, he gained the favour of his guardian, 
and was divinely supported in his resolve to 
abstain fh>m the ** king's meat " for fear of 
defilement (Dan. L 8-16). At the close of his 
three years' discipline (Dan. L 5, 18), Daniel 
had an opportunity of exercising his peculiar 
gift (Dan. L 17) of interpreting dreams, on 
the occasion of Nebuohadnessar's decree 
against the Magi (Dan. ii. 14 fT.). In con- 
sequence of his success he was made ** ruler 
of the whole province of Babylon," and 
"chief of the governors over all the wise 
men of Babylon " (U. 48). He afterwards 
interpreted the second dream of Nebuchad- 
nezzar (iv. 8-27), and the handwriting on 
the wall which disturbed the feast of Bel- 
shazzar (v. 10-28) though he no longer held 
his offldkl position among the magi (Dan. v. 
7, 8, 12), and probably lived at Susa (Dan. 
viii. 2). At the accession of Darius he was 
made first of the " three presidents " of the 
empire (Dan. vi. 2), and was delivered fh>m 
the lions' den, into which he had been cast 
for his faithftilness to the rites of his fUth 
(vi. 10-28 ; cf. Bel and Dr. 29-42). At the 
acceasicm of Cyrus he still retained his pro- 
sperity (vi. 28 ; cf. L 21 ; Bel and Dr. 2); 
though he does not appear to have remained 
at Babylon (cf. Dan. L 21), and in "the 
third year of Cyrus " (b.c. 584) he saw his 
last recorded vision on the banks of the 
Tigris (x. 1,4). In the prophecies of Ezekiel 
mention is made of Daniel as a pattern of 
righteousness (xiv. 14, 20) and wisdom 
(xxviii. 8) ; and since Daniel was stUl young 
at that tbne (circ. b.c. 588-584), some have 
thought that another prophet of the name 
must have lived at some earlier time, perhaps 
during the captivity of Nineveh, whose fame 
was transferred to his later namesake. On 
the other hand the narrative in Dan. i. 11, 
implies that Daniel was conspicuously distin- 
guished for purity and knowledge at a very 
early age (cf. Hist. Sus. 45), and he may 
have been nearly forty years old at the time 
of Ezekiel's prophecy. 

DAN'IEL, THE BOOK OP, is the earUest 
example of apocalyptic literature, and in a 
great degree the model according to wh^eh 
all later apocalypees were constructed. In 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 





this aspect it stands at the head of a series of 
writings in which the deepest thoughts of the 
Jewish people found expression after the dose 
of the prophetic era. The language of the 
book, no less than its general form, belongs 
to an era of transition. Like the book of 
L«ra, Daniel is composed partly in the rer- 
nacular Aramaic (Chaldee), and partly In the 
sacred Hebrew. The introduction (L-iL 4 
«) is written in Hebrew. On the occasion 
of the •• Syriac " (L e. Aramaic) answer of 
the Chaldaeans, the language changes to 
Aramaic, and this is retained till the dose 
of the serenth chapter (ii. 4 6— rii.). The 
personal introduction of Daniel as the writer 
of the text (viii. 1) is marked by the resump- 
tion of the Hebrew, which continues to the 
dose of the book (riii.— xU.). The use of 
Greek technical terms marks a period when 
commerce had already united Persia and 
Greece.— The book may be dirided into three 
parts. The first chapter forms an introdno- 
fcion. The next six chapters (ii.-rii.) gire 
a general riew of the progressive history of 
the powers of the world, and of the principles 
of the dirine government as seen in erents of 
the life of Daniel. The remainder of the 
book (Tiii..xii.) traces in minuter detail the 
fortunes of the people of God, as typical of 
the fortunes of the Church in all ages.— The 
unity of the book in its present form, not- 
withstanding the difference of language, is 
generally acknowledged. Still there is a 
remarkable difference in its internal cha- 
racter. In the first seren chapters Daniel is 
spoken of historiecUly (i. 6-21, ii. 14-49, iv. 
8-27, V. 13-.29. Ti. 2-28, ril. 1, 2) : i* the 
last five he appears penonally as the writer 
(Tii. l^-28, TiU. 1-ix. 22, x. 1-9, xU. 5). 
The cbuse of the difference of person is 
commonly supposed to lie in the nature of the 
case. It is, howerer, more probable that the 
peculiarity arose firom the manner in which 
the book assumed its final shape. The book 
exercised a great influence upon the Christian 
Church. Apart from the general type of 
Apocalyptic composition which the Apostolic 
writers derived fh>m Daniel (2 Thess. ii.; 
Ber. pauim : cf. Matt. xxri. 64, zxi. 44 T), 
the New Testament incidentally acknowledges 
each of the oharaoteristio elements of the 
book, its miracles (Hebr. xi. 33, 34), its pre- 
dictions (Matt. xxiv. 15), and its doctrine of 
angels (Luke i. 19, 26). At a still earUer 
time the same influence may be traced in the 
Apocrypha. — The authenticity of the book 
has been attacked in modern times, and its 
composition ascribed to the times of the 
Maccabees : but in doctrine the book is closely 
connected with the writings of the Exile, 
and forms a last step in the dcTelopmeni 

of the ideas of Messiah (jii. 18, &o.), of 
the resurrection (xii. 2, s), of the ministry 
of angels (viii. 16, xii. 1, ftc), of personal 
devotion (vi. 10, 11, i. 8), which formed the 
basis of later speculations, but received no 
essential addition in the interval before the 
coming of our Lord. Generally it may be 
said that while the book presents in many 
respects a startling and exceptional character, 
yet it is far more difficult to explain its com- 
position in the Maccabaean period than to 
connect the peculiarities which it exhibits 
with the exigencies of the Return. 

TO. The Greek translations of Daniel, like 
that of Esther, contain several pieces which 
are not found in the originxil text. The most 
important of these additions are contained in 
the Apocrypha of the English Bible under the 
titles of The $ong of the three Solf Children, 
The Hutory of Susannah, and The Ei$tory ef 
. . . Bel and the Dragon, The first of these 
pieces is incorporated into the narrative of 
Daniel. After the three confessors were 
thrown into the furnace (Dan. iii. 23), 
Azarias is represented praying to God for 
deUverance (Song of Three ChUdren, 8-22); 
and in answer the angel of the Lord shields 
them firom the fire which consumes their 
enemies (23-27), whereupon "the three, a« 
out of one mouth,*' raise a triumphant song 
(29-68), of which a chief part (35-66) has 
been used as a hymn in the Christian Church 
since the 4th century. The two other pieoee 
appear more distinctly as appendices, and 
offer no semblance of forming part of the 
original text. The Hutory of Sueamnah (or 
The judgment of Daniel) is generally found 
at the beginning of the book, though it also 
occurs after the 12 th chapter. The Hittory 
of Bel and the Dragon is placed at the end of 
the book. The character of these additions 
indicates the hand of an Alexandrine writer ; 
and it is not unlikely that the translator of 
Daniel wrought up traditions which were 
already current, and appended them to his 

DARIC (A. V. "dram ;»» Exr. iL 69 ; viU. 
27 ; Neh. vii. 70, 71, 72 ; I Chr. xxix. 7), a 
gold coin current in Palestine in the period 
after the return turn. Babylon. At these 
times there was no large issue of gold money 
except by the Persian kings. The Darios 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




which hare been difoorered are thick pieces 
of pure gold, of archaic style, bearing cm the 
obverse the figure of a Ung with bow and 
jaTclin, or bow and dagger, and on the 
rorerse an irregular incuse square. 

DARI'US, the name of scTcral kings of 
Media and Persia. Three kings bearing this 
name are mentioned in the O. T. ~1. Daiuvs 
the MxDs (Dan. zL 1, ri. 1), " the son of 
Ahasuerus of the seed of the Medes" (ix. 1), 
who socoeeded to the Babylonian kingdom on 
the death of Belshazzar, being then sixty-two 
years old (Dan. r. 91 ; iz. 1). Only one 
year of his reign is mentioned (Dan. iz. 1, 
zL 1) ; bat that was of great importance for 
the Jews. Daniel was advanced by the king 
to the highest dignity (Dan. vi. 1 fT.), 
probably in consequence of his former services 
(cf. Dan. V. 17); and after his miraculous 
deliverance, Darius issued a decree enjoining 
throughout his dominions ** reverence for the 
Ood of Daniel" (Dan. vi. 25 it.). The 
eztreme obscurity of the Babylonian annals 
has given occasion to different hypotheses as 
to the name under which Darius the Mede is 
known in history; but he is probably the 
same as ** Astyages," the last king of the 
Medes. — S. Dabxus the son of Htstaspss the 
foonder of the Perso-Arian dynasty. Upon 
the OBurpation of the Magian Smerdis, he 
conspired with siz other Persian chiefs to 
overthrow the impostor, and on the success 
of the plot was placed upon the throne, b.o. 
521. His designs of foreign conquest were 
interrupted by a revolt of the Babylonians. 
After the subjugation of Babylon Darius 
tamed his arms against Scythla, Libya, and 
India. The defeat of Marathon (b.c. 490) 
only roused him to prepare vigorously for 
that decisive struggle with the West which 
was now inevitable. His plans were again 
thwarted by rebellion. With regard to the 
Jews, Darius Hystaspee pursued the same 
policy as Cyrus, and restored to them the 
privileges which they had lost (Ear. v. 1, 
4te. ; vi. 1, Ac.).— 8. Dakivs thb Psbsiam 
(Neh. zii. 22), may be identified with Da- 
rius II. Nothus (Ochus), king of Persia b.c. 
424-S — 405-4, if the whole passage in ques- 
ti^a was written by Nehemiah. If, however, 
the register was continued to a later time, 
as is not improbable, the occurrence of the 
name Jaddua (w. 11, 22), points to Darius 
ni. Codomannus, the antaigonist of Alez- 
ander, and last king of Persia b.c 896-830 
(1 Mace. L 1). 

DARKNESS is spoken of as encompassing 
the actual presence of Ood, as that out of 
which He ^eaks, the envelope, as it were, 
of invine glory (Ez. zz. 21 ; 1 K. viii. 12). 
The plagiw of DarkncM in Egypt has been 

ascribed by various oommentators to non- 
miraculous agency, but no sufficient account 
of its intense d^ree, long duration, and 
limited area, as prooeeding from any physical 
cause, has been given. The darkness ** over 
all the land ** (Matt, xxvii. 45) attending the 
cruciflzi<ni haf been similarly attributed to 
an eclipse. Phlegon of Tralles indeed men- 
tions an eclipse of intense darkness, which 
began at noon, and was combined, he says, 
in Bithynia, with an earthquake, which in 
the uncertain state of our chronology more or 
less nearly synchronises with the event. 
Darkness is also, as in the ezpression *' land 
of darkness," used for the state of the dead 
(Job z. 21, 22) ; and frequently figuratively, 
for ignorance and unbelief; as the privation of 
spiritual Ught (John i. 5, iii. 19> 

DATES, 2 Chr. zzzi. 5 marg. [Palm 

DA'THAN, a Beubenite chieftain, son of 
Eliab, who Joined the oonspiracy of Korah 
the Levite (Num. zvi. I, zzvi. 9 ; Deut. zL 
6 ; Ps. cvi. 17). 

DAUGHTER. 1. The word is used in 
Scripture not only for daughter, but for 
granddaughter or other female descendant, 
much in the same way and like extent with 
«*son" (Oen. zxiv. 48, zzzL 48).— S. The 
female inhabitants of a place, a country, or 
the females of a particular race are called 
daughters (Oen. vi. 2, zxvii. 46, xzviii. 6, 
xzzvi. 2 ; Num. zzv. 1 ; Deut. zxiil. 17 ; 
Is. UL 16 ; Jer. xlvi. 11, xlix. 2, 8, 4 ; Luke 
xxiii. 28).— 8. The same notion of descent 
explains the phrase "daughters of music," 
i. e. singing birds (Eccl. xli. 4), and the use 
of the word for branches of a tree (Oen. zliz. 
22), the pupU of the eye (Lam. ii. 18 ; Ps. 
zviL 8), and the expression ** daughter of 90 
years," to denote the age of Sarah (Oen. zvii. 
17.— 4. It is also used of cities in general. 
Is. z. 82, zziil. 12 ; Jer. vi. 2, 26 ; Zech. 
iz. 9). — 0. But more spedflcally of dependent 
towns or hamlets, while to the principal city 
the correlative ** mother" is applied (Num. 
xxi. 25 ; Josh. zvU. 11, 16 ; Judg. L 27 ; 1 
Chr. vti. 28 ; 2 Sam. zz. 19). 

DAVID, the son of Jesse. His life may be 
divided into three portions: — I. His youth 
before his introduction to the court of Saul. 
II. His relations with Saul. HI. His reign. 
— ^L The early life <^ David wmUioB in mvij 
important respects the antecedents of his 
ftiture career. 1. His fkmily may best be 
seen in the form of a genealogy. It thus 
appears that David was the youngest son» 
probably the youngest child, of a family of 
ten. His mother's name is unknown. His 
father, Jesse, was of a great age when David 
was BtiU young (1 Sam. zviL 12). His 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 




parents both lired till after his final rapture 
with Saul (1 Sam. zxii. S). Through them 
David inherited leveral points which he 
never lost, (a) His connexion witli Moab 
through his great-grandmother Ruth. This 
he kept up when he escaped to Moab and 
entrusted his aged parents to the care of the 
king (1 Sam. zxiL 8). (6) His birthplace, 
BcTBLraKM. His recollection of the well of 
Bethlehem is one of the most touching 
incidents of his later life (1 Chr. zi. 17), and 
it is his connexion with it that brought the 
place again in after times into universal 
fame (Luke ii. 4). (c) His general connexion 
with the tribe of Judah. (d) His relations 
to Zeruiah and Abigail. Though called in 
1 Chr. il. 16, sistere of David, they are not 
expressly called the daughtere of Jesse ; and 
Abigail, in 2 Sam. zvii. S5, is caUed the 
daughter of Nahash. Is it too much to 
suppose that David's mother had been the 
wife or concubine of Nahash, and then 
married by Jesse t 2. As the youngest of the 
family he may possibly have received from 
his parents the name, which first appean in 
him, of David the helov^ the darlmg. 
Perhaps for this same reason he was never 
intimate with his brethren. The familiarity 
which be lost with his brothera he gained 
with his nephews. The three sons of his 
sister Zeruiah, and the one son of his sister 
Abigail, were probably of the same age as 
David himself; and they accordingly were to 
him throughout life in the relation usually 
occupied by brothere and cousins. The two 
sons of his brother Shimeah are both con- 
nected with his after history. One was 
Jonadab, the ftiend and adviser of his eldest 
son Amnon (2 Sam. xiii. 3). The other was 
Jonathan (2 Sam. xxi. 21), who afterwards 
became the counsellor of David himself (1 
Chr. xxvii. 82). The firet time that David 

appears in history at once admits us to the 
whole family cirele. There was a practice 
once a year at Bethlehem, probably at the first 
new moon of the year, of holding a sacrificial 
feast, at which Jesse, as the chief proprietor 
of the place, would preside (1 Sam. zx. 6), 
with the eldere of the town. At this or such 
like feast (xvi. 1) suddenly appeared the 
great prophcft Samuel, driving a heifer before 
him, and having in his hand a horn of the 
consecrated oil of the Tabernacle. The 
heifer was killed. The party were waiting 
to begin the feast. Samuel stood with his 
horn to pour forth the oil, as if for an invi- 
tation to begin (Comp. ix. 22). He was 
restrained by divine intimation as son after 
son passed by. Eliab, the eldest, by ** his 
height " and " his ^untenance," seemed the 
natural countcrp«|K of Saul, whose rival, 
unknown to them, the prophet came to select. 
But the day was gone when kings were 
chosen because they were head and shoulders 
taller than the rest. "Samuel said unto 
Jesse, Are these all thy children ? And he 
said. There remaineth yet the youngest, and 
behold he keepeth the sheep.*' This is our 
first and most characteristic introduction to 
the future king. The boy was brought in. 
We are enabled to fix his appearance at once 
in our minds. He was of short stature, with 
red or auburn hair, such as is not un- 
frequently seen in his countrymen of the 
East at the present day. In later liliB he 
wore a beard. His bright eyes are especially 
mentioned (xvi. 12), and generally he was 
remarkable for the grace of his figure and 
countenance ("fkir of eyes," "comely," 
" goodly," xvi. 12, 18, xviL 42), well made, 
and of immense strength and agility. His 
swiftness and activity made him (like his 
nephew Asahel) like a wild gaaclle, his feet 
like hart's feet, and his arms strong enough 

f^lnon or Salniah 
(Ruth IV. 81, 1 Chr. li. 11). 


Bou* Ruth* Mfthkm. 

(Roth IT. 10). 




(Ruth IT. 17). 

(t f am. xnt. t5) 

JoiM«uui (1 Chr. sxni. Si). 


Abis»a»Jcthflr -Irrn'r KMab. AMn- 

il Chr. (Jerome Elihu uIaK. 
. 17). W». HA. (1 Chr. 
on I Chr. ixrU. 
zL 40). IS). 


flbiinmah. NeChaii- Rwklu Oxem (on* DAVIE 
ShlmnuUi, wL (Rael, (AsHin, WnoC 
Sbtmmh Joa. Aid Jm. AiU. gtTMi, 

(tSam. VI. a 1. ri.8. 1). aniMS 

sxi. SI). Rd, Ewald.) Elibo, 

Svr. UMl AraK 




CI Chr. mrU. 7). 

AbtbMili-ReboboMn. JoiUtbu Joondab Jod f 

(a Chr. si 1 ). (1 Sam. x%\ 81 ; (t Siira. (Jciome, 

1 Chr. xxTii. SS). sili.S). Qk H*b. 

(Ntubu * * on I Chr. 

3n. Qm. H«fr. xl. IS). 

•• 1 Sam. xri. 18) 

1 Chr. ii. U). 

Digitized by^OOQlC 




to break a bow of steel (Ps. zYiiL 88, 84). 
lie was ponuing the occupation allotted in 
Eaateni ooontries osnally to the slaTee, the 
femalea, or the despised of the family. He 
usoaUy carried a switch or wand in his hand 
(1 Sam. zTli. 40), such as would be used for 
his dogs (xTii. 48), and a scrip or wallet 
round his neek, to carry anything that was 
needed for his shepherd's life (xvii. 48). 8. 
Bat there was anoth^ preparation still more 
needed for his office, which is his next intro- 
dnotion to the history. When the body- 
guard of Saul were discussing with their 
master where the best minstrel could be 
found to chase away his madness by music, 
one of the young men in the guard suggested 
David. Saul, with the absolute control 
inherent in the idea of an Oriental king, 
instantly sent for him, and in the sucoessfU 
effort of Darid's harp we have the first 
glimpse into that genius for music and 
poetry which was afterwards consecrated in 
the Psalms. 4. One incident alone of his 
solitary shepherd life has come down to us — 
bis conflict with the lion and the bear in 
defence of his father's flocks (1 Sam. xtU. 
84, 85 j. But it did not stand alone. He 
was already known to Saul's guards for his 
martial exploits, probably against the Philis- 
tines (xtI. 18), and, when he suddenly 
appeared in the camp, his elder brother 
immediately guessed that he had left the 
sheep in his ardour to see the battle (xvii. 
38). The scene of the battle is at Ephxs- 
DAJOfiM, in the frontier-hills of Judah, called 
probably Arom this or similar encounters 
**tho bound of blood." Saul's army is 
encamped on one side of the raTine, the 
PhiUstines on the other, the watercourse of 
Elah or "the Terebinth" runs between 
them. A Philistine of gigantic stature, and 
clothed in complete armour, insults the com- 
paratively defenceless Israelites, amongst 
whom tbb king alone appears to be well 
armed (xvii. 88 ; oomp. xiiL 20). No one 
can be found to take up the challenge. At 
this juncture David appears in the camp. 
Just as he comes to the circle of waggons 
which formed, as in Arab settlements, a rude 
fortiflcation round the Israelite camp (xvii. 
SO), he hears the well-known shout of the 
Israelite war-cry (comp. Num. xxiii. 21). 
The martial spirit of the boy is stirred at the 
sound ; he leaves his provisions with the 
baggage-master, and darts to join his 
brothers, like one of the royal messengers, 
into the midst of the lines. Then he hears 
the challenge, now made for the fortieth 
time — sees the dismay of his countrymen — 
hears the reward proposed by the king — goes 
with the impetuosity of youth from soldier to 

soldier talking of the event, in spite of hit 
brother's rebuke — is introduced to Saul — 
undertakes the combat. His victory over 
the gigantic Philistine is rendered more con- 
spicuous by his own diminutive stature, and 
by the simple weapons with which it was 
accomplished— not the armour of Saul, which 
he naturally found too large, but the shep- 
herd's sling, which he always carried with 
him, and the five poUshed pebbles which he 
picked up as he went fh>m the watercoume 
of the valley, and put in his shepherd's 
wallet. Two trophies long remained of the 
battle^ — one, the hnge sword of the Philistine, 
which was hung up behind the ephod in the 
Tabernacle at Nob (1 Sam. xxi. 9) ; the 
other, the head, which he bore away himself, 
and which was either laid up at Nob, or 
subsequently at Jerusalem. — IT. BeUUions 
vnik Saul. — We now enter on a new aspect 
of David's life. The victory over Goliath 
had been a turning point of his career. 
Saul inquired his parentage, and took him 
finally to his court. Jonathan was inspired 
by the romantic, friendship which bound the 
two youths together to the end of their lives. 
The triumphant songs of the Israelitish 
women announced that they felt that in him 
Israel had now found a deliverer mightier 
even than SauL And in those songs, and in 
the fame which David thus acquired, was laid 
the foundation of that unhappy jealousy of 
Saul towards him which, mingling with the 
king's constitutional malady, poisoned his 
whole future relations to David. Three new 
qualities now began to develop themselves in 
David's character. The first was his prudence. 
Secondly, we now see his magnanimous for- 
bearance called forth, in the first instance, 
towards Saul, but displaying itself (with a 
few painfhl exceptions) in the rest of his life. 
Thirdly, his hairbreadth escapes, continued 
through so many years, impressed upon him 
a sense of dependence on the Divine help, 
clearly derived from this epoch. This course 
of life subdivides itself into four portions : — 
1. His life at the court of Saul till his final 
escape (1 Sam. xviii. 2-xix. 18). His office 
is not exactly defined. But it would seem 
that, having been first armour-bearer (xvi. 21, 
xviii. 2), then made captain over a thou- 
sand — the subdivision of a tribe — (xviii. 13), 
be finally, on his marriage with Michal, the 
king's second daughter, was raised to the 
high office of captain of the king's body- 
guard, second only, if not equal, to Abner, 
the captain of the host, and Jonathan, the 
heir apparent. These three formed the usual 
companions of the king at his meals (xz. 25). 
David was now ehiefiy known for his sue* 
oesdU exploits against the Philistines, by 

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one of which he won his wife, and droTe back 
the Philistine power with a blow ft-om which 
it only rallied at the disastrous dose of Saul's 
reign. He also still performed ft-om time to 
time the office of minstrel. But the nio* 
cessive snares laid by Saul to entrap him, 
and the open violence into which tho king's 
madness twice broke out, at last conyinced 
him that his life was no longer safe. He had 
two faithful allies, however, in the court — 
the son of Saul, his ft-iend Jonathan — the 
daughter of Saul, his wife Michal. Warned 
by the one, and assisted by the other, he 
escaped by night, and was from thenceforward 
a (Vigitive. Jonathan he never saw again 
except by stealth. Michal was given in mar- 
riage to another (Phaltiel), and he saw her no 
more till long after her father's death. 2. Bis 
escape (1 Sam. xix. 18-xxi. 15). He first 
fted to Naioth (or the pastures) of Ramah, to 
Samuel. This is the first recorded occasion 
of his meeting with Samuel since the original 
interview during his boyhood at Bethlehem. 
Up to this time both the king and himself 
had thought that a reunion was possible 
(see XX. 5, 26). But the madness of Saul 
now became more settled and ferocious in 
character, and David's danger proportionably 
greater. The secret interview with Jonathan 
confirmed the alarm already excited by Saul's 
endeavour to seize him at Ramah, and he 
now determined to leave his country, and 
take refiige, like Coriolanus, or Themistoeles 
in like oircimistances, in the court of his 
enemy. Before this last resolve, he visited 
Nob, the seat of the tabernacle, partly to 
obtain a final interview with the high-priest 
(1 Sam. xxii. 9, 15), partly to obtain food 
and weapons. On the pretext of a secret 
mission from Saul, he gained an answer trom 
the oracle, some of the consecrated loaves, 
and the consecrated sword of Goliath. His 
stay at the court of Achish was short. Dis- 
covered possibly by *' the sword of Goliath," 
his presence revived the national enmity of 
the Philistines against their former con- 
queror, and he only escaped by feigning mad- 
ness (1 Sam. xxi. IS). 8. His life as an in- 
dependent outlaw (xxii. l>xxvi. 25). (a) Hia 
first retreat was the cave of Adullamy pro- 
bably the large cavern, not far firom Bethle- 
hem, now caUed Khureitdn. From its vicinity 
to Bethlehem, he was joined there by his 
whole family, now feeling themselves insecure 
from Saul's ftiry (xxii. 1). This was pro- 
bably the foundation of his intimate connexion 
with bis nephews, the sons of Zeruiah. (6) Hife 
next move was to a stronghold, either the 
mountain, afterwards called Herodium, dowt 
to Adullam, or the fastness called by Josephus 
Masada, the Orecised form of the Hebrew 

word Maized (1 Sam. xxii. 4, 5 ; 1 Cbr. 
xii. 16), in the neighbourhood of £n-gedi. 
Whilst there he had deposited his aged 
parents, for the sake of greater security, be- 
, yond the Jordan, with their ancestral kinwnan 
of Moab (ib. S). The neighbouring king, 
Nahash of Ammon, also treated him kindly 
(2 Sam. X. 2). Here occurred the chivalrous 
exploit of the three heroes just mentioned to 
procure water (torn the well of Bethlehem, 
and David's chivalrous answer, like that of 
Alexander in the desert of Gedrosia (1 Chr. 
xi. 16-19 ; 2 Sam. xxiii. 14-17). He was 
joined here by two separate bands. One a 
little body of eleven fierce Gadite moun- 
taineers, who swam the Jordan in flood-time 
to reach him (1 Chr. xii. 8). Another was 
a detachment of men from Judah and Ben- 
jamin under his nephew Amasai, who hence- 
forth attached himself to David's fortunes 
(1 Chr. xii. 16-18). (c) At the warning of 
Gad, he fled to the forest of Sareth, and 
then again fell in with the Philistines, and 
again, apparently advised by Gad (xxiii. 4), 
made a descent on their foraging iMurties, and 
relieved Krilah, in which he took up his 
abode. Whilst there, now for the first time 
in a fortified town of his own (xxiii. 7 ), he was 
joined by a new and most important ally — 
Abiathar, the last survivor of the house of 
Ithamar. By this time the 400 who had 
Joined him at Adullam (xxii. 2) had swelled 
to 600 (xxiu. 13). {d) The situation of 
David was now changed by the appearance 
of Saul himself on the scene. Apparentlj 
the danger was too great for the little armj 
to keep together. They escaped trom Keilah, 
and (Uspersed, "whithersoever they could 
go," among the fastnesses of Judah. Hence* 
forth it becomes difficult to follow his move- 
ments with exactness. Bui thus much we 
discern. He is in the wilderness of Ziph, 
Once (or twice) the Ziphites betray his move- 
ments to Saul. From thence Saul literally 
hunts him like a partridge, the treacherous 
Ziphites beating the bushes before him, and 
8000 men, stationed to catch even the print 
of his footsteps on the hills (1 Sam. xxiii. 
14, 22, xxiv. 11, xxvl. 2, 20). David finds 
himself driven to the extreme south of Judan, 
in the wUdemess of Maon. On two, if not 
three occasions, the pursuer and pursued 
catch sight of each other (1 Sam. xxiii. 25-29, 
xxiv. 1-22, xxvi.). Whilst he was in the 
wilderness of Maon occurred David's ad- 
venture with Nabal, instructive as showing- 
his mode of carrying on the ft-eebooter's life, 
and his marriage with Abigail. His marria^ 
with Ahinoam from Jexreel, also in the same 
neighbourhood (Josh. xv. 56), seems to have 
taken place a short time before (1 Sam. xxr. 

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43, xxtU. S ; 3 Sam. Ui. 2). 4. His serrice 
onder Achish (1 Sam. xxvii. I ; 3 Sam. i. 27). 
Wearied with bis irandcriag life he at last 
crosses the Philistine fktmtier, sot, as before, 
in the capacity of a ftigitiTe, but the chief of 
% powerful band — his 600 men now grown 
into an organised force, with their wires and 
familifis around them (xxrii. 8, 4). After 
the manner of Eastern potentates, Achish 
g&re him, for his support, a city — Ziklag on 
the fh>ntier of Philistia (xxtU. 6). There 
we meet with the first note of time in Darid's 
lif^ He was settled there for a ^ear and 
fow wumihs (xxrii. 7), and a body of Ben* 
jamite archers and slingers, twenty-two of 
whom are specially named, joined him from 
the yery tribe of his rival (1 Chr. xii. U7). 
He deoeired Achish into confidence by attack- 
ing the old Nomadic inhabitants of the desert 
fhmtier, and representing the plunder to be 
of portions of the southern tribes or the 
Nomadic allied tribes of Israel. But this 
confidence was not shared by the Philistine 
nobles, and accordingly David was sent back 
by Achish fh)m the last Tictorions campaign 
against SauL During his absence the Be- 
dooin Amalekites, whom he had plundered 
during the prerious year, had made a descent 
upon ZiUag, burnt it to the ground, and 
carried off the wives and children of the new 
settlement. A wild scene of ihmtio grief and 
reerimination ensued between David and his 
followers. It was calmed by an oracle of 
aasuranee fhnn Abiatbar. Assisted by the 
Manassites who had joined him on the march 
to Oilboa (1 Chr. xiL 19-21), he overtook the 
invaders in the desert, and recovered the 
spoil (1 Sam. xxx.). Two days after this 
victory a Bedouin arrived from the north 
with the fotal news of the death at Oilboa. 
The reception of the tidings of the death of 
his rival and of his firiend, the solemn mourn- 
ing, the vent of his indignation against the 
bearer of the message, the pathetic lamenta- 
tion that followed, will close the second period 
of David*8 Ufe (2 Sam. L 1-27).— III. Daici^s 
rmgn. — (I.) As king of Judah at Hebron, 
1\ years (2 Sam. ii. 1-v. 5). Hebron was 
•elected, doubtless, as the ancient sacred city 
of the tribe of Judah, the burial-place of the 
patriarchs and the inheritance of Caleb. Here 
David was first formally anointed king (2 Sam. 
iL 4). To Judah his dominion was nominally 
confined. Gradually his power increased, 
and during the two years which followed the 
elevation of Ishbosheth a series of skirmishes 
took plaoe between the two kingdoms. Then 
rapidly followed, though without David's con- 
sent, the successive murders of Abxkr and of 
IsHBOSHXTH (2 Sam. iiL 30, iv. 3). The 
throne, so long waiting for him, was now 

vacant, and the united voice of the whole 
people at once called him to occupy it. A 
solemn league was made between him and 
his people (2 Sam. v. 8). For the third time 
David was anointed king, and a festival of 
three days celebrated tbejoyf^ event (1 Chr. 
xii. 89). His Uttle band had now swelled 
into "a great host, like the host of God" 
(1 Chr. xii. 22). The command of it, which 
had formerly rested on David alone, he now 
devolved on his nephew Joab (2 Sam. ii. 28). 
(II.) Reign over all Israel, 88 years (2 Sam. 
V. 5 to 1 K. ii. 11). (1) The foundaUon of 
Jerusalem. One fastness alone in the centre 
of the land had hitherto defied the arms %A 
Israel. On this, with a singular prescience, 
David fixed as his ftiture capital. By one 
sudden assault Jehus was taken. The rewani 
bestowed on the successful scaler of the pre- 
cipice was the highest place in the army. 
Joab henceforward became captain of the 
host (1 Chr.xi. 6). The royal residence was 
instantly fixed there — fortifications were 
added by the king and by Joab — and it was 
known by the special name of the " city of 
David" (1 Chr. xL 7 ; 2 Sam. v. 9). The 
Philistines made two ineffectual attacks on 
the new king (2 Sam. v. 17-20), and a retri- 
bution on theb" former victories took plaoe 
by the capture and conflagration of their own 
idols (1 Chr. xiv. 12). Tyre, now for the 
first time appearing in the sacred history, 
allied herself with Israel ; and Hiram sent 
cedarwood for the buildings of the new capital 
(2 Sam. V. 11), especially for the palace of 
David himself (2 Sam. vii. 2). Unhallowed 
and profane as the city had been before, it 
was at once elevated to a sanctity which it has 
never lost, above any of the ancient sanc- 
tuaries of the land. The ark was now re- 
moved firom its obscurity at Kirjath-Jearim 
with marked solemnity. A temporary halt 
(owing to the death of Uua) detained it at 
Obed-edom*s house, after which it again 
moved forward with great state to Jerusalem. 
It was the greatest day of David's life. One 
incident only tarnished its splendour — the 
reproach of Michal, his wife, as he was finally 
entering his own palace, to carry to his own 
household the benedictdon which he had 
already pronounced on his people. His act 
of severity towards her was an additional 
mark of the stress which he himself laid on 
the solemnity (2 Sam. vi. 20-23 ; 1 Chr. xv. 
29). (2) Foundation of the Court and Empire 
of Israel, 2 Sam. viii. to xii. The erection of 
the new capital at Jerusalem introduces us to 
a new era in David's life and in the history 
of the monarchy. He became a king on the 
scale of the great Oriental sovereigns of Egypt "* 
and Persia, with a regular administration and 

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organization of court and camp ; and he also 
founded an imperial dominion which for the 
first time realised the prophetic description of 
the bounds of the chosen people (Gen. zt. 
18-21). The internal organization now esta- 
blished lasted till the final overthrow of the 
monarchy. The empire was of much shorter 
duration, continuing only through the reigns 
of David and his successor Solomon. But, 
for the period of its existence, it lent a 
peculiar character to the sacred history. 
{a) In the internal organisation of the king- 
dom the first new element that has to be con- 
sidered is the royal family, the dynasty, of 
which Darid was the founder, a position 
which entitled him to the name of " Patri- 
arch '* (Acts ii. 29), and (ultimately) of the an- 
cestor of the Messiah. Of these, Absalom and 
Adon^ah both inherited their father's beauty 
(2 Sam. xir. 25; 1 K. i. 6); but Solomon 
alone jMSsessed any of his higher qualities. 
It was fh>m a union of the children of 
Solomon and Absalom that the royal line was 
carried on (1 K. xr. 2). David's strong 
parental affection for all of them is very re- 
markable (2 Sam. xiil. 31, 83, 36, xiv. 33, 
xviii. 5, 83, xix. 4 ; 1 K. i. 6). (6) The 
military organization, which was in fact in- 
herited tram Saul, but greatly developed by 
David, was as follows: (1) **The Host," 
i. e. the whole available military force of 
Israel, consisting of all males capable of bear- 
ing arms, and sununoned only for war. There 
were 12 divisions of 24,000 each, who were 
held to be in duty month by month; and 
over each of them presided an officer, selected 
for this purpose fh>m the other military 
bodies formed by David (1 Chr. xxviL 1-15). 
The army was still distinguished fh>m those 
of surrounding nations by its primitire as- 
pect of a force of infkntry without cavalry. 
The only innovations as yet allowed were 
the introduction of a very limited number of 
chariots (2 Sam. viii. 4) and of mules for the 
princes and offloers instead of the asses (2 Sam. 
xiiL 29, zviU. 9). (2) The Body-guard. 
This also had existed in the court of Saul, and 
David himself had probably been its com- 
manding officer (1 Sam. xxii. 14). But it 
now assumed a peculiar organization. They 
were at least in name foreigners, as having 
been drawn from the Philistines, probably 
during David's residence at the court of Oath. 
They are usually called from this circum- 
stance ** Cherethites and Pelethites." The 
captain of the force was, however, not only 
not a foreigner, but an Israelite of the highest 
distinction and purest descent, who first ap- 
pears in this capacity, but who outlived 
David, and became the chief support of the 
throne of his son, namely Benaiah, son of the 

chief-priest Jehoiada, representative of the 
eldest branch of Aaron's house (2 Sam. viiL 
18, XV. 18, XX. 23 ; 1 K. i. 88, 44). (3) The 
most peculiar military institution in David's 
army was that which arose out of the peculiar 
circumstances of his early life. The nucleus 
of what afterwards became the only standing 
army in David's forces was the band of 600 
men who had gathered round him in his 
wanderings. The number of 600 was still 
preserved. It became yet farther subdivided 
into three large bands of 200 each, and small 
bands of 20 each. The small bands were 
commanded by SO officers, one for each band, 
who together formed ** the thirty," and the 
8 large bands by 8 officers, who together 
formed *• the three," and the whole by one 
chief, **the captain of the mighty men" 
(2 Sam. xxiii. 8-39; 1 Chr. xi 9-47). The 
commander of the whole force was Abishai^ 
David's nephew (1 Chr. xi. 20 ; and oomp. 
2 Sam. xvi. 9). (o) Side by side with thi« 
military organization were established social 
and moral institutions. Some were entirely 
for pastoral, agricultural, and financial pur- 
poses (1 Chr. xxvii. 25-81), others for judieial 
(1 Chr. xxvi. 29-32). Some few are named 
as constituting what would now be called the 
court, or council of the king ; the ooxincillors, 
Ahithophel of GUo, and Jonathan, the king's 
nephew (1 Chr. xxvii. 82, 88); the com- 
panion or ** friend," Hushai (1 Chr. xxviL 
38; 2 Sam. xv. 37, xvi. 19); the scribe, 
Sheva, or Seraiah, and at one time Jonathan 
(2 Sam. XX. 25 ; 1 Chr. xxvii. 82) ; Jehoeha- 
phat, the recorder or historian (2 Sam. xx. 
24), and Adoram the tax-collector, both of 
whom survived him (2 Sam. xx. 24 ; IK. 
zii. 18, iv. 8, 6). But the more peculiar of 
David's institutions were those directly bear- 
ing on religion. Two prophets appear as the 
king's constant advisers. Of these. Gad, who 
seems to have been the elder, had been David's 
companion in exile; and, ttom his being 
called "the seer," belongs probably to the 
earliest form of the prophetic 8cho<ds. Nathan, 
who appears for the first time after the esta- 
blishmoit of the kingdom of Jerusalem (2 Sam. 
viL 2), is distinguished both by his title of 
"prophet," and by the nature of the pro- 
phecies which he utters (2 Sam. viL 5-17, 
xii. 1-14), as of the purest type of prophetic 
dispensation, and as the hope of the new 
generation, which he supports in the person 
of Solomon (1 K. i.). Two high-priests also 
appear— representatives of the two rival 
houses of Aaron (1 Qir. xxiv. 8) ; here again, 
as in the case of the two prophets, one, Abia- 
thar, who attended him at Jerusalem, com- 
panion of his exile, and connected with the 
old time of the judges (1 Chr. xxvU. 84), 

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loining him after the death of Saul, and be- 
eomlng afterwards the aupport of his son ; 
the other Zadoc, who ministered at Gibeon 
(1 Chr. ZTi. 89), ^ndwho was made the head 
of the Aaronie Ikmily (zxviL 17). Besides 
these four great religions functionaries there 
were two classes of subordinates^prophets, 
specially instructed in singing and mnsio, 
under Asaph, Heman the grandson of Samuel, 
and Jeduthun (1 Chr. xxt. 1-31) — Leyites, or 
attendants on the sanotnary, who again were 
sabdiTided into the guardians of the gates and 
gnardians of the treasures (1 Chr. xxrL 1-28) 
which had been acoomulated, since the re- 
establishment of the nation, by Samuel, Saul, 
Abner, Joab, and Darid himself (1 Chr. zxri. 
36-28). (d) From the internal state of 
David*s kingdom we pass to its external re- 
lations. These will be found at length under 
the rarious countries to which they relate. 
It will be here only necessary to briefly indi- 
cate the enlargement of his dominions. Within 
ten years from the capture of Jerusalem, he 
had reduced to a state of permanent sub- 
jection the PmutriMas on the west (2 8am. 
Tiii. 1) ; the Moabitis on the east (2 Sam. 
TiU. 2), by theexploitsof Benaiah (2 Sam. xxiiL 
20) ; the Stsiams on the north-east as far as 
the Euphrates (2 Sam. Tiii. 8) ; the Edomitss 
(2 Sam. Tiii. 14), on the south ; and finally 
the Ammoiotbs, who had broken their ancient 
alliance, and made one grand resistance to 
the adTance of his empire (2 Sam. x. 1-19, 
ziL 26-31). These three last wars were en- 
tangled with each other. The last and crown- 
ing point was the siege of Babbah. (3) Three 
great calamities may be selected as marking 
the beginning, middle, and close of DsTid's 
otherwise prosperous reign ; which appears to 
be intimated in the question of Gad (2 Sam. 
xxiT. 13), "a three years' famine, a three 
months' iUght, or a three days' pestilence." 
(a) Of these, the first (the three years' famine) 
introduces us to the last notices of Darid's 
relations with the house of Saul. There has 
often arisen a painful suspicion in later times, 
as there seems to have been at the time 
(xTi. 7), that the oracle, which gaye as the 
eauae of the famine Saul's massacre of tbe 
Gibeonitea, may haTC been connected with 
the desire to extii^uish the last remains of 
the fkllen dynasty. But such an explanation 
is not needed. The massacre was probably 
the most recent naticmal crime that had left 
any deep impression ; and the whole tenour of 
Dayid*s conduct towards Saul's fsmily is of 
a» opposite kind, {b) The second group of 
incidents contains the tragedy of DaTid's 
tllSe, which grew in aU its parts out of the 
polygamy, with its eyil consequences, into 
which he had plonged on becoming king. 

Underneath the splendour of his last glorious 
campaign against the Ammonites, was a dork 
story, known probably at that time only to a 
Tery few ; the double erime of adultery with 
Bathsheba, and of the Tirtual murder of 
Uriah. The crimes are undoubtedly those of 
a common Oriental despot. But the rebuke 
of Nathan ; the sudden reyiTal of the king's 
conscience ; his grief for the sickness of the 
child ; the gathering of his uncles and elder 
brothers around him ; his return of hope and 
peace; are characteristic of DaTid, and of 
Darid only. But the clouds firom thia time 
gathered OTcr David's fOTtunes, and hencefor- 
ward **the sword never departed tnm hiai 
house" (2 Sam. xiL 10). The outrage on 
his daughter Tamar ; the murder of his eldest 
son Amnon ; and then the rerolt of his best- 
beloTcd Absalom, brought on the crisis which 
once more sent him forth a wanderer, as in 
the days when he fled from Saul ; and this, 
the heaTiest trial of his life, was aggraTated 
by the impetuosity of Joab, now perhaps, 
trom his complicity in DaTid's crime, more 
unmanageable than ever. The rebellion was 
fostered apparently by the growing Jealousy 
ot the tribe of Judah at seeing their king ab- 
sorbed into the whole nation ; and if, as ap- 
pears from 2 Sam. xL 3, xxiii. 84, Ahitho- 
phel was the grandfkther of Bathsheba, its 
main supporter was one whom DaTid had 
proToked by his own crimes. For its general 
course the reader is referred to the names 
just mmtioned. Mahanaim was the capital 
of DaTid's exile, as it had been of the exiled 
house of Sanl (2 Sam. xriL 24 ; oomp. ii. 8, 
12). His forces were arranged under the three 
great military oflioers who remained faithful 
to his fortunes — Joab, captain of the host ; 
Abishai, captain of *< the mighty men ;" and 
Ittai, who seems to have taken the place of 
Benaiah as captain of the guard (2 Sam. 
XTiiL 2). On Absalom's side was DaTid's 
nephew Amasa (ib. xTii. 25). The flnal 
battle was fought in the ** forest of Ephraim," 
which terminated in the accident leading to 
the death of Ab8al<mi. At this point the 
narratiTC resumes its minute detail. The 
return was marked at CTcry stage by re- 
joicing and amnesty (2 Sam. xix. 16-40; 
1 K. ii. 7). Judah was flrst reconciled. The 
embers of the insurrection, still smouldering 
(2 Sam. xix. 41-48) in DaTid's heieditary 
enemies of the tribe of Bei^jamin, were 
trampled out by the mixture of boldness and 
sagad^ in Joab, now, after the murder of 
Amasa, once more in his old position. And 
DaTid again reigned in undisturbed peace at 
Jerusalem (2 Sam. xx. 1-22). (c) The 
closing period of Darid's life, with the ex- 
ception of one great calamity, may be oon- 

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sidered as a gradual preparation for tho reign 
of his successor. This calamity was the three 
days' pestilence which visited Jerusalem at 
the warning of the prophet Gad. The occa- 
sion which led to this warning was the census 
of the people taken by Joab at the Idng's 
orders (2 Sam. xxiv. 1-9 ; 1 Chr. x>L 1-7, 
xxvli. 28, 24). JoaVs repugnance to the 
measure was such that he revised altogether 
to number Levi and Bei\]amin (1 Chr. xxi. 6). 
The plague and its cessation were commemo- 
rated down to the latest times of the Jewish 
nation. Outside the walls of Jerusalem, 
Araunah or Oman, a wealthy Jebusite — per- 
haps even the ancient king of Jebus (2 Sam. 
xxiv. 28) — possessed a threshing-floor ; there 
he and his sons were engaged in threshing 
the com gathered in from the harvest (1 Chr. 
xxi. 20). At this spot an awful vision ap- 
peared, such as is described in the later days 
of Jerasalem, of the Angel of the Lord 
stretching out a drawn sword between earth 
and sky over the devoted city. The scene of 
such an apparition at such a moment was at 
once marked out for a sanctuary. David de- 
manded, and Araunah willingly granted, the 
site; the altar was erected on the rock of 
the threshing-floor ; the place was called by 
the name of "Moriah" (2 Chr. iii. 1) ; and 
for the flrst time a holy place, sanctified by a 
vision of the Divine presence, was recognised 
in Jerasalem. It was this spot which after- 
wards became the altar of the Temple, and 
therefore the centre of the national worship, 
with but slight interruption, for more than 
1000 years, and it is even contended that the 
same spot is the rock, still regarded with 
almost idolatrous veneration, in the centre of 
the Mussulman " Dome of the Rock." A for- 
midable conspiracy to interrupt the succession 
broke out in the last days of David's reign, 
which detached fh>m his person two of his 
court, who from personal offence or adherence 
to the ancient family had been alienated from 
him— Joab and Abiathar. But Zadok, Nathan, 
Benaiah, Shimei, and Rei remaining firm, the 
plot was stifled, and Solomon's inauguration 
took place under his father's auspices (1 K. i. 
1-68). By this time David's infirmities had 
grown upon him. The warmth of his ex- 
hausted frame was attempted to be restored 
by the introduction of a young Shunammite, 
of the name of AUshag, mentioned appar- 
ently for the sake of an incident which grew 
up in connexion with her out of the later 
ovents (2 K. i. 1, H. 17). His last song is 
preserved — a striking union of the ideal of a 
just ruler which he had placed before him, 
and of the difiiculties which he had felt in 
realising it (2 Sam. xxiii. 1-7). His last 
words, as recorded, to his socoeiMir, are 

general exhortations to bis duty, combined 
with warnings against Joab and Shimei, and 
charges to remember the children of Baraillai 
(1 K. ii. 1-9). He died, according to Jose- 
phus, at the age of 70, and *' was buried in 
the city of David." After the return froin 
the captivity, "the sepulchres of David" 
were still pointed out " between Siloah and 
the house of the mighty men," or "the 
guardhouse " (Neh. iii. 1 6) . His tomb, which 
became the general sepulchre of the kings of 
Judah, was pointed out in the latest times of 
the Jewish people. The edifice shown as 
such from the Crusades to the present day Ls 
on the southern hill of modem Jerusalem, 
commonly called Mount Zion, under the so> 
called " Coenaculum ;" but it cannot be 
identified with the tomb of David, which was 
emphatically within the walls. 

DAVID, CTTT OF. [Jerusalbm.] 
DAY. The variable length of the natural 
day at diffierent seasons led in the very ear- 
liest times to th6 adoption of the civil day (or 
one revolution of the sun) as a standard of 
time. The commencement of the civil daj 
varies in different nations : the Babylonians 
reckoned it from sunrise to sunrise; the 
Umbrians from noon to noon : the RomauP 
from midnight to midnight; the Athenians 
and others from sunset to sunset. Tho 
Hebrews naturally adopted the latter reekon- 
ing (Lev. xxiii. 82, ** fh>m even to even shall 
ye celebrate your sabbath ") fh)m Oen. i. 5, 
" the evening and the monUng were the first 
day." The Jews are supposed, like the 
modem Arabs, to have adopted fr^nn an early 
period minute specifications of the parts of 
the natural day. Roughly indeed they were 
content to divide it into " moming, evening, 
and noonday" (Ps. It. 17) ; but when they 
wished for greater accuracy they pointed to 
six unequal parts, each of which was again 
subdivided. These are held to have been: — 
1. "The dawn." 2. "Sunrise." 8. "Heat of 
the day," about 9 o'clock ; 4. " The two noons** 
(Gen. xliU. 16 ; Deut. xxviU. 29) ; 5. "The 
cool (litidmf) of the day," before sunset (Gen. 
iU. 8); so called by the Persians to this day ; 
6. "Evening." The phrase "between the 
two evenings" (Ex. xvi. 12, xxx. 8), being 
the time nuirked for slaying the paschal lamb 
and offering the evening sacrifice (Ex. xii. 6, 
xxix. 89), led to a dispute between the 
Karaites and Samaritans on the one lund, 
and the Pharisees on the other. The former 
took it to mean between sunset and frill 
darkness (Deut. xvi. 6); the Rabbinisu 
explained it as the time between the begin- 
ning and end of sunset. — ^Before the captivity 
the Jews divided the night into three watches 
(Pi. IxUL 6, xo. 4),viz. the first watch, last- 

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ing tm midnight (Lam. ii. 19, A. Y. *«the 
beginning of the vatcbcs *') ; the <* MiddU 
watch," lacting till oockorow (Jndg. vii. 19) ; 
and the morning watch, lasting till sonrise 
(Ex. xir. 24). These diTisions were probably 
eonnected with the Levitical dutiea in the 
Temple lerTice. The Jews, howerer, say 
(in spite of their own definition, ** a watch is 
the third part of the night ") that they always 
had four night-watches (comp. Neh. ix. 8), 
bat that the fourth was counted as a part of 
the morning. In the N. T. we hare aUnsions 
to foor watches, a dirision borrowed from the 
Greeks and Bomans. These were, I. from 
twilight tiU 9 o'clock (Mark xi. 11 ; John xx. 
19); 3. midnight, ft-om 9 tiU 12 o'clock 
(Mark xiii. 35) ; 8. tiU 9 in the morning 
(Mark xiii. 85 ; 3 Mace t. 23) ; 4. tUl day. 
break (John xTiii. 28). The word held to 
mean ** hour '* is first found in Dan. iiL 6, 15, 
T. 5. Perhaps the Jews, like the Greeks, 
learnt from the Babylonians the dirision of 
the day into 12 parts. In our Lord's time 
the division was common (John xL 9). 

DAYSMAN, an old English term, meaning 
wnpir* or arbitrator (Job ix. 33). It is derired 
fi-om daiff in the speeiAo sense of a day fixed 
for a trial. 

DEACON. The office described by this 
title appears in the N. T. as the correlatire of 
Bishop. [Bnuop.] The two are mentioned 
together in PhiL i. 1 ; 1 Tim. iii. 2, 8. Like 
most words of similar import, it appears to 
hsTe been first used in its generic sense, im- 
plying subordinate actirity (1 Gor. iiL 5 ; 2 
Cor. tL 4), and afterwards to hare gained a 
more deilned connotation, as applied to a 
distinct body of men in the Chri^ian society. 
The narratiTe of Acts tL is commonly referred 
to as glTing an account of the institution of 
this office. The Apostles, in order to meet 
the complaints of the Hellenistic Jews, that 
their widows were neglected in the daily 
ministoation, call on the body of belieyers to 
choose seren men ** fW of the Holy Ghost 
and of wisdom," whom they ** may appoint 
orer this business." It may be questioned, 
however, whether the seven were not ap- 
pointed to higher ftmctions than those of the 
deacons of the K. T. There are indications, 
however, of the existenoe of another body in 
the Church of Jerusalem whom we may com- 
pare wiih the deacons of PhU. i. 1, and 1 
Tim.ilL8. As the *' elders " of Acts xiv. 23, 
XV. 6 ; 1 Pet v. 1, were not merely men 
advanced in yeaxs, so the **young men ** of 
Acts V. 6, 10, were probably not merely 
young men, but persons occupying a distinct 
podtioa and exercising distinct functions. 
Assuming the identity of the two names we 
have to ask— (1) To what previous organisa- 

tion, if any, the order is traceuble t (2) What 
were the qualifications and ftmctions of tho 
men so designated! I. As the constitution 
of the Jewish synagogue had its elders or 
pastors, so also it had its subordinate officers 
(Luke iv. .20), whose work it was to give 
the reader the rolls containing the lessons 
for the day, to clean the synagogue, to open 
and close it at the right times. II. The 
moral qualifications described in 1 Tim. iii., 
as necessary for the office of a deacon, are 
substantially the same as those of the bishop. 
The deacons, J;iowever, wore not required to 
be " given to hospitality," nor to be *'apt to 
teach." It was enough for them to ** hold 
the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience." 
They were not to gain their living by disreput- 
able occupations. On ofltering themselves for 
their work they were to be subject to a strict 
scrutiny (1 Tim. UL 10), and if this ended 
satisfkctorily were to enter on it. From the 
analogy of the synagogue, and from the scanty 
notices of the N. T., we may think of the 
deacons or ** young men " in the Church of 
Jerusalem as preparing the rooms in which 
the disciples met, taking part in the distribu- 
tion of alms out of the common fimd, at first 
with no direct supervision, then under that of 
the Seven, and afterwards under the elders, 
maintaining order at the daily meetings of the 
disciples to break bread, baptising new eon- 
verts, distributing the bread and the wine of 
the Lord's Supper, which the Apostle or his 
representative had blessed. It does not 
appear to have belonged to the office of a 
deacon to teach publicly in the Church. 

DEACONESS. The word^tiitaro? is found 
in Bom. xvL 1 (A. Y. ** servant "), associated 
with a female name, and ttiis has led to the 
conclusion that there existed in the Apostolic 
age, as there undoubtedly did a little later, an 
order of women bearing that title, and ex- 
ercising in relation to their own sex functions 
which were analogous to ttiose of the deacons. 
On this hypothesis it has been inferred that 
the women mentioned in Bom. xvi. 6, 12, 
belonged to such an order. The rules given 
as to the conduct of women in 1 Tim. iii. 
11, Tit. ii. 8, have in like manner been 
referred to them, and they have been iden- 
tified even with the "widows" of 1 Tim. v. 

DEAD SEA. This name nowhere occurs 
in the Bible, and appears not to have existed 
until the 2nd century after Christ. In the 
O. T. the lake is called ** the Salt Sea," and 
**the Sea of the Plain," and under the 
former of these names it is described. 

DEARTH. (Famihk.] 

DE'BIB, the name of three places of Pales- 
tine. 1. A town in the mountains of Juduh 

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(Josh. XT. 49), one of a group of eleren cities 
to the west of Hebron. The earlier name of 
Debir was Kiijathsepher, "city of book" 
(Josh. XV. 15; Judg. i. 11), and Kirjath- 
sannah, "city of palm" (Josh. xr. 49). It 
was one of the cities given with their " sub- 
urbs " to the priests (Josh. xxi. 15 ; 1 Chr. 
vi. 58). Debir has not been discovered 
with certainty in modem times ; but about 
three miles to the west of Hebron is a deep 
and secluded valley called the Wady NunhUr, 
enclosed on the north by hills, of which one 
bears a name certainly sug^stlve of Debir — 
Dewir-han. — S. A place on the north boundary 
of Judah, near the " Valley of Achor " (Josh. 
XV. 7), and therefore somewhere in the com- 
plications of hill and ravine behind Jericho. 
A Wady Labor is marked in Van de Yelde's 
map as close to the 8. of Ntby MUmj at the 
N. W. comer of the Dead Sea. — 8. The 
" border of Debir " is named as forming part 
of the boundary of Gad (Josh. xiiL 26), and 
as apparently not far fh>m Mahanaim. 

DEB'ORAH. 1. The nurse of Rebekah 
(Oen. XXXV. 1). Deborah accompanied Re- 
bekah ft*om the house of Bethuel (Oen. xxiv. 
59), and is only mentioned by name on the 
occasion of her burial, under the oak-tree of 
Bethel, which was called in her honour AUon- 
Bachuth. — A. A prophetess who judged Israel 
(Judg. iv., v.). She lived under the palm- 
tree of Deborah, between Ramah and Bethel 
in Mount Ephraun (Judg. iv. 5), which, as 
palm-trees were rare in Palestine, " is men- 
tioned as a well-known and solitary landmark, 
and was probably the same spot as that called 
(Judg. XX. 88) Baal-Tamar, or the sanctuary 
of the palm " (Stanley, S. and P. 146). She 
was probably a woman of Ephraim, although, 
from the expression in Judg. v. 13, some sup- 
pose her to have belonged to Issaohar. Lapi- 
doth was probably her husband and not Barak, 
as some say. She was not so much a judge as 
one gifted with prophetic command (Judg. 
iv. 6, 14, V. 7), and by virtue of her inspira- 
tion " a mother in Israel." Jabin's tyranny 
was peculiarly felt in the northern tribes, 
who were near his capital and under her 
jurisdiction, viz. Zebulon, Naphtali, and 
Issaohar : hence, when she summoned Barak 
to the deliverance, it was on them that the 
brunt of the battie fell. Under her direction 
Barak encamped on the broad summit of 
Tabor. Deborah's prophecy was f^ilfilled 
(Judg. iv. 9), and the enemy's general 
perished among the "oaks of the wanderers 
(Zaanaim)," in the tent of the Bedouin 
Kenite's wilis (Judg. iv. 31) in the northern 
mountains. Deborah's title of " prophetess " 
includes the notion of inspired poe^, as in 
Ex. XV. SO; and in this sense the glorious 

triumphal ode (Judg. v.) well vindiestet her 
claim to the office. 


DECAP'OLIS. This name occurs only 
three times in the Scriptures, Matt. iv. 25, 
Mark v. 20, and vii. 31. Immediately after 
the conquest of Syria by the Romans (b.c. 
65) ten cities appear to have been rebuilt, 
partially colonised, and endowed with peculiar 
privileges; the country around tiiem was 
hence called Deeapolit. Pliny enumeratea 
them as follows: Seythopolis, Sippot, Qadarc^^ 
Pellay Philadelphia^ OeratOf Dion, Oanatha, 
Damaseutf and Jtapharui. All the cities of 
Decapolis, with the single exception of Scytho- 
polis, lay on the east of the Jordan. Tt 
would appear, however, from Matt. iv. 25, 
and Mark vii. 31, that Decapolis was a 
general appellation for a large district ex- 
tending adong both sides of the Jordan. 
Pliny says it reached trom Damascus on the 
north to Philadelphia on the south, and from 
Scythopolis on the west to Canatha on the 
east. This region, once so populous and 
prosperous, from which multitudes flocked to 
hear the Saviour and through which multi- 
tudes followed His footsteps, is now almost 
without an inhabitant. 

DE'DAN. 1. ThenameofasonofRaamah, 
son of Gush (Gen. x. 7 ; 1 Chr. i. 9). — 0. A 
son of Jokshan, son of Keturah (Gen. xxv. 8 ; 
1 Chr. i. 32).~The passages in the Bible in 
which Dedan is mentioned (besides the genea- 
logies above referred to) are contained in the 
prophecies of Isaiah (xxi. 18), Jeremiah (xxr. 
23, xlix. 8), and Ezekiel (xxv. 13, xxvil. 15, 
20, xxxviii. 13), and aro in every ease ob- 
scure. The probable inferences from these 
mentions of Dedan are— 1. That Dedan, son 
of Raamah, settled on the shores of the Per- 
sian Gulf, and his descendants became caravan- 
merohants between that coast and Palestine. 
2. That Jokshan, or a son of Jokshan, by in- 
termarriage with the Cushite Dedan formed 
a tribe of the same name, which appean to 
have had its chief settlement in the borders 
of Idumaea, and perhaps to have led a pas- 
toral life. 

DE'DANIM. Is. xxi. IS. [Dkda2v.] 

tival instituted to commemorate the purging 
of the Temple and the rebuilding of the altar 
after Judas Maccabaeus had driven out the 
Syrians, b.c. 164. It is named only oooe iu 
the Canonical Scriptures, John x. 22. Its 
institution is recorded 1 Mace iv. 52-59. It 
commenced on the 25th of Chisleu, the anni- 
versary of the pollution of the Temple by 
Antiochns Epiphanes, b.c 167. Like the 
great Mosaic feasts, it lasted eight days, but 
it did not require attendance at Jenualem. 

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It WM an ocoaiioii of mneh fntiTity. The 
writer of S Ifaoo. tells na that it wm cele- 
brated in nearly the same manner as the 
Feast of Tabernacles, with the carrying of 
branches of trees, and with much singing 
(x. 6, 7). Josephus states that the festiTal 
was called **LighU/' In the Temple at 
Jerusalem the ** Hallel" was song erery day 
of the feast. 

DEER. [FAUX>w-Dxzn.] 

DEGREES, SONGS OF, a title given to 
fifteen Psalms, from oxx. to cxxxir. inolusive. 
Four of them are attributed to Darid, one is 
ascribed, to the pen of Solomon, and the other 
ten giTC no indication of their author. With 
respect to the term rendered in the A. V. 
** degrees," a great dirersity of opinion pre- 
Toils, but the most probable opinion is that 
they were pilgrim songs, sung by the people 
as they went up to Jerusalem. 

DE'HAYITES mentioned only once in 
Scripture (Ear. ir. 9) among the colonists 
planted in Samaria after the completion of the 
CaptiTlty of Israel. They are probably the 
Dal or Dahi, mentioned by Herodotus (L 125) 
among the nomadic tribes of Persia. 

DELILAH, a woman who dwelt in the 
▼alley of Sorek, belored by Samson (Judg. 
xtL 4-18). There seems to be little doubt 
that she was a Philistine courtesan. [Samsom.] 

DELUGE. [NoAn.] 

DE'LUS, mentioned in 1 Mace. zt. SS, is 
the smallest of the islands called Cyclades in 
the Aegaean Sea. It was one of the chief 
seats of the worship of Apollo, and was cele- 
brated as the birthplace of this god and of 
his sister Artemis (Diana). 

DE^AS, most probably a eontraction from 
Demetrius, or perhaps from Demarohus, a 
companion of St. Paul (Philem. 24 ; Gol. iv. 
14) during his first imprisonment at Rome. 
At a later period (2 Tim. It. 10) we find him 
mentioned as having deserted the apostle 
through lore of this present world, and gone 
to Thessalonica. 

DEMETRIUS, a maker of silTer shrines of 
Artemis atEphesus ( Acts xiz. 24). These were 
small models of the great temple of the 
Ephesian Artemis, with her statue, which it 
was customary to carry on Journeys, and 
place on houses, as charms. 

EEMFTRIUS I., sumamed Soter, **The 
Sayiour," king of Syria, was the son of 
Seleocus Philopator, and grandson of Antio- 
ehus the Great. While still a boy he was 
sent by his father as a hostage to Rome (b.c. 
175) in exchange for his uncle Antioehus 
Epiphanes. From his position he was unable 
to offer any opposition to the usurpation of the 
Syrian throne by Antioehus IV. ; but on the 
death of that monarch (b.c. 164) he claimed 

S\i. D. B* 

his liberty and the recognition of his claim 
by the Roman senate in preference to that of 
his cousin Antioehus V. His petition was re- 
vised, he left Italy secretly, and landed with 
a small force at Tripolis in Phoenicia (2 Msec 
xIt. 1 ; 1 Mace. yii. i). The Syrians soon 
declared in his favour (b.c. 162), and An- 
tioehus and his protector Lysias were put 
to death (1 Mace. vli. 2, 3 ; 2 Mace. xiv. 2). 
His campaigns against the Jews were unsue- 
cessAil. In b.c. 152, Alexander Bales was 
brought forward, with the consent of the 
Roman senate, as a claimant to the throne. 
The rivals met in a decisive engagement (b.c. 
150), and Demetrius, after displaying the 
greatest personal bravery, was defeated and 
slain (1 Msec. x. 48-50). 

Teirad mc h n i (Atdo talant) of Demctrliu L 

DEME'TRIUS II., "The Victorious" (Ni- 
eator), was the elder son of Demetrius Soter. 
He was sent by his father, together with his 
brother Antioehus, with a large treasure, to 
Cnidus, when Alexander Balas laid claim to 
the throne of Syria. When he was grown 
up he made a descent on Syria (b.c. 148), 
and was received with general favour (1 
Mace X. 67 fT.). His campaigns against 
Jonatium and the Jews are described in 1 
Mace. X., xi. In b.c. 188, Demetrius was 
taken prisoner by Arsaces VI. (Mitbridates), 
whose dominions he had invaded (1 Mace, 
xiv. l-S). Mitbridates treated his captive 
honourably, and gave him his daughter in 
marriage. When Antioehus Sidetes, who had 
gained possession of the Syrian throne invaded 
Parthia, Phraates employed Demetrius to 
effect a diversion. In this DemetriuR sue- 

Tt trAfdruhpi ( Attio U!«it) of Itenwtrlut IL 

Digiflzed by LjOOQ IC 




oeeded, and when Antiochos fell in battle, he 
again took possession of the Syrian crown 
(B.C. 128). Not long afterwards a pretender, 
supported by Ptol. Physcon, appeared in the 
field against him, and after suffering a defeat 
he was assassinated, according to some by his 
wife, while attempting to escape by sea. 

DEMON. Its usage in classical Greek is 
various. In Homer, where the gods are but 
supernatural men, it is used interchangeably 
with " god ;" afterwards in Hesiod, when the 
idea of the gods had become more exalted 
and less familiar, the " demons " are spoken 
of as intermediate beings, the messengers of 
the gods to men. In the Gospels generally, 
in James ii. 19, and in Rev. xvi. 14, the 
demons are spoken of as spiritual beings, at 
enmity with God, and having power to afflict 
man, not only with disease, but, as is marked 
by the fluent epithet "unclean," with 
spiritual pollution also. They "believe" 
the power of God " and tremble " (James iL 
19) ; they recc^nise the Lord as the Son of 
God (Matt. viiL 29; Luke iv. 41), and 
acknowledge the power of His name, used in 
exorcism, in the place of the name of Jehovah, 
by His appointed messengers (Acts xix. 15) ; 
and look forward in terror to the Judgment 
to come (Matt. viii. 29). The description is 
precisely that of a nature akin to the angelic 
in knowledge and powers, but wiUi the em- 
phutio addition of the idea of positive and 
active wickedness. 

DEMONIACS. This word is fk«quently 
used in the N. T., and applied to persons 
suffering under the possession of a demon or 
evil spirit, such possession generally showing 
itself visibly in bodily disease or mental 
derangement. It has been maintained by 
many persons that our Lord and the Evan- 
gelists, in referring to demoniacal possession, 
spoke only in aooommodation to the general 
belief of the Jews, without any assertion as 
to its truth or its filsity. It is concluded 
that, sinee the symptoms of the afflietion 
were frequently those of bodily disease (as 
dumbness. Matt. ix. 82; blindness. Matt. 
xU. 22 ; epilepsy, Mark ix. 17-27), or those 
seen in oases of ordinal y insanity (as in Matt, 
viii. 28 ; Mark v. 1-5), and since also the 
phrase " to have a devil " is constantly used 
in connexion with, and as apparently equiva- 
lent to, " to be mad" (see John vii. 20, viii. 
48, X. 20, and perhaps Matt. xL 18 ; Luke viL 
S8), the demoniacs were merely persons 
suffering under unusual diseases of body and 
mind. But detmoniacs are firequently distin- 
guished (hnn those afflicted with bodily sick- 
ness (see Mark L S2, xvi. 17, 18 ; Luke vL 
17, 18), even, it would seem, fh>m the epilep- 
tic (Matt. iv. 24) ; the same outward signs are 

sometimes referred to possession, sometimei 
merely to disease (oomp. Matt. iv. 24, with 
xvii. 15 ; Matt. xiL 22, with Mark vii. 82, 
ftc.) ; the demons are represented as speak- 
ing in their own persons with superhuman 
knowledge, and acknowledging our Lord to 
be, not as the Jews generally called him, son 
of David, but Son of God (Matt. viiL 29 ; 
Mark i. 24, v. 7 ; Luke iv. 41, &o.). All 
these things speak of a personal power of evU. 
Nor does our Lord speak of demons as per- 
sonal spirits of evil to the multitude alone, 
but in His secret eouTersations with Qis 
disciples, declaring the means and conditions 
by which power over them could be exercised 
(Matt. xvii. 21). Twice also He distinctly oon- 
nects demoniacal possession with the power 
of the evil one ; once in Luke x. 18, to the 
seventy disciples, where He speaks of his 
power and theirs over demoniacs as a " fell 
of Satan," and again in Matt. xiL 25-30, 
when He was accused of casting out d«nons 
through Beelsebub, and, instead of giving 
any hint that the possessed were not really 
under any direct and personal power of evil. 
He uses an arg^ument, as to the division of 
Satan against himseU; which, if possession 
be unreal, becomes inconclusive and almost 
insincere. Lastly, the single feet rooorded of 
the entrance of the demons at Gadara (Mark 
V. 10-14) into the herd of swine, and the 
effect which that entrance caused, is suffi- 
cient to overthrow the notion that our Lorfl 
and the Evangelists do not assert or imply 
any objective reality of possession. We are 
led, therefore, to the ordinary and literal 
interpretation of these passages, that there 
are evil spirits, subjects of the Evil One, who, 
in the days of the Lord Himself and His 
Apostles especially, were permitted by God to 
exerdae a direct influence over the souls and 
bodies of certain men. This influence is 
clearly distinguished from theordinaryppwer 
of corruption and temptation wielded by^tan 
through the permission of God. The di»- 
tinguishing feature of possession is the oom- 
plete or incomplete loss of the mifliBrer*8 
reason or power of will; his actions, his 
words, and almost his thoughts are mastered 
by the evil spirit (Mark i. 24, v. 7 ; Acta 
xix. 15), till his personality seems to be 
destroyed, or, if not destroyed, so overbome 
as to produce the consciousness of a twofold 
will within him, like that sometimes felt in 
a dream. 

DEN A'BIUS, A. V. " penny " (Matt, xvlit 
28, XX. 2, 9, 18, xxiL 19 ; Mark vi. 87, xU. 
15, xiv. 5 ; Luke vii. 41, x. 85, xx. 34 ; 
John vi. 7, xU. 5 ; Rev. vi. 6), a Roman 
silver coin, in the time of Our Saviour and 
ths Apostles. It took its name fhMn its 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 




being fint equal to ten **anea," a number 
aftisrwards increaaed to sixteen. Itiraa the 
principal silyer coin of the Roman oommon- 
wealth. From the parable of the laboorers 
in the Tineyard it would leem that a denarius 
was then the ordinary pay for a day's labour 
(Hatt. u. 2, 4, 7, 9, 10, 13). 

DeoMtas of Tlbartoi. 

DEPUTY. The uniform rendering in the 
A. Y. of the Greek word which signifies 
•« proconsul *' (Acts xiii. 7, 8, 12, xix. 88). 
The English word is curious in itself, and to 
a certain extent appropriate, harlng been 
applied formerly to the Lord Lieutenant of 

DER'BE (Acts xir. 20, 21, xtI. I, xx. 4). 
The exact position of this town has not yet 
been ascertained, but its general situation is 
undoubted. It was in the eastern part of 
the great upland plain of Ltcaoicia, which 
stretches trom Icoiduic eastwards along the 
north side of the chain of Taurus. It must 
haTe been somewhere near the place where 
(he pass called the Cllician Gates opened a 
way tnm the low plain of C^cia to the 
tat4e-land of the interior ; and probably it 
was a stage upon the great road which passed 

DESERT, a word which is sparingly em- 
ployed in the A. Y. to translate fbnr Hebrew 
terms, of which three are essentially dilTerent 
in signification. A ** desert," in the sense 
which is ordinarily attached to the word, is 
a vast, burning, sandy plain, alike destitute 
of trees and of water. Here, it is simply 
necessary to show that the words rendered 
in the A. Y. by " desert," when used in the 
historical books, denoted definite localities ; 
and that those localities do not answer to the 
common conception of a <* desert." — 1. Axl- 
■AB. This word means that very depressed 
and enclosed region — the deepest and the 
hottest chasm in the world— the sunken 
valley north and south of the Dead Sea, but 
more particularly the former. [Axabau.] 
Aaabah in the sense of the Jordan Valley is 
translated by the word ** desert " only in Ex. 
xlriL 8. In a more general sense of waste, 
deserted country — a meaning easily suggested 
by the idea of exeessire heat contained in the 
root — ** Desert,** as the rendering of Arabakf 
occurs in the prophets and poetical books; 

as Is. xxxT. 1, 6, xl. 8, xli. 10, 11. 8 ; Jcr. 
ii. 6, T. 8, xrii. 6, 1. 12 ; but this general 
sense is never found in the historical books. 
— 2. MiDBAE. This word, which our transla- 
tors have most fluently rendered by 
'* desert,** is accurately the "pasture ground.*' 
It is most firequently used for those tracts of 
waste land which lie beyoud the cultivated 
ground in the immediate neighbourhood of 
the towns and villages of Palestine, and 
which are a very familiar feature to the 
traveller in that country. In the poetical 
books ** desert " is found as the translation 
of Midbar in Deut. xxxli. 10 ; Job xxiv. 5 ; 
Is. xxi. 1; Jer. xxv. 24. — 8. Chaxbau, 
appears to have the force of dryness, and 
thence of desolation. It does not occur in 
any historical passages. It is rendered 
*' desert '* in Ps. cU. 6 ; Is. xlviii. 21 ; Exek. 
xiii. 4. The term commonly employed for it 
in the A. Y. is ** waste places " or ** desola- 
tion.'*~4. JESHtvoM with the definite article, 
apparently denotes the waste tracts on both 
sides of the Dead Sea. In all these oases it 
is treated as a proper name in the A. Y. 
Without the article it occurs in a few pas- 
sages of poetry ; in the following of which 
it is rendered "desert." Ps. Ixxxviil. 40; 
CTi. 14; lB.xmi. 19,20. 

DEUTERONOMY, which means " the re- 
petition of the law,*' consists chiefly of three 
discourses delivered by Moses shortly before 
his death. Subjoined to these discourses are 
the Song of Moses, the Blessing of Moses, and 
the story of his death.^I. The first dls- 
course (i. 1 — iv. 40). After a brief historical 
introduction, the speaker recapitulatea the 
chief events of the last 40 years in the 
wilderness, and especially those events which 
had the most immedlatfi bearing on the entry 
of the people into the promised land. To 
this discourse is appended a brief notice of 
the severing of the three cities of reAige on 
the east side of the Jordan (iv. 41-48).— II. 
The second diwourse is introduced like the 
first by an explanation of the circumstances 
under which it was delivered (iv. 44-49^ 
It extends tttjm chap. v. 1 — xxvi. 19, and 
contains a recapitulation, with some modin- 
cations and additions, of the Law already 
given on Mount SlnaL — III. In the third 
discourse (xxvii. 1 — ^xxx. 20), the Elders of 
Israel are associated with Moses. The 
people are commanded to set up stones upon 
Mount Ebal, and on them to write " all the 
words of this law." Then follow the several 
curses to be pronounced by the Levites on 
Ebal (xxvii. 14-28), and the blessmgs on 
Gerizim (xxviU. 1-14).— I Y. The delivery 
of the Law as written by Moses (toft its frtiU 
further preservation) to the custody of the 
K 2 
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Levitet, and a charge to the people to hear it 
read once every seven years (xxxi.) : the 
Song of Moses spoken in the ears of the 
people (xxxi. SO-xxxii. 44) : and the bless- 
ing of the twelve tribes (xxxiii.).— V. The 
Book closes (xxxiv.) with an account of the 
death of Moses, which Lb first announced to 
him in xxxii. 48-52. — It has been maintained 
by many modem critics that Deuteronomy 
is of later origin than the other four books of 
the Pentateuch ; but the book bears witness 
to its own authorship (xxxi. 19), and is 
expressly cited in the N. T. as the work of 
Moses (Matt. xix. 7,8 ; Mark x. S ; Acts 
iii. 22, vii. 87). The last chapter, contain- 
ing an account of the death of Moses, was 
of course added by a later hand, and perhaps 
formed originally the beginning of the book 

of Joshua. [PBMTATKrCB.] 

DEVIL. The name describes Satan as 
slandering Ood to man, and man to God. 
The former work is, of course, a part of his 
great work of temptation to evil ; and is not 
only exemplified but illustrated as to its 
general nature and tendency by the narrative 
of Gen. iii. The effect is to stir up the 
spirit of fireedom in man to seek a fancied in- 
dependence; and it is but a slight step 
farther to impute fidsefaood or cruelty to 
God. The other work, the slandering or 
accusing man before God is, as it must 
necessarily be, unintelligible to us. The 
essence of this accusation is the imputation 
of selfish motives (Job i. 9, 10), and its refti- 
tation is placed in the self-sacrifice of those 
*' who loved not their own lives unto death." 
[Satan; Demok.] 

DEW. This in the summer is so eopious 
in Palestine that it supplies to some extent 
the absence of rain (Ecdus. xi^. 16, xliii. 
22), and becomes important to xhe agricul- 
turist. As a proof of this copiousness the 
well-known sign of Gideon (Judg. vl. 87, 89, 
40) may be adduced. Thus it is coupled in 
the divine blessing with rain, or mentioned 
as a prime source of fertility (Gen. xxvii. 
28 ; Deut. xxxiii. 18 ; Zech. viU. 12), and 
its withdrawal is attributed to a curse (2 
Sam. i. 21 ; IK. xvU. 1 ; Hag. i. 10). It 
becomes a leading object in prophetic ima- 
gery by reason of its penetrating moisture 
without the apparent effort of rain (Deut. 
xxxii. 2 ; Job xxix. 19 ; Ps. cxxxiii. 8 ; 
Rrov. xix. 12 ; Is. xxvi. 19 ; Hos. xlv. 5 ; 
Mic. V. 7) ; while its speedy evanescence 
typifies the transient goodness of the hypo> 
orite (Hos. vi. 4, xiU. 8). 

DIADEM. What the " diadem " of the 
Jews was we know not. That of other na- 
tions of antiquity was a fillet of silk, two 
inches broad, bound round the head and tied 

behind, the invention of which is attrioutod 
to Liber. Its colour was generally white ; 
sometimes, however, it was of blue, like that 
of Darius ; and it was sown with pearls or 
other gems (Zech. ix. 16), and enriched 
with gold (Rev. ix. 7). It was peculiarly 
the mark of Oriental sovereigns (I Mace. 
xiiL 82). A crown was used by the kings 
of Israel, even in battle (2 Sam. i. 10) ; but 
in all probability this was not the state 
crown (2 Sam. xii. 30), although u»ed in the 
coronation of Joash (2 K. xi. 12). In Esth. 
i. 11, ii. 17, we have eether for the turban 
worn by the Persian king, queen, or other 
eminent persons to whom it was conceded as 
a special favour (viii. 15). The diadem of 
the king differed from that of others in hav- 
ing an erect triangular peak. The words in 
£z. xxiii. 15 mean long and flowing turbans 
of gorgeous colours. 

Obvene of Tetradnchm of TignuMt, klnf of Syria. 

DIAL. The word ma*!U6th is the same as 
that rendered " steps" in A. V. (Ex. xx. 26 ; 
1 K. X. 19), and " degrees " In A. V. (2 K. 
XX. 9, 10, 11 ; Is. xxxviii. 8), where, to 
give a consistent rendering, we should read 
with the margin the " d^rees " rather than 
the " dial " of Ahaa. In the absence of any 
materitJs for determining the shape and 
structure of the solar instrument, which 
certainly appears intended, the best course is 
to follow the most strictly natural meaning 
of the words, and to consider that the 
ma'&l^th were really stairs, and that the 
shadow (perhaps of some column or obelisk 
on the top) fell on a greater or smaller number 
of them according as the sun was low or 
high. The terrace of a palace might easily 
be thus ornamented. 

DIAMOND (Heb. yah&lSm), a predoua 
stone, the third in the second row on the 
breastplate of the High-priest (Ex. xxviii. 
18, xxxix. 11), and mentioned by Esekiel 
(xxviii. 13) among the precious stones of 
the king of Tyre. Some suppose yah&l6m to 
be the " emerald." Respecting sA^mtr, 
which is translated *' diamond " in Jer. xvii. 
1, see under Aoaxant* 

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DIAN'A. Thifi Latin word, properly de- 
noting a Roman divinity, is the representative 
of the Greek Artemis^ the tutelary godden of 
the Epheeiana, who playa bo important a part 
in the narratiTe of Acts xix. The Ephesian 
Diana, -was, however, regarded as invested 
-with very different attributes, and is rather 
to be identified with Astarte and other female 
divinities of the East The coin below will 
give some notion of the image of th'e true 
Ephesian Diana, which was grotesque and 
archaic in character. The head wore a 
mural crown, each hand held a bar of metal, 
and the lower part ended in a rude block 
covered with figures of animals and mystic 
inscriptions. This idol was regarded as an 
object of peculiar sanctity, and was believed 
to have fallen down from heaven (Acts xix. 
35). The cry of the mob (Acts six. 28), 
** Great is Diana of the Ephesians !" and the 
strong expression in ver. 27, "whom all 
Asia and the world worshippeth," may be 
abundantly illustrated from a variety of 
sources. The term ** great " was evidently 
a title of honour recognised as belonging to 
the Ephesian goddess. We find it in in- 

Greok Impertal eopp«r coin of Rpbesos and SmyniA. 

DIB'LATH (accurately Diblah), a place 
named only in £z. vi. 14, as if situated at 
one of the extremities of the land of Israel, 
is perhaps only another form of Riblah. 

DI'BON. 1. A town on the east side of Jor- 
dan, in the rich pastnral country, which was 
taken possession of and rebuilt by the children 
of Gad (Num. xxxli. 3, 34). From this cir- 
cumstance it possibly received the name of 
Diboi«-Gad (Numb, xxxiii. 45, 46). Its 
first mention is in Num. xxi. 30, and ft-om 
this it appears to have belonged originally 
to the Moabites. We find Dibon counted to 
Reuben in the lists of Joohua (xiii. 9, 17). 
In the time of Isaiah and Jeremiah, however, 
it was again in possession of Moab (Is. xv. 
2 ; Jer. xlviii. 18, 22, comp. 24). In the 
same denunciations of Isaiah it appears, 
probably, under the name of Dimox. In 
modem times the name Dhiban has been dis- 
covered as attached to extensive ruins on 
the Roman road, about three miles north of 

the Amon {Wady Mo4feb).—2, One of the 
towns which were re-inhabited by the men of 
Judah after the return ttom captivity (Neh. 
xi. 25), identical with Dimokak. 


DIDRACHMON. [Mombt; Shxkvl.] 

DU/YMUS, that is, tht Twin, a surname 
of the Apostle Thomas (John xi. 16, xx. 24, 
xxi. 2). [Thomas.] 

DIK'LAH (Gen. x. 27 ; 1 Cfar. 1. 21), a 
son of Joktan, whose settlements, in common 
with those of the other sons of Joktan, mast 
be looked for in Arabia. The name in 
Hebrew signifies ** a paim^ee^" hence it is 
thought that Diklah is a part of Arabia con- 
taining many palm-trees. 

DI'MONAH, a city in the south of Judah 
(Josh. XV. 22), perhaps the same as Dibon 
in Neh. xi. 25. 

DI'NAH, the daughter of Jacob by Leah 
(Gen. XXX . 2 1 ) . She accompanied her father 
from Mesopotamia to Canaan, and, having 
ventured among the inhabitants, was violated 
by Sheohem the son of Hamor, the chieftain 
of the territory in which her father had 
settled (Gen. xxxiv.). Sheohem proposed 
to make the usual reparation by paying a 
sum to the father and marrying her (Geo. 
xxxiv. 12). But in this cose the suitor was 
an alien, and the crown of the offence con- 
sisted in its having been committed by an 
alien against the favoured people of God ; ho 
had "wrought folly in Israel" (xxxiv. 7). 
The proposals of Hamor, who acted as his 
deputy, were framed on the recognition of 
the hitherto complete separation of the two 
peoples ; he proposed the fusion of the two by 
the establishment of the rights of inter- 
marriage and commerce. The sons of Jacob, 
bent upon revenge, availed themselves of the 
eagerness, which Sheohem showed, to effect 
their purpose ; they demanded, as a condi- 
tion of the proposed union, the circumcision 
of the Shechemites. They therefore assented ; 
and on the third day, when the pain and 
fever resulting from the operation were at 
the highest, Simeon and Levi, own brothers 
to Dinah, attacked them unexpectedly, slew 
all the males and plundered their city. 

Dl'NAITES (Ezr. iv. 9), the name of some 
of the Cu^.haean colonists who were placed 
in the cities of Samaria after the captivity of 
the ten tribes. 

DIN'HABAH (Gen. xxxvi. 32 ; I Chr. i. 
43), the capital city, and probably the birth- 
place, of Bela, son of Beor, king of Edom. 

xvii. 34), an eminent Athenian, converted to 
Christianity by the preaching of St. Paul. 
He is said to have been first bishop of Athens. 
The writings which were once attributed ta 

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him are now confesaed to be the production 
of some neo>Platoni8t8 of the 6th century. 

DIONY'SUS (2 Maco. xiv. 33 ; 8 Mace. ii. 
S9), also called Baochus, the god of wine. 
His worship was greatly modified by the 
incorporation of Eastern elements, and 
assumed the twofold form of wild orgies and 
mystic ritei . To the Jew, Dionysus would 
necessarily appear as the embodiment of 
paganism in its most material shape, sanc- 
tioning the most tumultuous passions and 
the worst excesses. 


DIOT'BEPHES, a Christian mentioned in 
3 John 0, but of whom nothing is known. 

DISCIPLE. [Schools.] 

simply Thx Dispsbsiox, was the general 
title applied to those Jews who remained 
settled in foreign countries after the return 
from the Babylonian exile, and during the 
period of the second Temple. The Disper- 
sion, as a distinct element tnflueneing the 
entire character of the Jews, dates from the 
Babylonian exile. Outwardly and inwardly, 
by its effects both on the Gentiles and on the 
people of Israel, the Dispersion appears to 
have been the clearest providential prepara- 
tion for the spread of Christianity. At the 
beginning of the Christian era the Dispersion 
was divided into three great sections, the 
Babylonian, the Syrian, the Egyptian. Pre- 
cedence was yielded to the first. From 
Babylon the Jews spread throughout Persia, 
Media, and Parthia. The Greek conquests 
in Asia extended the limits of the Dispersion. 
Seleneus Nicator transplanted large bodies 
of Jewish colonists flrom Babylonia to the 
capitals of his western provinces. His policy 
was followed by his successor Antiochns the 
Great; and the persecutions of Antioehus 
Epiphanes only served to push forward the 
Jewish emigration to the remoter districts of 
his empire. Large settlements of Jews were 
established in Cyprus, in the islands of the 
Aegaean, and on the western coast of Asia 
Minor. The Jews of the Syrian provinces 
gradually formed a closer connexion with 
their new homes, and together with the 
Greek language adopted in many respects 
Greek ideas. This Hellenizing tendency, 
however, found its most free development at 
Alexandria. The Jewish settlements esta- 
blished there by Alexander and Ptolemy I. 
became the source of the African dispersion, 
which spread over the north coast of Africa, 
and perhaps inland to Abyssinia. At Cyrene 
and Berenice (Tripoli) the Jewish inhabitants 
formed a considerable portion of the popula- 
tion. The Jewish settlements in Rome were 
consequent upon the occupation of Jerusalem 

by Pompey, b.o. 63. The captives and 
emigrants whom he brought with him were 
located in the trans-Tiberine quarter. In 
the reign of Claudius the Jews became 
objects of suspicion from their immense 
numbers; and the internal disputes led to 
their banishment from the city (Acts xviii. 
2). This expulsion, if general, can only 
have been temporary, for in a few years the 
Jews at Rome were numerous (Acts xxviii. 
17 ff.). The influence of the Dispersion on 
the rapid promulgation of Christianity can 
scarcely be overrated. The course of the 
apostolic preaching followed in a regular 
progress the line of Jewish settlements. 
The mixed assembly from which the first 
converts were gathered on the day of Pente- 
cost represented each division of the Disper- 
sion (Acts ii. 9-11 ; (1) Parthians .... 
Mesopotamia; (2) Judaea (i.e. Syria). . . . 
Pamphylia; (8) Egyi)t . . . Greece; (4) 
Romans . . . ), and these converts naturally 
prepared the way for the apostles in the 
interval which preceded the beginning of the 
separate apostolic missions. St. James and 
St. Peter wrote to the Jews of the Dispersion 
(Jam. i. I ; 1 Pet I. 1). 

DIVINATION has been universal in all 
ages( and all nations alike civilised and 
savage. Numerous forms of divination are 
mentioned, such as divination by rods (Hos. 
iv. 12) ; divination by cups (Gen. xliv. 4) ; 
consultation of Teraphim (Zech. x. 2 ; Ex. 
xxi. 21 ; 1 Sam. xv. 23) [Tkeaphim] ; 
divinaUon by the liver (Ex. xxi. 21) ; divi- 
nation by dreams (Deut. xiii. 2, 8 ; Jndg. 
vii. 13 ; Jer. xxiii. 82), Arc. Moses forbade 
every species of divination because a prying 
into the fbture clouds the mind with super- 
stition, and because it would have been an 
incentive to idolatry : indeed the fluent 
denunciations of the sin in the prophets tend 
to prove that these forbidden arts presented 
peculiar temptations to apostate Israel. But 
God supplied his people with substitutes for 
divination, which would have rendered it 
superfluous, and left them in no doubt as to 
his will in oiroumstances of danger, had 
they continued foithM. It was only when 
they were unfaithful that the revelation was 
withdrawn (I Sam. xxviii. 6 ; 2 Sam. ii. 1 ; 
V. 23, 8co.). Superstition not unfrequently 
goes hand in hand with scepticism, and 
hence, amid the general infldelity prevalent 
through the Roman empire at our Lord's 
coming, imposture was rampant ; as a glance 
at the pages of Tacitus will sufllce to prove. 
Hence the lucrative trades of such men as 
Simon Magus (Acts viii. 9), Bar-Jesus (Acts 
viii. 6, 8), the slave with the spirit of Python 
(Aets xvi. 16 )» the vagabond Jews, exorcists 

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(Lake zi. 19 ; Acts xiz. 18), ud othera (3 
Tim. iU. IS ; Rer. xix. SO, Ac.), as well as 
the notorious dealers in magii^itl books at 
EphesQS (Acts six. 19). 

DIVORCE. The law resrolating this snb- 
Jeot is found Dent. xsiy. 1-4, and the eases 
in which the right of a husband to diroroe 
his wife was lost, are sUted ib. xxii. 19, 29. 
The ground of dirorce is a point on which 
the Jewish doctors of the period of the N. T. 
widely differed; the school of Shammai 
seeming to limit it to a moral delinquency in 
the woman, whilst that of Hillel extended it 
to trifling causes, s. p., if the wife burnt the 
food she was cocriUng former husband. The 
Pharisees wished perhaps to embroil our 
SaTiour with these rival schools by their 
questkm (Matt. xix. 8) ; by His answer to 
Which, as well as by His prerious maxim (t. 
31), he declares that but for their hardened 
state of heart, such questions would hare no 
place. Tet ftrom the distinction made, " but 
1 say unto you,** t. 81, 82, it seems to 
follow, that he regarded all the lesser causes 
than ** fornication '* as standing on too weak 
ground, and declined the question of how to 
interpret the words of Moses. 

DI'ZAHAB, a place in the Arabian Desert, 
mentioned Deut. i. 1, is identified with 
Dahabf a c^» on the W. shore of the Ou^ 

DOD'AT, an Ahohite who commanded the 
omrae of the 2nd month (1 Chr. xxviL 4). 
It is probable that he is the same as Dono, 2. 

DCyDAKIM, Oen. x. 4 ; 1 Chr. L 7 (in 
some copies and in marg. of A. Y. 1 Chr. i. 
7, Bodakim), a fieunily or race descended 
from Javan, the son of Japhet (Oen. x. 4 ; 1 
Chr. L 7). The weight of authority ii in 
fisTOur of the former name. Dodanim is 
regarded as identical with the Dardani, who 
were found in historical times in Hlyrioum 
and Troy. 

DC/DO, 1. A man of Bethlehem, fiftther 
of Elhanan, who was one of DaTid*B thirty 
captains (2 Sam. xxiii. 24 ; I Chr. xL 26). 
He is a diisierent person from — S. Dodo tbx 
AHonrrK, father of Eleazar, the 2nd of the 
three mighty men who were oTcr the thirty 
(2 Sam. xxUi. 9 ; 1 Chr. xi. 12). He, or 
his son — ^in which case we must suppose the 
words "Eleaxar son of** to have escaped 
from the text — ^probably had the command 
of the second monthly course (1 Chr. xxtU. 
4). In the latter passage the name is 


DCEO, an Idumaean, chief of Saul's herd- 
men. He was at Nob when Ahimelech gave 
DaTid the sword of Goliath, and not only 
gaTo infbrmation to Saul, but when others 
declined the office, himself executed the 

king's order to destroy the priests of Nob, 
with their fhmilies, to the number of 85 
persons, together with all their property (1 
Sam. xxi. 7, xxii. 9, 18, 22 ; Ps. Ui.). 

DOQ, an animal lk«quently mentioned in 
Scripture. It was used by the Hebrews as a 
watch for their houses (Is. Ui, 10), and fcT 
guarding their flocks (Job xxx. 1). Then 
also as now, troops of hungry and semi-wild 
dogs used to wander about the fields and 
streets of the dties, dcYouring dead bodies 
and other oflkl (1 K. xir. 11, xtI. 4, xxi. 19, 
28, xxiL 88, 2 K. ix. 10, 86 ; Jer. xt. 8, 
Ps. lix. 6, 14), and thus became such objects 
of dislike that fierce and cruel enemies are 
poetically styled dogs in Ps. xxii. 16, 20. 
Moreorer the dog being an unclean animal 
(Is. IxTi. 3), the terms, dog^ dead dog^ dog*$ 
head were used as terms of reproach, or of 
humility in speaking of one's self (1 Sam. 
xxiT. 14 ; 2 Sam. ilL 8, ix. 8, xtI. 9 ; 2 K. 
TiiL 18). Stanley mentions that he saw on 
the Tery site of Jeareel the descendants of 
the dogs that dcToored Jesebel, prowling on 
the mounds without the walls for oflRid and 
carrion thrown out to them to consume. 

DOORS. [Oatss.] 

DOPH'KAH, a place mentioned Num. 
xxxiii. 12, as a station in the Desert where 
the Israelites encamped ; see Wildkrhsss. 

DOR (Josh. xvii. 11; IK. iv. 11; 1 
Mace XT. 11), an ancient royal city of the 
Canaanites (Josh. xiL 23), whose ruler was 
an ally of Jabin king of Hasor against Joehna 
(Josh. xi. 1, 2). It was probably the most 
southern settlement of the Phoenicians on 
the coast of Syria. It appears to hare been 
within the territory of the tribe of Asher, 
though allotted to Manasseh (Josh. XTii. 11 ; 
Judg. i. 27). The original inhabitants were 
never expelled ; but during the prosperous 
ntigns of David and Solomon they were made 
tributary (Judg. i. 27, 28), and the latter 
monarch stationed at Dor one of his twelve 
purveyors (1 K. iv. 11). Jerome places it on 
the coast, ** in the ninth mile tnm. Caesarea, 
on the way to Ptolemais." Just at the point 
indicated is the small village of TatUHra, 
probably an Arab corruption of Doroj con- 
sisting of about thirty houses, wholly con- 
structed of ancient materials. 

IK/RA. 1 Maoc. xv. 11, 18, 25. [Doa.] 



DOTHAN, a place first mentioned (Gen. 
xxxviL 17) in connexion with the history of 
Joseph, and apparently as in the neighbour- 
hood of Shcchem. It next appears as the 
residence of Elisha (2 K. vL 18). Later 
still we encounter it under the name of 
Dothaim, as a landmark in the account of 

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Holofemet's eampaign against Beihulia (Jad. 
It. 6, TlL 8, 18, YiU. 8). It ivaa known to 
Eniebinfl, who places it 12 miles to the N. of 
Sebaste (Samaria) ; and here it has heta dis- 
eoTered in our own limes, still bearing its 
ancient name unimpaired. 

DOVE (Heb. YSndh). The first mention 
of this bird occurs in Gen. viiL The dore's 
rapidity of flight is alluded to in Ps. It. 6 ; 
the beauty of its plumage in Ps. IxTiii. 13 ; 
its dwelling in the rooks and Tallejs in Jer. 
zlTiii. 88, and Ex. tU. 16; its moumfU 
Toiee in Is. xxxtUL 14, Uz. 11 ; Nah. ii. 7 ; 
its harmleesness in Matt. x. 16 ; its sim- 
plicity in Hos. Tit. 11, and its amatiTeness 
in Cant. i. 15, iL 14. Dotss are kept in a 
domesticated state in many parts of the East. 
In Persia pigeon-houses are erected at a 
distance from the dwellings, for the purpose 
of collecting the dung as manure. There is 
probably an allusion to such a custom in 
Is. Ix. 8. 

DOVE'S DUNO. Various explanations 
hsTe been giTen of the passage in 2 K. tI. 
25, which describes the famine of Samaria to 
haTe been so excessive, that *' an ass's head 
was sold for fourscore pieces of silTer, and 
the fourth part of a cab of doTe*s dung for 
fiTe pieces of silTcr." Bochart has laboured 
to show that it denotes a species of cicer, 
** chick-pea," which he says the Arabs call 
msndnt and sometimes improperly ** doTe's or 
sparrow's dung.'* It can scarcely be belicTed 
that even in the worst horrors of a siege a 
substance so Tile as is implied by the literal 
rendering should bare been used for food. 

DOWRY. [Mabwaob.] 

DRACHM (2 Mace iv. 19, x. 20, xil. 43 ; 
Luke XT. 8, 9), a Greek silTer coin, Tarying 
in weight on account of the use of diflierent 
talents. In Luke (A. V. " piece of silver ") 
denarii seem to be intended. [Moksy; 


DRAGON. The translators of the A. V., 
apparently following the Vulgate, have ren- 
dered by the same word " dragon " the two 
Hebrew words Tan and Tannin^ which 
appear to be quite dirtinct in meaning. — I. 
The former is used, always in the plural, in 
Job XXX. 29 ; Is. xxxiT. 13, xliii. 20 ; in 
Is. xiti. 22 ; in Jer. x. 22, xlix. 88 ; in Ps. 
xliT. 19; and in Jer. ix. 11, xiv. 6, U. 37 ; 
Mio. i. 8. It is always applied to some 
creatures inhabiting the desert, and we 
should conclude from this that it refers 
•nther to some wild beast than to s serpent 
The Syriao renders it by a word which, 
according to Pococke, means a ** Jackal." — 
II. The word Umnin seems to refer to any 
great monster, whetl><>r of the land or the 
sea, Iteing indeed more usually applied to 

some kind of serpent or reptile, but not ex* 
cluslTely restricted to that sense. When we 
examine special passages we find the word 
used in Gen. 1. 21, of the great sea-monsters, 
the representatiTes of the inhabitants of the 
deep. On the other hand, in Ex. Tii. 9, 10, 
12, Deut. xxxiL 33, Ps. xcL 13, it refers to 
land-serpents of a powerful and deadly kind. 
In the N. T. It is only found in the Apoca- 
lypse (ReT. xiL 8, 4, 7, 9, 16, 17, &e.), as 
applied metaphorically to " the old serpent, 
called the Derii, and Satan," the description 
of the ** dragon " being dictated by the sym- 
bolioal meaning of the image rather than by 
any reference to any actually existing crea- 
ture. The reason of this scriptural symbol 
is to be sought not only in the union of 
gigantic power with craft and malignity, of 
which the serpent is the natural emblem, 
but in the record of the serpent's agency in 
the temptation (Gen. iii.). 

DRAM. [Daxic] 

DREAMS. The Scripture declares, that 
the influence of the Spirit of God upon the 
soul extends to its sleeping as well as its 
waking thoughts. But, in accordance with 
the principle enunciated by St. Paul in 1 Cor. 
xIt. 15, dreams, in which the understanding 
is asleep, are placed below the Tisions of 
prophecy, in wMch the understanding plays 
its part. It is true that the book of Job, 
standing as it does on the basis of " natura 
religion," dwells on dreams and " Tisions in 
deep sleep " as the chosen method of God's 
rcTelation of Himself to man (see Job It. 18, 
TiL 14, xxxiii. 15). But in Num. xU. 6 ; 
Deut. xiii. 1, 8, 5 ; Jer. xxtU. 9 ; Joel U. 28, 
ftc, dreamers of dreams, whether true or 
false, are placed below " prophets," and even 
below "diviners;" and sbnilarly in the 
climax of 1 Sam. xxTiii. 6, we read that 
'* Jehovah answered Saul not, neither by 
dreams, nor by Urim [by symbol], nor by 
prophets." Under the Christian dispensa- 
tion, while we read frequently of trances and 
Tisions, dreams are ncTer referred to as 
Tehioles of diTine rcTelation. In exact ac- 
cordance with this principle are the actual 
records of the dreams sent by God. The 
greater number of such dreams were granted, 
for prediction or for warning, to those who 
were aliens to the Jewish covenant. And, 
where dreams are recorded as means of God's 
revelation to his chosen lerTants, they are 
almost always referred to the periods of 
their earliest and most imperfect knowledge 
of Him. 

DRESS. This subject includes the follow- 
ing particulars:—!. Materials. 2. Colour 
and deconOion. 8. Name, form, and mode 
of wearing the various articles. 4. Special 

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usages resting thereto. — 1. The earliest and 
simplest robe was made out of the leaves of 
a tree, portions of which were sewn together, 
so as to form an apron (Gen. ilL 7). After 
the &11, the skins a( animals supplied a more 
durable material (Gen. ill. 21), which was 
adapted to a rude state of society, and is 
stated to have been used by yarious ancient 
nations. Skins were not wholly disused at 
later periods : the ** mantle " worn by Elijah 
appears to have been the sidn of a sheep or 
some other animal with the wool left on. It 
was Aiaracteristio of a prophet's office ftrom 
its mean appearance (Zech. xiii. 4 ; cf. Matt, 
vii. 15). Pelisses of sheepskin still form an 
ordinary article of dress in the East. The 
art of weaving hair was known to the 
Hebrews at an early period (Ex. zxri. 7, 
xxxT. 6) ; the sackcloth used by mourners 
was of tMs material. John the Baptist's 
robe was of camel's hair (Matt. iii. 4). 
Wool, we may presume, was introduced at a 
very early period, the flocks of the pastoral 
fiamilies being kept partly for their wool 
(Gen. xxxYiii. 12) : it was at all times 
lai^ly employed, particularly for the outer 
garments (Lev. xiii. 47 ; Deut. xxii. 11 ; 
Ac). It is probable that the acquaintance of 
the Hebrews with linen, and perhaps cotton, 
dates from the period of the captivity in 
Egypt, when they were instructed in the 
manufacture (1 Chr. iv. 21). After their 
return to Palestine we have ftrequent notices 
of linen. Silk was not introduced until a 
very late period (Rev. xviii. 12). The use 
of mixed material, such as wool and flax, 
was forbidden (Lev. xix. 19 ; Deut. xxii. 
11). — 2. Oolour and decoration. The pre- 
vailing colour of the Hebrew dress was the 
natural white of the materials employed, 
which might be brought to a high state of 
brilliancy by the art of the fuller (Mark ix. 
3). It is uncertain when the art of dyeing 
became known to the Hebrews ; the dress 
worn by Joseph (Oen. xxxvii. S, 23) is 
variously taken to be either a *' coat of divers 
colours," or a tunic famished with sleeves 
and reaching down to the ankles. The latter 
is probably the correct sense. The notice of 
scarlet thread (Gen. xxxviii. 28) implies 
some acquaintance with dyeing. The Egyp- 
tians haid carried the art of weaving and 
embroidery to a high state of perfection, and 
from them the Hebrews learned various 
methods of producing decorated stuffs. The 
elements of ornamentation were — (1) weav- 
ing with threads previously dyed (Ex. xxxv. 
35) ; (2) the introduction of gold thread or 
wire (Ex. xxvii. 6 ff.) ; (8) the addition of 
figures. These devices may have been either 
woven into the stuff, or out out of other stuff 

and afterwards attached by needlework : in 
the former case the pattern would appear 
only on one side, in the latter the pattern 
might be varied. Robes decorated with gold 
(Ps. xlv. 18), and at a later period with 
silver thread (cf. Acts xii. 21), were worn 
by ro^l personages; other khids of em- 
broidered robes were worn by the wealthy 
both of Tyre (Es. xvi. 18) and Palestine 
(Judg. V. 80; Ps. xlv. 14). The art does 
not appear to have been maintained among 
the Hebrews : the Babylonians and other 
eastern nations (Josh. vii. 21 ; £z. xxvii. 
24), as well as the Egyptians (£z. xxvii. 7), 
excelled in it. Nor does the art of dyeing 
appear to have been followed up in Pales- 
tine : dyed robes were imported from foreign 
countries (Zeph. i. 8), particularly ftrom 
Phoenicia, and were not much used on 
account of their expensiveness : purple 
(Prov. xxxi. 22; Luke xvi. 19) and scarlet 
(2 Sam. 1. 24) were occasionally worn by the 
wealthy. The surrounding nations were 
more lavish in their use of them: the 
wealthy Tyrians (Ea. xxvii. 7), the Midian- 
itish kings (Judg. viU. 26), the Assyrian 
nobles (Ea. xxiii. 6), and Persian officers 
(Esth. viii. 15), are all represented in purple. 
— 8. The namcMf formtt ond mode of loearvig 
the robes. It is difficult to give a satisflactory 
account of the various articles of dress men- 
tioned in the Bible. The general character- 
istics of Oriental dress have indeed preserved 
a remarkable uniformity in all ages : the 
modem Arab' dresses much as the ancient 
Hebrew did; there are the same flowing 
robes, the same distinction between the outer 
and inner garmenta, the former heavy and 
warm, the latter light, adapted to the rapid 
and excessive changes of temperature in 
those countries ; and there is the same dis- 
tinction between the costume of the rich and 
the poor, consisting in the multiplication of 
robes of a flner texture and more ample di- 
mensions. Hence the numerous illustrations 
of ancient costume, which may be drawn 
trom the usages of modem Orientals, supply- 
ing in great measure the want of contempo- 
raneous representations. The costiime of 
the men and women was very similar ; there 
was sufficient difference, however, to mark 
the sex, and it was strictly forbidden to a 
woman to wear the appendages such as the 
staff, signet-ring, and other omamente, or 
according to Josephus, the weapons of a 
man ; as well as to a man to wear the outer 
robe of a woman (Deut. xxii. 5). We shall 
first describe the robes which were common 
to the two sexes, and then those which were 
peculiar to women. (1.) The cHhSneth wns 
the most essential article of dress. It was 

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a closely-fitting garment, reaembling in 
form and use our thirty though unfortunately 
translated coat in the A. Y. The material 
of which it was made was either wool, cotton, 
or linen. The primitiTC oSthSneth was with- 
out sleeres and reached only to the knee. 
Another kind reached to the wrists and 
ankles. It was in either case kept close to 
the body by a girdle, and the fold formed by 
the overlapping of the robe served as an 
inner pocket. A person wearing the efth^- 
nrth alone was described as naked, A. V. 
The annexed woodcut (fig. 1) represents the 

Pig- 1<— An EgTptlan. (Lnoe'c Uodtrm EinfptUuu.) 

simplest style of Oriental dress, a long loose 
shirt or ceth6neth without a girdle, reaching 
nearly to the ankle. (2.) The Md«^ appears 
to have been a wrapper of fine linen, which 
might be used in various ways, but especially 
as a night-shirt (Mark xiv. 51). (S.) The 
mXU was an upper or second tunic, the dif- 
ference being that it was longer than the 
first. As an article of ordinary dress it was 
worn by kings (1 Sam. xxiv. 4), prophets (1 
Sam. xxviii. 14), nobles (Job i. 20), and 
youths (1 Sam. ii. 19). It may, however, be 
doubted whether the term is used in its 
specific sense in these passages, and not 
rather for any robe that chanced to be worn 
over the cStJtoneth. Where two tunics are 
mentioned (Luke iii. 11) as being worn at 
the same time, the second would be a mSU; 
travellers generally wore two, but the prac- 
tice was forbidden to the disciples (Matt. x. 

10 ; Luke Ix. S). The dress of the middle 
and upper clnssos in modem Egypt (fig. t) 

Fig. t.— An BgjptUn of tLo u|)p«r d«MW. ( Lan«.) 

illustrates the customs of the Hebrews. (4.) 
The ordinary outer garment consisted of a 
quadrangular piece of woollen cloth, probably 
resembling in shape a Scotch plaid. The size 
and texture would vary with the means of 
the wearer. The Hebrew terms referring to 
it are— nm/oA, sometimes put for clothes 
generally (Gen. xxxv. 3, xxxvii. 34 ; Ex. iii. 
22, xrU. 9 ; Deut. x. 18 ; Is. iU. 7, iv. 1) ; 
beped, which is more usual in speaking of 
robes of a handsome and substantial cha- 
racter (Gen. xxviL 15, xlL 42 ; Ex. xxviiL 
2 ; 1 K. xxU. 10 ; 2 Chr. xviii. 9 ; Is. IxiiL 
1) ; eiftiitKt appropriate to passages where 
covering or protection is the prominent idea 
(Ex. xxii. 26 ; Job xxvi. 6, xxxi. 19) ; and 
lastly Ub^h, usual in poetry, but specially 
applied to a warrior's cloak (2 Sam. xx. 8), 
priests* vestments (2 K. x. 22), and royal 
apparel (Esth. vi. 11, viii. 15). Another 
term, mad, is specifically applied to a long 
cloak (Judg. iii. 16; 2 Sam. xx. 8), and to 
the priest's coat (Lev. vi. 10). The htped 
might be worn in various ways, either 
wrapped round the body, ot worn over the 
shoulders, like a shawl, with the ends or 
"skirts" hanging down in fh>nt; or it 
might be thrown over the head, so as to con- 
ceal the fkce (2 Sam. xv. 30 ; Esth. vi. 12). 
The ends were skirted with a fk-lnge and 
bound with a dark purple riband (Num. xv. 

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88) : it was oanfincd at the waist hj a girdle, 
ind the fold, formed by the OTerUpping of 
the robe, aerred as a pocket. — The dress of 
the women differed from that of the men in 
regard to the outer garment, the c9th6neth 
being worn equally by both sexes (Cant. ▼. 
3). The names of their distinctive robes 
were as follow : — (I) mitpaeJuitk {veil^ 
wimple, A. Y.), a kind of shawl (Ruth Ui. 
15 ; Is. iii. S2} ; (2) ma'atdphdh {mantle, 
A. v.), another kind of shawl (Is. iii. 22) ; 
(3) U^ph {veil, A. Y.), probably a light 
sommer dress of handsome appearance and 
of ample dimensions ; (4) rdiUd {veil, A. V.), 
a similar robe (Is. ilL 23 ; Cant ▼. 7) ; 
(5) pethiifi {ttomaeher, A. Y.), a term of 
douhtfhl origin, but probably significant of a 
gay holiday dress (Is. iii. 24) ; (6) gilyonim 
(Is. iii. 23), also a doubtfUl word, probably 
means, as in the A. Y., glauea. The gar- 
ments of females were terminated by an 
ample border of fHnge {ekirU, A. Y.), which 
concealed the feet (Is. zlvii. 3 ; Jer. xiii. 
32). Figs. 8 and 4 illustrate some of the 
peculiarities of female dress ; the former is 
an Eg]rptian woman in her walking dress : 
the latter represents a dress, probably of 
great antiquity, still worn by the peasants in 
the south of Egypt. The references to Greek 
or Roman dress are few : the x^^v« (2 
Maoo. xii. 85 ; Matt, xxvii. 28) was either 
the paluiamentttm, the military scarf of the 
Roman soldiery, or the Greek chlamyt itself, 
which was introduced under the Emperors : 

Tin. }.— An EcTPt^Ai* Vfomuk. Hjum.) 

V\g. 4.— A WotDAD of Om southern proTioe* of t'ppsr 
Egypt (LmoO 

it was especially worn by officers. The 
travelling eloak referred to by St. Paul (3 
Tim. ir. 13) is generally identified with 
the Roman paenula, of which it may be a 
corruption. It is, however, otherwise ex- 
plained as a travelling-case for carrying 
clothes or books.— 4. Special usages relating 
io drees. The length of the dress rendered 
it inconvenient for active exercise; hence 
the outer garments were either left in the 
house by a person working close by (Matt. 
xxiv. 18) or were thrown off when the occa- 
sion arose (Mark x. 50 ; John xiii. 4 ; Acts 
vii. 58), or, if this was not possible, as in the 
case of a person travelling, they were girded 
up (1 K. zviU. 46 ; 3 K. iv. 29, ix. 1 ; 1 
Pet. 1. 18); on entering a house the upper 
garment was probably laid aside and re- 
sumed on going out (Acts xii. 8). In a 
sitting posture, the garments concealed the 
feet : this was held to be an act of rever- 
ence (Is. vi. 2). The number of suits 
possessed by the Hebrews was considerable : 
a single suit consisted of an under and upper 
garment. The presentation of a robe in 
many instances amounted to installation or 
investiture (Gen. xii. 42 ; Esth. viii. 15 ; Is. 
xxii. 31) ; on the other hand, taking it 
away amounted to dismissal from office (2 
Mace. iv. 88). The production of the best 
robe was a mark of special honour in a 

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hounebold (Luke xr. 22). The number of 
robes thuB received or kept in store for 
proaents was very large, and formed one of 
the main elements of wealth in the East (Job 
xxii. 16 ; Matt. tI. 19 ; James v. 2), so that 
to have clothifif sa to be wealthy and power- 
Ail (Is. iii. 6, 7). On grand occasions the 
entertainer offered becoming robes to his 
guests. The business of making clothes 
derolTcd upon women in a family (Prov. 
xxxi. 22 ; Acts ix. 39) ; little art was re- 
quired in what we may term the tailoring 
department ; the garments came forth for 
the most part ready made firom the loom, so 
that the weaver supplanted the tailor. 

DRINK, STRONG. The Hebrew term 
sMeaVf in its etymological sense, applies to 
any beverage that had intoxieating qualities. 
We may infer from Cant. viii. 2 that the 
Hebrews were in the habit of expressing the 
juice of other fruits besides the grape for the 
purpose of making wine; the pomegranate, 
which is there noticed, was probably one out 
of many fruits so used. With regard to the 
application of the term in later times we 
have the explicit statement of Jerome, as well 
as other sources of information, from which 
we may state that the following beverages 
were known to the Jews : — 1. Beert which 
was largely consumed in Egypt under the 
name of zythtUy and was thence introduced 
into Palestine. It was made of barley ; cer- 
tain herbs, such as lupin and skirrett, were 
used as substitutes for hops. 2. Cider, which 
is noticed in the Mishna as apple-wine. 8. 
Monejf-^ne, of wtioh there were two sorts, 
one, consisting of a mixture of wine, honey, 
and pepper: the other a decoction of the 
juice of the grape, termed dibath (honey) by 
the Hebrews, and dibi by the modem Syrians. 
4. Date-tDtne, which was also manufactured 
in Egypt. It was made by mashing the fruit 
in water in certain proportions. 5. Various 
Dther fruits and vegetables are enumerated by 
Pliny as supplying materials for factitious or 
home-made wine, such as figs, millet, the ca- 
rob fruit, &o. It is not improbable that the 
Hebrews applied raitin* to this purpose in 
the simple manner followed by the Arabians, 
viz., by putting them in jars of water and 
burying them in the ground until fermenta- 
tion takes place. 

DROMEDARY. [Camkl.] 

DRUSIL'LA, daughter of Herod Agrippal. 
(Acts xii. 1, 19 ff.) and Cypros. She was at first 
betrothed to Antiochus Epiphanes, prince of 
Commagene, but was married to AiiKus, king 
of Emesa. Soon after, Felix, procurator of 
Judaea, brought about her seduction by means 
of the Cyprian sorcerer Simon, and took her 
&t his wife. In Acts xxiv. 24, we find her 

in company with Felix at Caesarea. Felix 
had by Drusilla a son named Agrippa, who, 
together with his mother, perished in the 
eruption of Vesuvius under Titus. 

DULCIMER (Heb. Sumphoniah), a mn- 
sical instrument, mentioned in Dan. iii. 6, 15, 
probably the bagpipe. The same instrument 
is still in use amongst peasants in the N.W. 
of Asia and in Southern Europe, where It is 
known by the similar name Sampogna or 

DU'MAH. 1. A son of Ishmael, most 
probably the founder of the Ishmaelite tribe 
of Arabia, and thence the name of the prin- 
cipal place, or district, inhabited by that 
tribe (Gen. xxv. 14 ; 1 Chr. i. 80 ; Is. xxi. 
11). — S. A city in the mountainous district 
of Judah, near Hebron (Josh. xv. 52) repre- 
sented by the ruins of a village called erf- 
Daumehf 6 miles south-west of Hebron. 

DUNG. The uses of dung were twofold, 
as manure, and as fuel. The manure con- 
sisted either of straw steeped in liquid ma- 
nure (Is. xxv. 10), or the sweepings (Is. t. 
25) of the streets and roads, which were oare- 
fiiUy removed fh>m about the houses and col- 
lected in heaps outside the walls of the towns 
at fixed spots (hence the dung-gate at Jeru- 
salem, Neh. ii. 18), and thence removed in 
due course to the fields. The mode of ap- 
plying manure to trees was by digging holes 
about their roots and inserting it (Luke xiii. 
8), as still practised in Southern Italy. In 
the case of sacrifices the dung was burnt out- 
side the camp (Ex. xxix. 14 ; Lev. Iv. 11, 
%'iii. 17 ; Num. xix. 5) : hence the extreme 
opprobrium of the threat in MaL ii. 8. Par- 
ticular directions were laid down in the law 
to enforce cleanliness with regard to human 
ordure (Dent, xxiii. 12 ff.) : it was the gross- 
est insult to turn a man*s house into a recep- 
tacle for it (2 K. X. 27 ; Ezr. vi. 11 ; Dan. ii. 
5, iii. 29, " dunghUl »' A. V.) ; public esta- 
blishments of that nature are still found in 
the large towns of the East. — ^The difficulty 
of procuring fiiel in Syria, Arabia, and Egypt, 
has made dung in all ages valuable as a sub- 
stitute : it was probably used for heating 
ovens and for baking cakes (Ex. iv. 12, 15), 
the equable heat, which it produced, adapt- 
ing it peculiarly for the latter operation. 
Cow*s and earners dung is still used for a 
similar purpose by the Bedouins. 

DUNGEON. [Peison.] 

DU'RA, the plain where Nebuchadnezxar 
set up the golden image (Dan. iii. 1) has been 
sometimes identified with a tract a little be- 
low Tekritf on the left bank of the Tigris, 
where the name Dur is still found. M. Op- 
pert places the plain (or, as he calls it, the 
•* valley ") of Dura to the south-cast of Bab>'* 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 




looi in the Ticinity of the moond of Dowair 

or iHMMT. 

DUST. [MouHMiKo.] 

EAGLE (Heh. nether). The Hebrew word, 
which occurs frequently in the O. T. 
may denote a particular speoiea of the Fal' 
»midae, as in Ler. xi. 18; Deut xir. 12, 
where the ne$her is dIstinguiBhed fh>m the 
ostifrage^ otprey^ and other raptatorial birds ; 
but the term is used also to express the 
griffon Tulture {Vultur fuhtu) in two or 
three passages. At least four distinct kinds 
of eagles have been obserTcd in Palestine, 
Tia. the golden eagle [Aqvila C^rytaXto*)^ the 
spotted eagle {A. fMtevia)^ the oommonest 
species in the reeky districts, the imperial 
eagle {AquUa Seliaea)^ and the very common 
dreaHtoe giUlieue, which preys on the nu- 
merous reptUia ot Palestine. The Heb. neeJur 
may stand for any of these different species, 
though perhaps more particular reference to 
the golden and imperial eagles and the griffon 
Tulture may be intended. The passage in 
Mic. i. 16, ** Enlarge thy baldness as the 
eagle," may refer to the griffon Tulture 
( Vultur fulvue), in which case the simile is 
peculiarly appropriate, for the whole head 
and neck of this bird are destitute of true 
feathers. The ** eagles " of Matt. zxiv. 28, 
Luke xTii. 87, may include the Vultur ^thut 
and Jfeophron percnopterw ; though, as eagles 
frequently prey upon dead bodies, there is no 

dqua^ BdimeuL 

necessity to restrict the Greek word to the 
VuUuridae. The figure of an eagle is now 
and has been long a fiiTourite military ensign. 
The Persians so employed it ; a fact which 
illustrates the passage in Is. xM. 11. The 
same bird was similarly employed by the As- 
syrians and the Bomans. 

EARNEST (2 Cor. i. 22, t. 5 ; Eph. L 14). 
The equiralent in the original is arrhahfm 
{apfiafim¥), a Oraecised form of the Heb. *irS- 
bSn^ which was introduced by the Phoenicians 
into Greece, and also into Italy, where it re- 
appears under the forms of arrhabo and 
arrha. The Hebrew word was used gene- 
rally for pledge (Gen. xxxTiii. 17), and in its 
cognate forms for nir^ (ProT. xtU. 18) and 
hostage (2 E. xiv. 14). The Greek derivatiye, 
however, acquired a more technical sense as 
signifying the depoeU paid by the purchaser 
on entering into an agreement for the pur- 
chase of anything. 

EARRINGS. The material of which eat^ 
rings were made was generally gold (Ex. xxxii. 
2 ) , and their form circular. They were worn by 
women and by youth of both sexes (Ex. I.e.), 

ZfQrptlsn Eajriliigs. Prom WDkiiMOo. 

It has been inferred fk-om the passage quoted, 
aud from Judg. vlii. 24, that they were not 
worn by men : these passages are, however, by 
no means conclusive. The earring appears to 
have been regarded with superstitious reve- 
rence as an amulet. On this account they 
were surrendered along with the idols by 
Jacob's household (Gen. xxxv. 4). Chardin 
describes earrings, with talismanio figures 
and characters on them, as still existing in 
the East. Jewels were sometimes attached 
to the rings. The size of the earrings still 
worn in eastern countries far exceeds what 
is usual among ourselves ; hence they formed 
a handsome present (Job xlii. 11), or offering 
to the service of God (Num. xxxi. 60). 

EARTH. The term is used in two widely 
different senses : (1 ) for the material of 
which the earth's surface is composed ; (2) 
as the name of the planet on which man 

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dvrells. The Hebrew Unfnuige discriminates 
between these two by the use of separate 
terms, Adamah for the former, Erett for the 
latter. — I. Adamah is the earth in the sense 
of soil or ground, particularly as being sas- 
ceptible of cnltivation. The earth supplied 
the elementary substance of which man's body 
was formed, and the terms adam and adamah 
are brought into juxUpoeition, implying an 
etymol(^cal connexion (Gen. ii. 7). — IT. 
ErtU is applied in a more or less extended 
sense : — 1. to the whole world (Gen. i. 1) ; 
2. to land as opposed to sea (Gen. i. 10) ; S. 
to a country (Gen. xxi. 32) ; 4. to a plot of 
ground (Gen. xxiii. 1 5) ; and 5. to the ground 
on which a man stands (Gen. xxxiii. 8). 
EARTHQUAKE. Earthquakes, more or 
less violent, are of fluent occurrence in 
Palestine, as might be expected ttam. the 
numerous traces of volcanic agency visible in 
the features of that country. The recorded 
instances, however, are but feW; the most 
remarkable occurred in the reign of U«dah 
(Am. i. 1 ; Zech. xiv. 5), which Josephus 
connected with the sacrilege and consequent 
punishment of that monarch (2 Chr. xxvi. 
!8ff.). From Zech. xiv. 4 we are led to 
infer that a great convulsion took place at 
this time in the Mount of Olives, the moun- 
tain being split so as to leave a valley be- 
tween its summits. Josephus records some- 
thing of the sort, but his aceount is by no 
means clear. We cannot but think that the 
two accounts have the same foundation, and 
that the Mount of Olives was really affected 
by the earthquake. An earthquake occurred 
at the time of our Saviour's crudflxion (Matt 
xxviL 51-54), which may be deemed mira- 
culous rather tnm. the conjunction of cir- 
cumstances than from the nature of the 
phenomenon itself. Earthquakes are not 
unl^uently accompanied by fissures of 
the earth's surfttce; instances of this are 
recorded in connexion with the destruction 
of Eorah and his company (Num. xvi. 82), 
and at the time of our Lord's death (Matt, 
xxxvii. 51); the former may be paralleled 
by a similar occurrence at Oppido in Calabria 
A.D. 1783, where the earth opened to the ex- 
tent of 500, and a depth of more than 200 

EAST. The Hebrew terms, descriptive of 
the eaetj difBer in idea, and, to a certain ex- 
tent, in application; (1) kedem properly 
means that which is before or in front of a 
person, and was applied to the east fhnn the 
custom of tumiBg in that direction when de- 
scribing the points of the compass, h^ore^ 
UMnd, the right and the /^, r ep r e s e nting 
rwpectSv«ly E.. w., a, and N. (Job xxilL 

8, 0) ; (2) misrach means the place of the 
aunU riting. Bearing in mind this etymo- 
logical distinction, it is natural that htdem 
should be used when the four quarters of the 
world are described (as in Gen. xiii. 14, 
xxviii. 14 ; Job xxUi. 8, 9 ; Ex. xlvU. 18 ff.), 
and fidarach when the east is only distin- 
guished firom the west (Josh. xJ. 3 ; Ps. L 1, 
ciii. 12, cxiii. 8 ; Zech. viii. 7), or ftomsome 
other one quarter (Dan. viii. 9, xi. 44 ; Am. 
viiL 12) ; exceptions to this usage ooonr in 
Ps. cviL 8, and Is. xliii. 5 ; each, however, 
admitting of explanation. Again, kedem is 
used in a strictly geographical sense to de- 
scribe a spot or country immediately hefore 
another in an easterly direction; hence it 
occurs in such passages as Gen. ii. 8, iii. 24, 
xi. 2, xiiL 11,. XXV. 6 ; and hence the sub- 
sequent application of the term, as a proper 
name (Gen. xxv. 6, eastvyard^ unto the Umd 
of Kedem), to the lands lying immediately 
eastward of Palestine, viz. Arabia, Mesopo- 
tamia and Babylonia; on the other hand 
miaraoh is used of the far east with a less 
definite signification (Is. xli. 2, 25, xliiL 8, 
xlvi. 11). 

EASTER. The occurrence of this word in 
the A. v. of Acts xii. 4, is chiefly noticeable 
as an example of the want of consistency in 
the translators. In the earlier English ver- 
sions Easter had been ft«qnently used as the 
translation of paeeha (iri<rxa). At the last 
revision Passover was substituted in all pas- 
sages but this. [Passovfb.] 

E'BAL. 1. One of the sons of Shobal the 
son of Seir (Gen. xxxvi. 28 ; 1 Chr. i. 40). — 
2. Obal the son of Joktan (1 Chr. i. 22 ; 
oomp. Gen. x. 28). 

E*BAL, MOUNT, a mount in the promised 
land, on which, according to the command 
of Moses, the Israelites were, after their en- 
trance on the promised land, to " put " the 
curse which should fall upon them if they 
disobeyed the commandments of Jehovah. 
The blessing consequent on obedience was 
to be similarly localised on Mount Gerizim 
(Dent xi. 26-29). Ebal and Qerisim are the 
mounts whieh form the sides of the fertile 
valley in which lies IfabliU, the ancient Ste- 
CHXH — Ebal on the north and Geriaim on 
the south. One of the most serious varia- 
tions between the Hebrew texiof the Penta- 
teuch and the Samaritan text is in reference 
to Ebal and Oerizim. In Deut. xxvil. 4, 
the Samaritan has Geridm, while the Hebrew 
(as in A. y.) has Ebal, as the mount on which 
the altar to Jehovah, and the inscription of 
the law were to be erected. Upon this basis 
they ground the sanctity of Gerizim and the 
anthentioity of the temple and holy place, 
which did exist and still exist there. The 

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modem jtame of Ebal is Sitii Salamiyaht from 
a Mohammedan female saint, whose tomb is 
standing on the eastern part of the ridge, a 
little before the highest point is reached. 

E'BED (many MSS. hare Ebek), father of 
Oaal, who with his brethren assisted the men 
of Shechem in their revolt against Abimelech 
(Jadg. ix. 26, 28, 30, 81, 35). 

E'BED-MEL'ECEE, an Aethiopian ennuch 
in the service of king Zedekiah, through 
whoee interference Jeremiah was released 
from prison (Jer. xxxviii. 7 ff., xxxix. 15 ff.). 
His name seems to be an ofQcial titles^ (fip^« 
tktvsy i. e. minister. 

EB'EN-E'ZEB ("the stone of help"), a 
stone set np by Samuel after a signal defeat 
of the Philistines, as a memorial of the " help " 
received on the occasion from Jehovah (1 
Sam. vii. 12). Its position is careAilly de- 
fined as between Mizpeh and Shsn. 

E'BER, son of Salah, and great-grandson of 
Shem (Gen. x. 24 ; 1 Chr. i. 19). For con- 
Aision between Eber and Heber see Hebek. 

EBI' ASAPH, a Kohathite Levite of the 
family of Korah, one of the forefathers of the 
prophet Samuel and of Heman the singer 
(1 Chr. vi. 23, 37). The same man is pro- 
bably intended in ix. 19. The name appears 
also to be identical with Abiasaph, and in 
one passage (1 Chr. zxvi. 1) to be abbrevi- 
ated to Asaph. 


EBONY (Heb. hobnim) occurs only in Ez. 
zxvii. 15, as one of the valuable commodities 
imported into Tyre by the men of Dedan. 
The best kind of ebony is yielded by the 
Dioapyrot thenvun, a tree which grows in 
Ceylon and Southern India. There is every 
roaaon for believing that the ebony afforded 

by the Diotpyros ehenum was imported from 
India or Ceylon by Phoenician traders. 

ECBA^ANA (Heb. AchmHhS). It is 
doubtfiil whether the name of this place is 
really contained in the Hebrew Scriptures. 
Blany of the best commentators understand 
the expression, in Exrv vi. 2, differently, and 
translate it *' in a coffer." In the apocryphal 
books Bcbatana is fluently mentioned (Tob. 
iii. 7, xiv. 12, 14; Jud. i. I, 2 ; 2 Maco. ix. 
3, Arc). Two cities of the name of Eobatana 
seem to have existed in ancient times, one 
the capital of Northern Media, the Media 
Atropat^n^ of Strabo ; the other the metro- 
polis of the larger and more important pro- 
vince known as Media Magna. The site of 
the former appears to be marked by the very 
curious ruins at TakhUi-SuUHtnan (lat. 86^ 
28', long. 47<^ 9'); while that of the latter is 
occupied by JTismodon, which is one of the 
most important cities of modem Persia. There 
is generally some difficulty in determining, 
when Ecbatana is mentioned, whether the 
northern or the southern metropolis is in- 
tended. Few writers are aware of the exist- 
ence of the two cities, and they lie sufficiently 
near to one another for geographical notices 
in most cases to suit either site. The north- 
cm city was the " seven-walled town " de- 
scribed by Herodotus, and declared by him 
to have been the capital of Cyras (Herod, i. 
98, 99, 153) ; and it was thus most probably 
there that the roll was found which proved 
to Darius that Cyrus had really made a decree 
allowing the Jews to rebuild their temple. 
The peculiar feature of the site of Takht-i' 
Suleiman is a conical hill rising to the height 
of about 150 feet above the plain, and covered 
both on its top and sides with massive ruins 
of the most antique and primitive character. 
In the 2nd book of Maccabees (ix. 3, &c.) the 
Ecbatana mentioned Is undoubtedly Uie south- 
ern city, now represented both in name and 
site by Eamadan. This place, situated on the 
northern flank of the great mountain called 
formerly Orontes, and now JSltoend, was per- 
haps as ancient as the other, and is far better 
known in history. If not the Median capiul 
of Cyms, it was at any rate regarded from the 
time of Darius Hystaspis as the chief city of 
the Persian satrapy of Media, and as such it 
became the summer residence of the Persian 
kings tram Darius downwards. The Ecbatana 
of the book of Tobit is thoofht by Sir H. 
Rawlinson to be the northern city. 

ECCLESIASTES. The tiUe of this book 
is in Hebrew Koheleth, a feminine noun, sig- 
nifying one wJu) speaks publicly in an assembly , 
and hence rendered in the Septuagint hjEecle^ 
siastes, which la adopted in the English ver- 
sion. Koheleih is the name by which Solomon 

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speaks of himaelfUiroagbout the book. **The 
vords of the preacher (Heb. Kok*UtK) the 
son of DaTid, Ung of Jenualem '* (i. 1 ). The 
apparent anomaly of the fleminine termination 
indicates that the abstract noon has been 
transferred ttom the office to the person hold- 
ing it. The Book is that which it professes 
to be — the oonflession of a man of wide expe- 
rience looking back npon his past liilo and 
looking oat npon the disorders and calami- 
ties which surronnd him. The writer is a 
man who has sinned in giring way to selfish- 
ness and sensuality, who has paid the penalty 
of that sin in satiety and weariness of life, 
but who has through fXi this been under the 
discipline of a dirine education, and has learnt 
from it the lesson which Ood meant to teach 
him. It is tolerably clear that the reonrring 
burden of "Vanity of ranities" and the 
teaching which recommends a life of calm 
enjoyment, mark, whencTer they occur, a 
kind of halting-plaoe in the succession of 

ECCLESIAS'TICUS, one of the books of 
the Apocrypha, is the title giren in the Latin 
Version to the book which is called in the 
Septuagint Tn Wisdom or Jxsus thb Son op 
SiRACH. The word designates the character 
of the writing, as publicly used in the ser- 
vices of the Church. The writer describes 
himself as Juu» (i. t. Jeshua) tkt $on of 
Sirachf qf Jenualem (i. 27), but we know 
nothing of the author. The language in 
which the book was originally composed was 
Hebrew, i. e. perhaps the Aramean dialect ; 
and the Greek tranalaticHi inoorporated in the 
LXX. was made by the grandson of the 
author in Egypt "in the reign of Energetes,'* 
perhaps Ptolemy VII. Physcon, who also 
bore the surname of Energetes (b.c. 1 TO- 

ECLIPSE OF THE SUN. No historical 
notice of an eclipse occurs in the Bible, but 
there are passages in the prophets which 
contain maniflBst allusion to this phenomenon 
(Am. TiiL 9 ; Mic. iii. 6 ; Zech. xiv. 6 ; Joel 
ii. 10, 81, iU. 15). Some of these notices 
probably refer to ellipses that occurred about 
the time of the respeotiTe compositions : thus 
the date of Amos coincides with a total 
eclipse, which occurred Feb. 9, b.o. 784, and 
was risible at Jerusalem shortly after noon ; 
that of Micah with the ecUpee of June 5, 
B.C. 716. A passing notice in Jer. xr. 9 coin- 
cides in date with the eclipse of Sept. 80, 
B.C. 610, so well known flrom Herodotns*s ac- 
count (i. 74, 108). The darkness that orer- 
spread the world at the crucifixion cannot 
with reason be attributed to an eclipse, as 
the moon was at the ftill at the time of the 

E'DAR, TOWER OF (aocur. Edxb), a place 
named only in Gen. xxxt. 21. According to 
Jerome it was 1000 paces tram Bethlehem. 

E'DEN. 1. The first residence of man, 
called in the Septnagint Portuttsc The latter 
is a word of Persian origin, and describes an 
extensiye tract of pleasure land, somewhat 
like an English park ; and the use of it sug^ 
gests a wider yiew of man's first abode than 
a garden. The description of Eden is as 
follows:— "And the Lord God planted a 
garden in Eden eastward. .... And a river 
goeth forth fhun Eden to water the garden ; 
and flrom thence it is divided and beoomea 
four heads (or arms). The name of the first 
is Pison : that is it which compaaseth the 
whole land of Havilah, where is the gold. 
And the gold of that land is good : there is 
the bdellium and the onyx stone. And the 
name of the second river is Gihon; that is it 
which compasseth the whole land of Cush« 
And the name of the third river is Hiddekel; 
that is it which floweth before Assyria. And 
the fourth river, that is Euphrates*' (Gen. ii. 
8-14). In the eastern portion then of the 
region of Eden was the garden planted. The 
Hidddiel is the Tigris; but with regard to 
the Pison and Gihon, a great variety of 
opinion exists. Many ancient writers, as 
JosephuB, identified the Pison with fh» 
Ganges, and the Gihon with the Nile. Others, 
guided by the position of the two known 
rivers, identity the two unknown onte with 
the Phasis and Araxes, which also have their 
souroes in the highlands of Armenia. Others, 
again, have transfimred the site to the souroes 
of the Oxns and Jaxartes, and place it in 
Bactria ; others, again, in the valley of Cash- 
mere. Such speculations may be multiplied 
ad it^fiidtumj and have sometimes assumed 
the wildest character. — S. One of the marts 
which supplied the luxury of Tyre with richly 
embroidered stufb. It is associated with 
Haran, Sheba, and Asshur. In 2 E. xix. 12, 
and Is. xxxviL 12, ** the sons of Eden** are 
mentioned with Gozan, Haran, and Reseph, 
as victims of the Assyrian greed of conquest. 
In the absence of positive evidence, pro- 
bability seems to point to the N.W. of Meso- 
potamia as the locality of Eden. — 8. Bxra- 
Edbx, "house of pleasure;" probably the 
name of a country residence of the kings of 
Damascus (Am. i. 5). 

E1)0M, IDUME'A, or IDUMAE'A. The 
name Edom was given to Esau, the first-bom 
son of Isaac, and twin brother of Jacob, when 
he sold his birthright to the latter for a meal 
of lentil pottage. The peculiar colour of the 
pottage gave rise to the name Edomt which 
signifies "red" (Gen. xxv. 29-84). The 
country which the Lord subsequently gave 

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to Eson was hence called the ** field of Edom" 
^Qen. xxxii. 3), or "land of Edom" (Gen. 
xzzvi. 16 ; Num. xxxiii. 37), and his do- 
aeendants vere called the Edomites. Probably 
in physical aspect may hare had something 
to do with this. £dom was prerioosly called 
XouHt Seir (Gen. xxxii. 3, xxzvi. 8), fhnn 
8eir the progenitor of the Horites (Gen. xir. 6, 
zxxtI. 30-22). The name Seir was perhaps 
adopted on account of its being descriptlTe of 
the ** rugged*' character of the territory. 
The original inhabitants of the country were 
called SoriteSt Arom Mori, the grandson of 
Seir (Gen. xxxri. 20, 22), because that name 
was descriptiye of their habits as " Troglo- 
djrtes," or " dwellers in cares." Edom was 
wholly a mountainous country. It embraced 
the narrow mountainous tract (about 100 
miles long by 20 broad) extending along the 
eastern side of the Arabah from the northern 
end of the gulf of Elath to near the southern 
end of the Dead Sea. It was separated from 
Moab on the N. by the " brook Zered" (Deut. 
H. 13, 14, 18), probably the modem Wady- 
ei'Ahty. The ancient capital of Edom was 
Bozrah {Buseireh) near the northern border 
(Gen. xxxvi. 33 ; Is. xxxir. 6, Ixiii. 1 ; Jer. 
xlix. 18, 23). But Sela (Petra) appears to 
have been the principal stronghold in the 
days of Amaziah (b.c. 838; 2 K. zir. 7) : 
Klath and Eziongeber were the sea ports 
(2 Sam. Tiii. 14 ; 1 K. ix. 36).— Esau's bitter 
hatred to his brother Jacob for fraudulently 
obtaining his blessing appears to have been 
inherited by his latest posterity. TheEdomites 
peremptorily reAised to permit the Israelites 
to pass through their land (Num. xz. 18-21). 
For a period of 400 years we hear no more of 
the Edomites. They were then attacked and 
defeated by Saul (1 Sam. ziv. 47). Some 
forty years later David overthrew their army 
in the "Valley of Salt," and his general, 
Joab, following up the; victory, destroyed 
nearly the whole male population (1 K. xi. 
Id, 16), and placed Jewish garrisons in all 
the strongholds of Edom (3 Sam. viU. 13, 14). 
In the reign of Jehoshaphat (b.o. 914) the 
Edomites attempted to Invade Israel in oon- 
juneUon with Ammon and Moab, but were 
miraculously destroyed in the valley of Bera- 
ohah (3 Chr. zx. 32). A few years later they 
revolted against Jchoram, elected a king, and 
for half a century retained their independence 
(3 Chr. xxi. 8). They were then attacked 
by Amariah, and Sela their great stronghold 
was eapturcd (3 K. xiv. 7 ; 2 Chr. xxv. 
11, 13). Yet the Israelites were never able 
•gain completely to subdue them (2 Chr. 
xxviii. 17). When Nebuchadnezzar besieged 
Jerusalem the Edomites joined him, and took 
an active part in the plunder of the city and 

slaughter of the Jews. Their cruelty at that 
time seems to be specially referred to in the 
1 3 7 th Psalm. It was on account of these acts 
of cruelty committed upon the Jews in the 
day of their calamity that the Edomites were 
so fearftilly denounced by the later prophets 
(Is. xxxiv. 5-8, IxiiL 1-4; Jer. xlix. 17; 
Lam. iv. 21 ; Es. xxv. IS, 14; Am. i. 11, 12 • 
Obad. 10 sq.). On the conquest of Judah, 
the Edomites, probably in reward for their 
services during the war, were permitted to 
settle in southern Palestine, and the whole 
plateau between it and Egypt, which now 
usually bore the Greek name of Idumaea; 
but they were about the same time driven 
out of Edom Proper by the Nabatheans. For 
more than four centuries they continued to 
prosper. But during the warlike rule of the 
Maccabees they were again completely sub- 
dued, and even forced to conform to Jewish 
laws and rites, and submit to the government 
of Jewish prefects. The Edomites were now 
incorporated with the Jewish nation, and the 
whole province was often termed by Greek 
and Koman writers Idumaea, Immediately 
before the siege of Jerusalem by Titus, 20,000 
Idumaeans were admitted to the Holy City, 
which they filled with robbery and bloodshed. 
From this time the Edomites, as a separate 
people, disappear from the page of history. 
— LitUe is known of their religion; but 
that little shows them to have been ido- 
laters (3 Chr. xxv. 14, 15, 20). Their 
habits were singular. The Horitet, their 
predecessors in Mount Seir, were, as their 
name implies, troglodytes, or dwellers in 
caves ; and the Edomites seem to have adopted 
their dwellings as well as their country. 
Everywhere we meet with caves and grottoes 
hewn in the soft sandstone strata. Those at 
Petra are well known. The nature of the 
climate, the dryness of the soil, and their 
grreat size, render them healthy, pleasant, and 
commodious habitations, while their security 
made them specially suitable to a country 
exposed in every age to incessant attacks of 

ED'^REI. 1. One of the two capital cities 
of Bashan (Num. xxi. 38 ; Deut. i. 4, ill. 10 ; 
Josh. xii. 4). In Scripture it is only men- 
tioned in connexion with the victory gained 
by the Israelites over the Amorites under Og 
their king, and the territory thus acquired. 
The ruins of this ancient city, still bearing 
the name Edf'a, stand on a rocky promontory 
which projects A*om the S.W. comer of the 
Lejah. The ruins are nearly three miles in 
circumference, and have a strange wild look, 
rising up in black shattered masses from the 
midst of a wilderness of black rocks.— ». A 
town of northern Palestine, allotted to the tribe 

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of Naphtali, and situated near Kedesh (Josh, 
xix. 37), About two miles south of Kedesh 
is a conical rocky hill called Tell Khuraibeh. 
the "Tell of the ruin," which may be the 
site of Edrel. 

EG'LAH, one of David's wiyes during his 
reign in Hebron, and the mother of his son 
Ithream (2 Sam. iii. 5 ; 1 Chr. iii. 3). Ac- 
cording to the ancient Hebrew tradition, she 
was Michal. 

EGLA'lM, a place named only in Is. zv. 8, 
probably the same as En-kolaix. 

EG'LON. 1. A king of the Moabltcs ( Judg. 
iii. IS ff.) I who, aided by the Ammonites and 
the Amalekitcs, crossed the Jordan and took 
" the oity of palm-trees." Here, according 
to Josephus, he built himself a palace, and 
continued for eighteen years to oppress the 
children of Israel, who paid him tribute. He 
was slain by Ehud. [Ehud.] — 3. A town of 
Judah in the low country (Josh. xv. 39). 
Daring the struggles of the conquest, Eglon 
was one of a confederacy of fire towns, 
which under Jerusalem attempted resistance, 
by attacking Gibeon after the treaty of the 
latter with Israel (Josh. x.). The name sur- 
Tlves in the modem Ajlan, a shapeless mass 
of ruins, about 10 miles ft-om Eleutheropolis 
and 14 from Gaza, on the 8. of the great 
maritime plain. 

EGYPT, a country occupying the north- 
eastern angle of Africa. Its limits appear 
always to have been very nearly the same. 
In Ezekiel (xxix. 10, xxx. 6) the whole 
country is spoken of as extending fh>m 
Migdol to Syene, which indicates the same 
limits to the east and the south as at pre- 
sent. — Names. The common name of Egypt 
in the Bible is "Mixraim," or more fvXij 
*< the land of Mizraim." In form Mizralm is 
a dual, and accordingly it is generally joined 
with a plural verb. When, therefore, in 
Gen. X. 6, Mixraim is mentioned as a son of 
Ham, wo must not conclude that anything 
more is meant than that Egypt was colonized 
by descendants of Ham. The dual number 
doubtless indicates the natural division of the 
country into an upper and a lower region. 
The singular Mazor also occurs, and some 
suppose that it indicates Lower Egypt, but 
there is no sure ground for this assertion. 
The Arabic name of Egypt, MizTt signifies 
"red mud." Egypt is also called in the 
Bible "the land of Ham" (Ps. cv. 23, 27 ; 
comp. Ixxviii. 51), a name most probably 
referring to Ham the son of Noah; and 
" Rahab," the proud or insolent : both these 
appear to be poetical appellations. The 
common ancient Egyptian name of the country 
is written in hieroglyphics KEM, which was 
perhaps pronounced Chem. Thi« name sig- 

nifies, alike in the ancient language and in 
Coptic, "black," and may be supposed to 
have been given to the land on account of the 
blackness of its alluvial soil. We may reason- 
ably conjecture that Kem is the Egyptian 
equivalent of Ham, and also of Mazor, these 
two words being similar or even the same in 
sense. Under the Pharaohs Egypt was divided 
into Upper and Lower, " the two regions." 
In subsequent times this double divisiion ob- 
tained. In the time of the Greeks and Romani 
Upper Egypt was divided into the Hepta- 
nomis and the Thebais, making altogether 
three provinces, but the division of the whole 
country into two was even then the most 
usual. — Oenaral appearance^ Climate^ 4^, 
The general appearance of the country cannot 
have greatly changed since the days of Moses. 
The Delta was always a vast level plain, al- 
though of old more perfectly watered than 
now by the branches of the Nile and numerous 
canals, while the narrow valley of Upper 
Egypt must have suffered still less alteration. 
Anciently, however, the rushes must have 
been abundant ; whereas now they have almost 
disappeared, except in the lakea. The whole 
country is remarkable for its extreme fer- 
tility, which especially strikes the beholder 
when the rich green of the fields is contrasted 
with the utterly bare yellow mountains or the 
sand-strewn rocky desert on either side. The 
climate is equable and healthy. Rain is not 
very unfirequent on the northern coast, but 
inland very rare. Cultivation nowhere de- 
pends upon it. This absence of rain is men- 
tioned in Deut. (xi. 10, 11) as rendering 
artificial irrigation necessary, unlike the case 
of Palmtine, and inZech. (xiv. 18) as peculiar 
to the country. Egypt has been visited in all 
ages by aevere pestilences. Famines are fire- 
quent, and one in the middle ages, in the 
time of the F&timee Khaleefeh El-Mustansir- 
billah, seems to have been even more severe 
than that of Joseph. The inundation ol the 
Nile fertilises and sustains the country, and 
makes the river its chief blessing. The Nile 
was on this account anciently worshipped. 
The rise begins in Egypt about the summer 
solstice, and the inundation commences about 
two months later. The greatest height is 
attained about or somewhat after the au- 
tumnal equinox. The inundation lasts about 
three months. — Cultivatifm^ Aj^ricuUure, ^. 
The ancient prosperity of Egypt is attested 
by the Bible as well as by tiie numerous 
monuments of the country. As early as the 
age of the Great Pyramid it must have been 
densely populated. The contrast of the pre- 
sent state of Egypt to its former prosperity is 
more to be ascribed to political than to 
physical causes. Egypt is naturally an agri- 

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eoltaral ooontrj. As fSu' Uck w the dmyi of 
Abraham, we find that when the produce 
fidled in Palestine, Egypt was the natural re- 
■oorce. In the time of Joseph it waa eri- 
deaitly the granary, at least during fkmines, 
of the nations around. The inundation, as 
taking the plaoe of rain, has always rendered 
the system of agriculture peculiar ; and the 
artificial irrigation during the time of low 
Kile is necessarily on the same principle. 
Vines were extensirely oultiTated. Of other 
fruit-trees, the date-palm was the most oom- 
Rum and valuable. The gardens resembled 
the fields, being watered in the same manner 
by irrigation. On the tenure of land much 
light is thrown by the history of Joseph. 
Before the fiunine each city and large Tillage 
bad its field (Gen. xU. 48) ; but Joseph gained 
for Pharaoh all the land, except that of the 
priests, in exehange for food, and required for 
the ri^t thus obtained a fifth of the produce, 
which became a law (xlrii. 20-26).— Jialu 
ffioH, The basis of the religion was Nigritian 
fetishism, the lowest kind of nature- worship, 
differing in diflterent parts of the country, and 
hence obTiously indigenous. Upon this were 
engrafted, first, cosmie worship, mixed up 
with traces of primeral rerelation, as in 
Babylonia ; and then, a system of personifica- 
tions of moral and intellectual abstractions. 
There were three orders of gods — ^the eight 
great gods, the twelve lesser, and the Oeirian 
group. There was no prominent hero-wor- 
ship, although deceased kings and other in- 
dividuals often received divine honours. The 
great doctrines of the immortality of the soul, 
man's responsibility, and fhture rewards and 
punishments, were taught. Among the rites, 
circumcision is the most remarkable : it is as 
old as the time of the ivth dynasty. The 
Israelites in Egypt appear during the op- 
pression, for the most part, to have adopted 
the Egyptian religion (Josh. xxiv. 14; Es. 
XX. 7, 8). The golden calf; or rather steer, 
was probably taken firom the bull Apis, cer- 
tainly from one of the sacred bulls. Bem- 
phan and Chinn were foreign divinities 
adopted into the Egyptian Pantheon. Ash- 
toreth was worshipped at Memphis. Doubt- 
less this worship was introduced by the 
Phoenician Shepherds. — Army. There are 
4ome notices of the Egyptian army in the O. T. 
They show, like the monuments, that its most 
important branch was the chariot-force. The 
Pharaoh of the Exodus led 600 chosen chaxjjpls 
besides his whole chariot-foroe in pursuir^f 
the Israelites. The warriors fighting in 
chariots are probably the " horsemen " men- 
tioned in the relation of this event and else- 
where, for in Egyptian they are called the 
♦• horse" or " cavalry." "We have no subse- 

quent indication in the Bible of the constitu- 
tion of an Egyptian army until the time of 
the xxiind dynasty, when we find that 8hi- 
shak's invading foroe was partly composed of 
foreigners; whether meroenaries or allies, 
cannot as yet be positively determined, al- 
though the monuments make it most probable 
that they were of the former character. The 
army of Necho, defeated at CtrehemiBh, seems 
to have beoi similarly oranposed, although it 
probably contained Greek mercenaries, who 
soon afterwards became the most important 
foreign element in the Egyptian forces. — 
Dometue Life, The sculptures and paintings 
of the tombs give us a very full insight into the 
domestic life of the ancient Egyptians. What 
most strikes us in their manners is the high 
position occupied by women, and the entire 
absence of the harem system of seclusion. 
Marriage appears to have been universal, at 
least with the richer class; and if polygamy 
were tolerated it was rardy practised. There 
were no castes, although great classes were very 
distinct. The occupations of the higher class 
were the superintendence of their fields and 
gardens ; their diversions, the pursuit of game 
in the deserts, or on the river, and fishing. 
The tending of cattle was left to the most 
despised of the lower class. The Egyptian 
flMsts, and the dances, music, and feats which 
accompanied them, for the diversion of the 
guests, as well as the common games, were 
probably introduced among the Hebrews in 
the most luxurious days of the kingdoms of 
Israel and Judah. The account of the noon- 
tide dinner of Joseph (Gen. xliii. 16, 81-34) 
agrees with the representations of the monu- 
ments. The ftaneral ceremonies were far 
more important than any events of the Egyp- 
tian life as the tomb was r^arded as the only 
true home. — Magieian; We find frequent 
reference in the Bible to the magicians of 
Egypt (Gen. xlL 8; Ex. viL 11, Ac). The 
monuments do not reoognise any such art, 
and we must conclude that magic was secretly 
practised, not because it was thought to be 
unlawfU, but in order to give it importance. — 
Industrial Art*, The industrial arts held an 
important jRaee in the oeeupations <^ the 
Egyptians. The workers In fine fisx and the 
weavers of white linen are mentioned in a 
manner that shows they were among the 
chief contributors to the riches of the country 
(Is. xix. 9). The fine linen of Egypt found 
its way to Palestine (Prov. vii. 16). Pottery 
was a great branch of the native manufac- 
tures, and appears to have f^imished employ, 
ment to the Hebrews during the bondage 
(Ps. Ixxxi. 6, IxviU. 18 ; comp. £x. i. 14).— 
FettPfoU, The religious festivals were nume- 
rous, and some of them were, In the days of 

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Herodotus, kept with great merrymaking and 
license. The feoBt which the Israelites cele- 
brated when Aaron had made the golden calf 
seems to have been very much of the same 
character. — History. The ancient history of 
Egypt may be divided into three portions : — 
the old monarchy, extending from the foun- 
dation of the kingdom to the invasion of the 
Hyksos; the middle, from the entrance to 
the expulsion of the Hyksos ; and the new, 
from the re-establishment of the native mo- 
narchy by Amosis to the Persian conquest. — 
(1.) 2%« Old Monarohy. Memphis was the 
most ancient capital, the foundation of which 
is ascribed to Menee^ the first mortal king of 
Egypt. The names of the kings, divided into 
thirty dynasties, are handed down in the 
liitts of Manetho,* and are also known ftrom 
the works which they executed. The most 
jnemorable epoch \ix. the history of the Old 
Monarohy is that of the Pyramid kings, placed 
in ManeUio's fourth dynasty. Their names 
are found upon these monuments : the builder 
of the great pyramid is called Suphis by 
Manetho, Cheops by Herodotus, and Kht^ 
or Shufu, in an inscription upon the pyramid. 
The erection of the second pyramid is attri- 
buted by Herodotus and Diodorus to Cheph- 
ren ; and upon the neighbouring tombs has 
been read the name of Khafra, or Shafre. 
The builder of the third pyramid is named 
Mycerinus by Herodotus and Diodorus ; and 
in this very pyramid a oofl&n has been found 
bearing the name Menkura. The most power- 
fhl kings of the Old Monarchy were those of 
Manetho*s twtlflh dynasty : to this period are 
assigned the construction of the Lake of Moeris 
and the Labyrinth.— (2.) The Middle Mo- 
narchy. Of this period we only know that a 
nomadic horde (»lled Hy1aoi\ for several 
centuries occupied and made Egypt tributary ; 
that their capital was Memphis ; that in the 
Sethroite nome they constructed an immense 
> earth-camp, which they called Abaris ; that 
at a certain period of their occupation two in- 
dependent kingdoms were formed in Egypt, 
one in the Thebaid, which held intimate re- 
lations with Ethiopia ; another at Xois, among 
the marshes of the Nile ; and that, finally, 
the Egyptians regained their independence, 
and expelled the Hyksos, who thereupon re- 
tired into Paleetine. The Hyksos form the 
^fteenthf mxteetUK, and eevtnUeiUh dynasties. 
Manetho says they were Arabs, but he calls 
the six kings of the fifteenth dynasty Phoe- 

• Msaetlio wu an EgyptUn priest who Bred'onder 
th« Ptolemin in th« ard oentory B.a and wrote la 

Ortek » blstonr of Egvpt, in wlilch he dlTidod the 
Into tUr«r dpiMdee. The woric Itaeif b 

liau of dyuMtlM haro heen pc ee err od 

Urided the klnga 
r is lost, hot the 
bf the Christian 

r This, their EfTptian^aaae, la dertrad bj Masatbo 
inim BiA, a king, and Aava abephwd. 

nicians. — (3.) The New Monarohy extends 
ftrom the commencement of the eighteenth to 
the end of the thirtieth dynasty. The kingdom 
was consolidated by Amosis, who succeeded 
in expelling the Hyksos, and thus prepared 
the way for the foreign expeditions which hia 
successors carried on in Asia and Africa, ex- 
tending from Mesopotamia in the former to 
Ethiopia in the latter continent. The glorious 
era of Egyptian history was under the nine' 
teenth dynasty, when Sethi I., B.C. 1323, and 
his grandson, Rameses the Great, b.c. 1811, 
both of whom represent the Sesoetris of the 
Greek historians, carried their arms over the 
whole of Western Asia and southwards into 
Souddnj and amassed vast treasures, which 
were expended on public works. Under the 
later kings of the nineteenth dynasty the 
power of Egypt faded : the twetUieth and 
ttoenty-firet dynasties achieved nothing worthy 
Qf record; but with the twenty^eeond we 
enter upon a period that is interesting from 
its associations with Biblical history, the first 
of this dynasty, Sheshonk I. (Seoonchis) b.c. 
990, being the Shishak who invaded Judaea 
in Kehoboam*8 reign and pillaged the Temple 
(1 Kings xiv. 25). Probably his successor, 
Osorkon I., is the Zerah of Scripture, de- 
feated by Asa. Egypt makes no figure in 
Asiatic history during the xxiiird and xxivth 
dynasties: under the xxvth it r^ained, in 
part at least, its ancient importance. This 
was an Ethiopian line, the warlike sovereigns 
of which strove to the utmost to repel the 
onward stride of Assyria. So, whom we are 
disposed to identify with Bhebek II. or 8e- 
bichus, the second Ethiopian, made an alliance 
with Hoshea the last king of Israel. Tehrak 
or Tirhakah, the third of this house, advanced 
against Sennacherib in support of Hesekiah. 
After this, a native dynasty again occupied 
the throne, the xxvith, of SaYte kings. Psam- 
etek I. or Psammetiohus I. (b.c. 664), who 
may be regarded as the head of this dynasty, 
warred in Palestine, and took Ashdod, Acotus, 
after a siege of twenty-nine yean. Neku or 
Necho, the son of Psammetiohus, continued 
the war in the East, and marched along the 
coast of Palestine to attack the king of As- 
syria. At M^ddo Joeiah encountered him 
(b.c. 608-7), notwithstanding the remon- 
strance of the Egyptian king, which is very 
illustrative of the policy of the Pharaohs in 
the east (2 Chr. xxxv. 21), no less than is 
his lenient conduct after the defeat and death 
of the king of Judah. The army of Necho 
was after a ^ort space routed at Carchemish 
by Nebuchadnezzar, b.c 605-4 (Jer. xlvi. 2). 
The second sudcessor of Necho, Apries, or Pha^ 
raoh-Hophra, sent his army into Palestine to 
the aid of Zedekiah (Jer. xxxvii. 5, 7, II), 

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•o that the siege of Jenualem wm raised for 
a time, and kindly received the fugitives Arom 
the eaptored city. He seems to hare been 
afterwards attacked by Nebochadnessar in 
his own coon^. There is, however, no cer- 
tain account of a complete sabjugation of 
Egypt by the king of Babylon. Amasis, the 
successor of Apries, had a long and pros- 
perous reign, and somewhat restored the 
weight of Egypt in the East. But the new 
power of Persia was to prove even more ter- 
rible to his house than Babylon had been to 
the house of Psammetichus, and the son of 
Amasis had reigned but six months when 
Cambyses reduced the country to the con- 
dition of a province of his empire b.o. 625. 
—With respect to the difficult question of the 
period of the sojourn of the Israelites in 
Egypt, the following remarks may suffice. 
The chronology of Egypt is now so far settled 
that the accession of the eighttenth dynasty 
may be regarded as fixed to within a few 
years of b.o. 1525. The era of the Exodus, 
In the system of Ussher, is b.c. 1491. The 
obvious conclusion agrees with the statement 
of Manetho, that Moees left Egypt under 
Amoeis, the first king of the eighteenth dynasty. 
The same king, as we have already seen, ex- 
pelled the Shepherd Kings ; and there is, in 
foct, no doubt that the great power of the 
eighteenth dynasty was connected with this 
expulsion. In this change of dynasty many 
writers see a natural explanation of the "new 
king who knew not Joseph." If this view is 
correct, Joseph would have come into Egypt 
under one of the later kings of the Shepherd 
dynasty. But, plausible as this theory is, the 
uncertainty in which Scriptural chronology 
is involved prevents us from coming to any 
definite conclusion. Lepsius and other emi- 
nent Egyptologers place the arrival of the 
Israelites under the eighteenth dynasty, and 
the Exodus under the nmeteenth^ in the year 
IS 14 B.O. He identifies the chief oppressor, 
tnm whom Moees fled, with the great king 
of the nineteenth dynasty, Rajosks II., and 
the Pharaoh of the Exodus with his son and 
successor Mbmptah, or Pbthahmbm. Mr. 
Poole, however, takes an entirely opposite 
view, and places not only the arrival of the 
Israelites in Egypt, but also the Exodus, 
within the dynasties of the Shepherd kings. 
It seems impossible to come to any defi- 
nite conclusion upon the subject. The diffi- 
culty of a solution is still farther increased 
by the uncertainty as to the length of the 
sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt, whether 
it was 215 years, according to the Sep- 
tuagint, or 480 years according to the 

E'HCD, son of Oera of the tribe of Ben- 

jamin (Judg. Hi. 15), the second Judge of 
the Israelites. In the Bible he is not called 
a Judge but a deliverer (/. c.) : so Othniel 
(Judg. iii. 9) and all the Judges (Neb. U. 
27). As a Benjamite he was specially chosen 
to deatroy Eglon, who had established him- 
self in Jericho, which was included in th9 
boundaries of that tribe. He was very strong, 
and left-handed. [Eolon.] 

EK'RON, one of the five tovms belonging 
to the lords of the Philistines, and the most 
northerly of the five (Josh. xiii. 8). Like 
the other Philistine cities its situation was 
in the lowUnds. It fell to the lot of Judah 
(Josh. XV. 45, 46 ; Judg. i. 18), and indeed 
formed one of the landmarks on his north 
border. We afterwards, however, find it 
mentioned among the cities of Dan (Josh, 
xix. 43). But it mattered little to which 
tribe it nominally belonged, for before the 
monarchy it was again in full possession of 
the PhilUtines (1 Sam. v. 10> 'ulAIr, the 
modern representative of Ekron, lies at about 
5 miles S.W. of RamUh. In the Apocrypha 
it appears as AccAaow (1 Mace. x. 89, only). 

E'LAH. 1. The son ^d successor of 
Baasha, king of Israel (1 K. xvi. 8-10) ; his 
reign lasted for little more than a year (comp. 
ver. 8 with 1 0). He was killed, while drunk, 
by Zimri, in the house of his steward Arsa, 
who was probably a confederate in the plot. 
— 9. Father of Hoshea, the last king of 
Israel (2 K. XV. 30, xvii. 1). 

the Terebinth), a valley in (not ♦' by," as 
the A. Y. has it) which the Israelites were 
encamped against the Philistines when David 
kiUed Goliath (1 Sam. xvii. 2, 19). It is 
once more mentioned in the same connexion 
(xxi. 9). It lay somewhere near Socoh of 
Judah and Asekah, and was nearer Ekron 
than any other Philistine town. So much 
may be gathered firom the narrative of 
1 Sam. xvii. 

E'LAM seems to have been originally the 
name of a man, the son of Shem (Gen. x. 22 ; 
1 Chr. i. 17). Commonly, however, it is 
used as the appellation of a country (Gen. 
xiv. 1, 9 ; Is. xi. 11 ; xxi. 2 ; Jer. xxv. 25 ; 
xlix. 84-39 ; Ex. xxxU. 24 ; Dan. viiL 2). 
The Elam of Scripture appears to be the pro- 
vince lying south of Assyria and east of 
Persia Proper, to which Herodotus gives the 
name of Cissia (iii. 91, v. 49, &c.), and 
which is termed Susis or Susiana by the geo- 
graphers. It appears from Gen. x. 22, that 
this country was originally peopled by de- 
scendants of Shem, closely allied to the Ara- 
maeans (Syrians) and the Assyrians; and 
fkrom Gen. xiv. 1-12, it is evident that by the 
time of Abraham a very important power had 

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been built up in the same region. It is 
plain that at this early time the predominant 
power in Lower Mesopotamia was Elam, 
which for a while held the place possessed 
earlier by Babylon (Oen. x. 10), and later 
by either Babylon or Assyria. 

E'LATH, E'LOTH, the name of a town of 
the laud of Edom, commonly mentioned to- 
gether with Exion-geber, and situate at the 
head of the Arabian Gulf, which was thence 
ealled the Elanitio Gulft It first occurs in 
the account of the wanderings (Deut. ii. 8), 
and in later tlmte must hare come under the 
rule of David in his conquest of the land of 
Edom (3 Sam. riii. 14). We find the pUce 
named again in connexion with Solomon's 
nsTy (1 K. ix. 26; comp. 2 Chr. Tiii. 17). 
It was apparently included in the revolt of 
Edom against Joram recorded in 2 K. viii. 
20 ; but it was taken by Asariah (xiv. 22). 
After this, however, " Rezin king of Syria 
recovered Elath, and drave out the Jews 
from Elath, and the Syrians came to Elath 
and dwelt there to this day ** (xvi. 6). From 
this time the place is not mentioned until 
the Roman period, during which it became a 
frontier-town of the south, and the residence of 
a Christian bishop. The Arabic name is Eyleh. 

EL-BETH'EL, the name which Jacob is 
said to have bestowed on the place at which 
God appeared to him when he was flying 
trcm Esau (Gen. xxv. 7). 

EL'DAD and ME'DAD, two of the 70 
elders to whom was communicated the pro- 
phetic power of Hoses (Num. xi. 16, 26). 
Although their names were upon the list 
which Moses had drawn up (xi. 26), they 
did not repair with the rest of their brethren 
to the tabernacle, but continued to prophesy 
in the camp. Moses being requested by 
Joshua to forbid this, refused to do so, and 
expressed a wish that the gift of prophecy 
might be diffused throughout the people. 

ELDER. The term elder or old num, as 
the Hebrew literally imports, was one of ex- 
tensive use, as an official title, among the 
Hebrews and the surrounding nations. It 
had reference to various offices (Gen. xxiv. 
2, 1. 7 ; 2 Sam. xii. 17; £s. xxvii. 9). As 
betokening a political office, it applied not 
only to the Hebrews, but alio to the Egyp- 
tians (Gen. L 7), theMoabites and Midianites 
(Num. xxii. 7). Wherever a patriarchal sys- 
tem is in force, the qfflce of the elder will be 
found, as the keystone of the social and poli- 
tical fabric ; it is so at the present day among 
the Arabs, where the Sheikh (= the old man) 
is the highest authority in the tribe. The 
earliest notice of the eldere acting in concert 
as a political body is at the time of the Exo- 
dus. They were the representatives of the 

people, so much so that elders and people are 
occasionally used as equivalent terms (comp. 
Jo8h. xxiv. 1 with 2, 19, 21 ; 1 Sam. viii. 4 
with 7, 10, 19). Their authority was unde- 
fined, and extended to all matters concerning 
the public weal. When the tribes became 
settied the elders were distinguished by dif- 
ferent titles according as they were acting as 
national representatives, as district governors 
over the several tribes (Deut. xxxL 28 ; 2 
Sam. xix. 11), or as local magistrates in the 
provincial towns, whose duty it was to sit in 
the gate and administer justice (Deut. xix. 
12 ; Ruth iv. 9, 11 ; 1 K. xxi. 8). Their 
number and influence may be inferred from 
1 Sam. XXX. 26 ff. They retained their posi- 
tion under all the political changes which 
the Jews underwent : under the Judges (Jndg. 
ii. 7 ; 1 Sam. iv. 3) ; under the kings (2 Sam. 
xvii. 4) ; during the captivity (Jer. xxix. 
1 ; Ez. viii. 1) ; subsequently to the return 
(Exr. V. 5, vi. 7, 14, x. 8, 14) ; under the 
Maccabees, when they were described some- 
times as the senate (1 Mace. xii. 6-; 2 Maoc. 
i. 10, iv. 44, xi. 27), sometimes by their or- 
dinary titie (1 Mace. viL 33, xL 23, xU. 36) ; 
and, lastiy, at the commencement of the 
Christian era, when they are noticed as a 
distinct body from the Sanhedrim. St. Luke 
describes the whole order by the collective 
term vpcv^vn^ptov (Luke xxii. 66 ; Acts xxii. 
5). With respect to the elders in the Chris- 
Uan Church, see Bishop. 

ELE'ALEH, a place on the east of Jordan, 
taken possession of and rebuilt by the tribe 
of Reuben (Num. xxxU. 8, 37). By Isaiah 
and Jeremiah it is mentioned as a Moabite 
town (Is. XV. 4, xvi. 9 ; Jer. xlviii. 34). 

ELEA'ZAR, 1. Third son of Aaron, by 
EUsheba, daughter of Amminadab. After 
the death of Nadab and Abihu without chil- 
dren (Lev. X. 1 ; Num. ilL 4), Eleaxar was 
appointed chief over the principal Levltes 
(Num. ill. 82). With his brother Itiiamar 
he ministered as a priest during their fkther's 
lifetime, and immediately before his death was 
invested on Mount Hor with the sacred gar- 
ments, as the successor of Aaron in the office 
of High-priest (Num. xx. 28). One of his 
first duties was in conjunction with Moses to 
superintend the census of the people (Num. 
xxvi. 3). After the conquest of Canaan by 
Joshua he took part In the distribution of the 
Und (Josh. xiv. 1). The time of his death is 
not mentioned in Scripture. — 8. The son of 
Abinadab, of the hill of Kirjath-jearim ( 1 Sam. 
vii. 1). — 3. The son of Dodo the Ahohite, 
«. s. possibly a descendant of Ahoah of the 
tribe of Bei^amin (1 Chr. viiL 4) ; one of 
the three prineipal mighty men of David's 
army (2 Sam. xxilL 9 -, 1 Chr. xi. 12). — ft. 

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Sumuned Atasan (I Maeo. ii. 5), the fourth 
aon of Mattathias, who fell by a noble act of 
■elf-derotion in an engagement with Antio- 
chns Eupator, b.c. 164 (1 Ifaoc. t1. 48 ff.). 
In a former battle with Micanor, Eleazar 
was appointed by Judas to read ** the holy 
book ** before the attack, and the watchword 
in the fight— "The help of God*'— waa hia 
own name (3 Maec. viii. 33). 

EL-EL'OHE-IS'RAEL, the name bestowed 
bf Jacob on the altar which he erected facing 
the city of Sheohem (Gen. zxxiii. 19, 20). 

ELEPHANT. The word does not occur in 
the text of the canonical Scriptures of the 
A. v., but is found as the marginal reading to 
Behemoth, in Job xl. 15. ** SiephanW teeth " 
is the marginal reading for '* ivoty " in 1 K. 
z. 22 ; 2 Chr. ix. 41. Elephants howerer 
are repeatedly mentioned in the Ist and 2nd 
books of Maccabees, as being used in warfare 
(1 Maco. Ti.). 

ELEU'THEBUS, a river of Syria men- 
tioned in I Mace. xi. 7 ; xii. 80. It sepa- 
rated Syria fhun Phoenicia, and formed the 
northern limit of Coele-syiia. It is the mo- 
dem Nahr^'Kebir, "Great RiTer." 

E'LI was descended f^rom Aaron through 
Ithamar, the youngest of his two snrriTing 
sons (Ler. x. 1, 2, 12 ; comp. 1 K. ii. 27 
with 2 Sam. Tiii. 17 ; 1 Chr. xxir. 8). As 
the history makes no mention of any high- 
priest of the line of Ithamar before Eli, he is 
generally supposed to have been the first of 
that line who held the office. From him, his 
sons hsTing died before him, it appears to 
have passed to his grandson, Ahitub (1 Bam. 
xiv. 3), and it certainly remained in his 
fiunily till Abiathar, the grandson of Ahitub, 
was " thrust out from being priest unto the 
Lord " by Solomon for his share in Adon^jah's 
rebeUion (1 K. U. 26, 27 ; L 7), and the high- 
priesthood passed back again to the family of 
Eleajsar in the person of Zadok (1 K. ii. 35). 
Its return to the elder branch was one part 
of the punishment which had been denounced 
against Eli during his lifetime, for his cul- 
pable negligence (1 Sam. ii. 22-25) when his 
■ons by their rapacity and licentiousness pro- 
faned the priesthood, and brought the rites 
of religion into abhorrence among the people 
(1 Sam. ii. 27-36, with 1 K. U. 27). Not- 
withstanding this one great blemish, the cha- 
racter of Eli is marked by eminent piety, as 
shown by his meek submission to the dirine 
Judf^nent (1 Sam. iiL 18), and his supreme re- 
gard for the ark of God (It. 1 8) . In addition to 
the office of high-priest he held that of Judge, 
being the immediate predecessor of his pupil 
Samuel (1 Sam. -vii. 6, 15-17), the last of the 
Judges. He died at the adranoed age of 98 
years (1 Som. iT. 15), OTercome by the dis- 

astrous intelligence that the ark of God had 
been taken in battle by the Philistines, i^ho 
had also slain his sons Hophni and Phinehas. 

ELI'AKIM. 1. Sonof Uilkiah; master of 
Hezekiah's household (" orer the house," as 
Is. xxxTi. 3), 2 K. xviii. 18, 26, 37. He 
succeeded Shebna in this office, after he had 
been ejected fkt>m it as a punishment for hia 
pride (Is. xxii. 15-20). Eliakim was a good 
man, as appears by the title emphatically 
applied to him by God, " my servant Elia- 
kim " (Is. xxii. 20), and as was erinced by hij 
conduct on the occasion of Sennacherib's in- 
vasion (2 K. xviii. 87, xix. 1-5), and also in 
the discharge of the duties of his high station, 
in which he acted as a " father to the inha- 
bitants of Jerusalem, and to the houM of 
Judah '* (Is. xxU. 21) — 8. The original name 
of Jehoiakim king of Judah (2 K. xxlU. 84 ; 

ELI'AS, the form in which the name of 
Elijah is given in the A. Y. of the Apocrypha 
and N. Test. 

ELIE'ZEB. 1. Abraham's chief servant, 
called by him " Eliexer of Damascus " (Gen. 
XV. 2). There is an apparent contradio- 
tion in the A. Y., for it does not appear 
how, if he was "of Damascus," he could 
be "born in Abraham's house" (ver. 8). 
But the phrase " son of my house," only im- 
ports that he was one of Abraham's house* 
hold, not that he was bom in his house. It 
was, most likely, this same Elieier who is de- 
scribed in Gen. xxiv. 2.-2. Second son of 
Moses and Zipporah, to whom his father gave 
this name, " because, said he, the God of my 
father was my help, that delivered me firom 
the sword of Pharaoh " (Ex. xviii. 4 ; 1 Chr. 
xxiiL 15, 17). He remained with his mother 
and brother Gershom, in the care of Jethro 
his grandfather, when Moses returned to 
^gyv^ (£x* i^* 19) she having been sent back 
to her father by Moses (Ex. xviii. 2), though 
she set off to accompany him, and went part 
of the way with him. 

ELI'HU, one of the interlocutors in the 
book of Job. [Job.] He is described as the 
" son of Baraohel the Bucite," and thus ap- 
parently referred to the family of Bus, the 
son of Nahor, and nephew of Abraham (Gen. 
xxii. 21). 

ELl'JAH has been well entiUed "the 
grandest and the most romantic character that 
Israel ever produced." Certainly there is no 
personage in the O. T. whose career is more 
vividly portrayed, or who exercises on us a 
more remarkable fascination. "Elijah the 
Tishbite of the inhabitants of Gilead," is lite- 
rally all that is given us to know of his pa- 
rentage and locality. To an Israelite of the 
tribes west of Jordan the title "Gileadlte" 

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must hare conveyed a Bimilar impression, 
though in a far stronger degree, to that which 
the tiUe *< Celt " does to ns. What the High- 
lands were a century ago to the towns in the 
Lowlands of Scotland, that, and more than 
that, must Gilead hare been to Samaria or 
Jenualem. It is impossible rightly to esti- 
mate his character without recollecting this 
fact. It is seen at every torn. Of his ap- 
pearance as he ** stood before ** Ahab, with 
the suddenness of motion to this day cha- 
racteristic of the Bedouins from his native 
hills, we can perhaps realise something firom 
the touches, few, but strong, of the narra- 
tive. His chief characteristio was his hair, 
long and thick, and hanging down his back ; 
wtiich, if not betokening the immense strength 
:^ Samson, yet accompanied powers of endur- 
ance no less remarkable. His ordinary cloth- 
ing consisted of a girdle of skin round his 
loins, which he tightened when about to 
move quickly (1 K. xviii. 46). But in 
addition to this he occasionally wore the 
•* mantle," or cape, of sheeiraldn, which has 
•applied us with one of our most familiar 
figures of speech. In this mantle, in mo- 
ments of emotion, he would hide his face 
(1 K. xix. 13), or when excited would roll 
it up as into a kind of staff. The solitary life 
in which these external peculiarities had been 
assumed had also nurtured that fierceness of 
zeal and that directness of address which so 
distinguished him. It was in the wild lone- 
liness of the hills and ravines of Gilead that 
the knowledge of Jehovah, the living God of 
Israel, had been impressed on his mind, which 
was to form the subject of his mission to the 
idolatrous court and country of Israel. The 
northern kingdom had at this time forsaken 
almost entirely the ikith in Jehovah. The 
worship of lihe calves had been a departure 
fh)m Him ; but still it would appear that even 
in the presence of the calves Jehovah was 
acknowledged, and they were at any rate a 
national institution, not one imported from 
the idolatries of any of the surrounding 
countries. But the case was quite diffierent 
when Ahab introduced the foreign religion 
of his wife's family, the worship of the Phoe- 
nician Baal. It is as a witness against these 
two evils that El^ah comes forward. — 1. 
>Vhat we may call the first Act in his life 
embraces between three and four years — 
three years and six months for the duration 
of the drought, according to the statements 
of the New Testament (Luke iv. 25 ; James 
T. 17), and three or four months more for 
the journey to Horeb, and the return to 
Gilead (1 K. xviL l~xix. 21). His intro- 
duction is of the most startling description : 
he suddenly appears before Ahab, as with the 

unrestrained freedom of eastern manners he 
would have no difficulty in doing, and pro- 
claims the vengeance of Jehovah for the 
apostasy of the king. What immediate action 
followed on this we are not told ; but it is 
plain that Elijah had to fly before some threat- 
ened vengeance either of the king, or more 
probably of the queen (comp. xix. 2). Perhaps 
it was at this juncture that Jezebel '* cut off 
the prophets of Jehovah "(IK. xviii. 4). He 
was directed to the brook Cherith. There in 
the hollow of the torrent-bed he remained, 
supported in the miraculous manner with 
which we are all familiar, till the failing of 
the brook obliged him to forsake it. His 
next refuge was at Zarephath, a Phoenician 
town lying between Tyre and Sidon, certainly 
the last place at which the enemy of Baal 
would be looked for. The widow woman in 
whose house he lived seems, however, to 
have been an Israelite, and no Baal-wor- 
shipper, if we may take her ac^uration by 
" Jehovah thy God " as an indication. Here 
ElJijah performed the miracles of prolonging 
the oil and the meal ; and restored the son of 
the widow to life after his apparent death. 
In this, or some other retreat, an interval 
of more than two years must have elapsed. 
The drought continued, and at last the full 
horrors of famine, caused by the failure of 
the crops, descended on Samaria. The king 
and his chief domestic officer divided between 
them the mournful duty of ascertaining that 
neither round the springs, which are so fire- 
quent a feature of central Palestine, nor in 
the nooks and crannies of the m<»t shaded 
torrent-beds, was there any of the herbage 
left, which in those countries is so certain an 
indication of the presence of moisture. It is 
the moment for the reappearance of the pro- 
phet He shows himself first to the minister. 
There, suddenly planted in his path, is the 
man whom he and his master have been 
seeking for more than three years. Before 
the sudden apparition of that wild figure, 
and that stem, unbroken countenance, Oba- 
diah could not but foil on his face. El^ah, 
however, soon calms his agitation — *' As Je- 
hovah of hosts liveth, before whom I stand, 
I will surely show myself to Ahab ;" and thus 
relieved of his fear that, as on a former occa- 
sion, £1^ ah would disappear before he could 
return with the king, Obadiah departs to in- 
form Ahab that the man they seek is there. 
Ahab arrived, El^ah makes his charge — 
** Thou hast forsaken Jehovah and followed 
the Baals." He then commands that all Is- 
rael be collected to Mount Carmel with the 
four hundred and fifty prophets of Ba^O, and 
the four hundred of Asherah (Ashtaroth), tho 
latter being under the especial protection of 

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the qaeen. There are few more sublime 
•lories in history than this. On the one 
hand the solitary servant of Jehovah, accom- 
panied by his one attendant ; with his wild 
shaggy hair, his scanty garb and sheepskin 
eloak, but with calm dignity of demeanour 
and the minutest regularity of procedure, re- 
pairing the ruined altar of Jehovah with 
twelve stones— on the other hand the 850 
prophets of Baal and Ashtaroth, doubtless in 
all the splendour of their vestments (2 K. 
X. 22), with the wild din of their vain repe- 
titions and the maddened twry of their dis- 
appointed hopes, and the silent people sur- 
rounding aJ. The conclusion of the long day 
need only be glanced at. The fire of Jehovah 
consuming both sacrifice and altar — the pro- 
phets of Baal killed, it would seem by Eli- 
jah's own hand (xviii. 40) — the king, with an 
apathy almost unintelligible, eating and 
drinking in the very midst of the carnage of 
his own adherents— the rising storm — the 
ride across the plain to Jezreel, a distance 
of at least 16 miles ; the prophet, with true 
Arab endurance, running before the chariot, 
but also with true Arab instinct stopping 
short of the city, and going no fhrther than 
the ** entrance of Jezreel." So tax the 
triumph had been complete ; but the spirit 
of Jezebel was not to be so easily overcome, 
and her first act is a vow of vengeance 
against the author of this destruction. El^ah 
takes refuge in flight The danger was great, 
and the reftige must be distant. The first 
stage on the Journey was Beeraheba. Here 
El^ah halted. His servant he left in the 
town ; while he himself set out alone into 
the wilderness. His spirit is quite broken, 
and be wanders forth over the dreary sweeps 
of those rocky hills wishing for death. But 
God, who had brought His servant into this 
difficulty, provided him with the means of 
escaping Arom it. The prophet was wakened 
from his dream of despondency beneath the 
solitary bush of the wilderness, was fed with 
the bread and the water which to this day are 
all a Bedouin's requirements, and went for- 
ward, in the strength of that food, a Journey 
of forty days to the mount of God, even to 
Horeb. Here, in the cave, one of the nume- 
rous caverns in those awful mountains, he 
remained for certainly one night. In the 
morning came the •• word of Jehovah ** — the 
question, **What doest thou here, Eiyah!" 
In answer to this invitation the Prophet 
opens his griefs. The reply o<»nes in that 
ambiguous and indirect form in which it 
seems necessary that the deepest communica- 
tions with the human mind should be couched, 
to be effectual. He is directed to leave the 
oavem and stand on the mountain in the 

open air, face to face with Jehovah. Then, 
as before with Moses ( Ex. xxxiv. 6), ** The 
Lord passed by," passed in all the terror of 
His most appalling manifestations ; and pene- 
trating the dead silence which followed these, 
came the mysterious symbol — the "still 
small voice," and still as it was it spoke in 
louder accents to the wounded heart of Elijah 
than the roar and blaze which had preceded 
it. To him no less unmistakably than to 
Moses, centuries before, it was proclaimed 
that Jehovah was **merciitil and gracious, 
long-suffering and abundant in goodness and 
truth." Elijah knew the call, and at once 
stepping forward and hiding his face in his 
mantle, stood waiting for the Divine com- 
munication. Three commands were laid on 
him — three changes were to be made. Of 
these three commands the two first were re- 
served for Elisha to accomplish, the last only 
was executed by Elijah himself. His first 
search was for Elisha. Apparently he soon 
found him ; we must conclude at his native 
place, Abel-meholah. Elisha was ploughing 
at the time, and El^ah " passed over to him " 
— possibly crossed the river— and cast his 
mantle, the well 'known sheepskin cloak, 
upon him, as if, by that (iuniliar action, 
claiming him for his son. A moment of 
hesitation, and then commenced that long 
period of service and intercourse which con- 
tinued till El^ah's removal, and which after 
that time procured for Elisha one of the best 
titles to esteem and reverence— **Xlisha the 
son of Shaphat, who poured water on the 
hands of El^ah." — 2. Ahab and Jezebel now 
probably believed that their threats had been 
effectual, and that they had seen the last of 
their tormentor. After the murder of Naboth, 
Ahab loses no time in entering on his new 
acquisition. But his triumph was a short 
one. El^ah had received an intimation from 
Jehovah of what was taking place, and 
rapidly as the accusation and death of Naboth 
had been hurried over, he was there to meet 
his ancient enemy on the very scene of his 
crime. And then follows the curse, in terms 
fearftd to any Oriental — peculiarly terrible 
to a Jew — and most of all significant to a suc- 
cessor of the apostate princes of the northern 
kingdom. The whole of Elijah's denuncia- 
Uon may possibly be recovered by putting 
tc^ther the words recalled by Jehu, 2 K. ix. 
26, 36, 87, and those given In 1 K. xxL 19- 
25. — 3. A space of three or four years now 
elapses (comp. 1 K. xxii. 1, 51 ; 2 K. L 17) 
before we again catch a glimpse of El^ah. 
Ahaziah has met with a fotul accident, and 
is on his death-bed (2 K. L 1, 2 ; 1 K. xxii. 
51). In his extremity he sends to an ot«cle 
or shrine of Baal at the Philistine town of 

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Ekroc, to ascertain the issue of his illness. 
But the oracle is nearer at hand than the 
distant Ekron. An intimation is conveyed 
to the prophet, probably at that time inhabit- 
ing one of the recesses of Carmel, and, as on 
the former occasions, he suddenly appears on 
the path of the messengers, without preface 
or inquiry utters his message of death, and 
as rapidly disappears. But this check only 
roused the wrath of Ahuziah. A captain 
was despatched, with a party of fifty, to take 
EUjah prisoner. *' And there came down fire 
from heaven and consumed him and his fifty." 
A second party was sent, only to meet the 
same fate. The altered tone of the leader of 
a third party brought Elijah down. But the 
king gained nothing. The message was de- 
livered to his face in the same words as it 
had been to the messengers, and Elijah was 
allowed to go harmless. — 4. It mast have 
been shortly after the death of Ahaziah that 
Elijah made a communication with the 
southern kingdom. When Jehoram the son 
of Jehoshaphat began " to walk in the ways 
of the kings of Israel," Elijah sent him a 
letter denouncing his evU doings, and pre- 
dicting his death (2 Chr. xxi. 12-15). In its 
contents the letter bears a strong resemblance 
to the speeches of Elijah, while in the details 
of style it is very peculiar, and quite differ- 
ent from the narrative in which it is em- 
bedded. — 5. The closing transaction of Eli- 
jah's life introduces us to a locality hereto- 
fore unconnected with him. It was at Qil- 
OAL — probably on the western edge of the' 
hills of Ephraim — that the prophet received 
the divine intimation that his departure was 
at hand. He was at the time with Elisha, 
who seems now to have become his constant 
companion, and whom he endeavours to per- 
suade to remain behind while he goes on an 
errand of Jehovah. But Elisha will not so 
easily give up his master. They went to- 
gether to Bethel. Again Elijah attempts to 
escape to Jericho, and again Elisha protests 
that he will not be separated trom him. At 
Jericho he makes a filial effort to avoid what 
they both so much dread. But Elisha is not 
to be conquered, and the two set off across 
the undulating plain of burning sand, to the 
distant river — Elijah in his mantle or cape 
of sheepskin, Elisha in ordinary clothes. 
Fifty men of the sons of the prophets ascend 
the abrupt heights behind the town to watch 
what happens in the distance. Talking as 
they go, the two reach the river, and stand 
on the shelving bank beside its swift brown 
current. But they are not to stop even here. 
It is as if the aged Gileadite cannot rest till 
he again sets foot on his own side of the 
river. He rolls up his mantle as into a staff, 

and with his old energy strikes the waters as 
Moecs had done before him, — strikes them as 
if they were an enemy; and they are divided 
hither and thither, and they two go over on 
dry ground. " And it came to pass as they 
still went on and talked, that, behold, a 
chariot of fire and horses of fire, and parted 
them both asunder, and Elijah went up by 
the whirlwind into the skies." — And here 
ends all the direct information which is 
vouchsafed to us of the life and work of this 
great Prophet How deep was the impression 
which he made on the mind of the nation 
may be judged of from the fixed belief 
which many centuries after prevailed that 
Elijah would again appear for the relief and 
restoration of his country. But on the other 
band, the deep impression which Elijah had 
thus made on his nation only renders more 
remarkable the departure which the image 
conveyed by the later references to him 
evinces, from that so sharply presented in 
the records of his actual life. With the ex- 
ception of the eulogiums contained in the 
catalogues of worthies in the book of Jesus 
the son of Sirach (xlviii.) and 1 Maoc. ii. 58, 
and the passing allusion in Luke ix. 54, none 
of these later references allude to his works 
of destruction or of portent. They all set 
forth a very different side of his character to 
that brought out in the historical narrative. 
They speak of his being a man of like pas- 
sions with ourselves (James ▼. 17) ; of his 
kindness to the widow of Sarepta (Luke iv. 
25) ; of his " restoring aU things " (Matt. 
X vii. 11); ** turning the hearts of the fathers 
to the children, and the disobedient to the 
wisdom of the Just " (MaL iv. 5, 6 ; Luke 

E'LIM (Ex. XV. 27 ; Num. xxxiii. 9), the 
second station where the Israelites encamped 
after crossing the Bed Sea. It is distin- 
guished as having had ** twelve wells (rather 
'fountains') of water, and threescore and 
ten palm-trees." 

ELIM'ELECH, a man of the tribe of Judah, 
and of the family of the Heeronites, who 
dwelt in Bethlehem-Ephratah in the days of 
the Judges. In consequence of a great 
dearth in the land he went with his wife 
Naomi, and his two sons, Mahlon and 
Chilion, to dwell in Moab, where he and 
his sons died without posterity (Buth L 2, 

EL'IPHAZ. 1. The son of Esau and Adah, 
and father of Teman (Gen. xxxvl. 4 ; I Chr. 
i. 85, 36).— 8. The chief of the "three 
friends " of Job. He is called " the Teman- 
ite ; " hence it is naturally inferred that he 
was a descendant of Teman. On Lim falls 
the main burden of the argument, that Qod*6 

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r e tri bution in this vorld is perfect and cer- 
tain, and that conseqaently differing must be 
a proof of preTioos sin (Job ir., r., xt., zxiL). 
The great truth brought out by him is the 
unapproachable majesty and purity of God 
(iT. 12-81, XT. 12-16). [Job.] 

EUSTaBETH, the wifs of Zaeharias and 
mother of John the Baptist. She was herself 
of the priestly family, and a relation (Luke 1. 
S6) of the mother of our Lord. 

ELISE'US, the form in which the name 
Elxsha appears in the A. Y. of the Apocry- 
pha and the N. T. (Ecelus. xlriii. 12 ; Luke 
iT. 27). 

ELI'SHA, son of Shaphatof Abel-meholah. 
The attendant and disciple of El^ah, and 
snbeequently his successor as prophet of the 
kingdom of IsraeL The earliest mention of 
his name is in the command to El^ah in the 
eaTe at Horeb (1 K. xix. 16, 17). But our 
flrst introduction to the fhtnre prophet is in 
the fields of his natiTe place. Abel-meholah 
was probably in the Talley of the Jordan. 
EUJah, on his way from Sinai to Damascus by 
the Jordan Talley, lights on his successor en- 
gaged in the labours of the field. To cross 
to him, to throw OTcr his shoulders the 
rough mantle — a token at once of iuTestiture 
with the prophet's office, and of adoption as 
a son — ^was to Elijah but the work of an 
infant, and the prophet strode on as if what 
be had done were nothings '* Go back again, 
for what haTC I done unto thee V* Elisha was 
not a man who, huTing put his hand to the 
plough, was likely to look back ; he delayed 
merely to giTe the farewell kiss to his father 
and mother, and preside at a parting feast 
with his people, and then followed the great 
prophet on his northward road. SeTcn or 
eight years must hsTe passed between the 
call of Elisha and the remoTal of his master, 
and during the whole of that time we hear 
nothing of him. But when that period had 
elapsed he reappears, to become the most 
prominent figure in the history of his country 
during the rest of his long life. In almost 
eTery respect Elisha presents the most com- 
plete contrast to El^ah. The copious col- 
lection of his sayings and doings which are 
pies c Mc d firom the Srd to the 9th chapter of 
the Snd book of Kings, is full of testimonies 
to this contrast. El^ah was a true Bedouin 
child of the desert. If he enters a city 
it is only to deliTcr his message of fire and be 
gone. Elisha, on the other hand, is a ciTi- 
lised man, an inhabitant of cities. And as 
with his manners so with his appearance. 
The tooehes of the narratiTC are Tery slight ; 
but we can gather that his dress was the 
ordinary garment of an Israelite, the beged^ 
probably similar in form to the long ahbeyeh 

of the modem Syrians (2 K. IL 12), that his 
hair was worn trimmed behind, in oontrast 
to the disordered locks of EUJah (iL 28, as 
explained below), and that he used a walking- 
staff (It. 29) of the kind ordinarily carried by 
graTc or aged citisens (Zech. TiiL 4). The 
call of Elisha seems to hsTc taken place about 
four years before the death of Ahab. He died 
in the reign of Joash, the grandson of Jehu. 
This embracee a period of not less than 65 
years, for certainly 55 of which he held the 
office of " prophet in Israel " (2 K. t. 8).— 
After the departure of his master, Elisha 
returned to dweU at Jericho (2 K. iL 18). 
The town had been lately rebuilt (1 E. zTi. 
84), and was the residence of a body of the 
«* sons of the prophets » (2 K. ii. 5, 15). One 
of the springs of Jericho was noxious at the 
time of Elisha's Tisit At the request of tho 
men of Jericho he remedied this ctU. He 
took salt in a new Teasel, and cast it into the 
water at its source in the name of JehoTah. 
— 2. We next meet with Elisha at Bethel, in 
the heart of the country, on his way from 
Jericho to Mount Carmel (2 K. iL 28). His 
last Tisit had been made in company with 
EHJah on their road down to the Jordan (ii. 
2). Here the boys of the town were clus- 
tered, waiting, as they still wait at the 
entrance of the Tillages of Palestine, for the 
chance passer-by. In the short-trimmed locks 
of Elisha, how were they to recognise the 
successor of the prophet, with whose shaggy 
iiair streaming oTer his shoulders they were 
aU familiar T So with the license of the 
Eastern children they scoff at the new comer 
as he walks by — ♦* Go up, roundhead 1 go up, 
roundhead I" For once Elisha assumed the 
sternness of his master. He turned upon 
them and cursed them in the name of JehoTah, 
and we all know the catastrophe which fol- 
lowed. — 8. Elisha extricates Jehoram king 
of Israel, and the kings of Judah and Edom, 
frt>m their difficulty in the campaign against 
Moab, arising from want of water (ill. 4-27). 
This incident probably took place at the S.E. 
end of the Dead Sea. — 4. The widow of one 
of the sons of the prophets is in debt, and 
her two sons are about to be taken frt>m her 
and sold as sUtcs. She has no property but 
a pot of oil. This Elisha causes (in his 
absence. It. 5) to multiply, until the widow 
has filled with it all the vesseU which she 
oould borrow. — 5. The next occurrence is at 
Shunem and Mount Carmel (It. 8-87). The 
story diTides itself into two parts, separated 
from each other by scTeral years, (a.) Elisha, 
probably on his way between Carmel and the 
Jordan Talley, calls accidentally at Shunem. 
Here he is hospitably entertained by a woman 
of substance, apporentiy at that time ignorant 

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of the character of her guest There is no 
oocosion here to quote the details of this 
oharming narrative. (6.) An interval has 
elapsed of several years. The boy is now 
old enough to accompany his father to the 
oom-field, where the harvest is proceeding. 
The fierce rays of the morning sun are too 
powerful for him, and he is carried home to 
his mother only to die at noon. She says 
nothing of their loss to her husband, but 
depositing her child on the bed of the man of 
God, at once starts in quest of him to Mount 
Carmel. No explanation is needed to tell 
Elisha the exact state of the case. The heat 
of the season will allow of no delay in taking 
the necessary steps, and Gehazi is at once 
despatched to run back to Shunem with the 
utmost speed. He takes the prophet's 
walking-staff in his hand, which he is to lay 
on the face of the child. The mother and 
Elisha follow in haste. Before they reach 
the village the sun of that long, anxious, 
summer afternoon must have set. Gehazi 
meets them on the road, but he has no reassur- 
ing report to give, the placing of the staff on 
the face of the dead boy had called forth no 
sign of life. Then Elisha enters the house, 
goes up to his own chamber, ** and he shut the 
door on them twain and prayed unto Jehovah." 
The child is restored to life. — 6. The scene 
now changes to Gilgal, apparently at a time 
when Elisha was residing there (iv. 88—41). 
The sons of the prophets are sitting round 
him. It is a time of famine. The food of 
the party must consist of any herbs that can 
be found. The great caldron is put on at the 
command of Elisha, and one of the company 
brings his blanket full of such wild vegetables 
as he has collected, and empties it into the 
pottage. But no sooner have they begun 
their meal than the taste betrays the presence 
of some noxious herb, and they cry out, 
" There is death in the pot, O man of God 1 " 
In this case the cure was effected by meal 
which Elisha cast into the stew in the 
caldron. — 7. (iv. 42-44). This in all proba- 
bility belongs to the same time, and also to 
the same place as the preceding. A man 
from Baal-shalisha brings the man of God a 
present of the flrst-fhiits, which under the 
law (Num. xvlii. 8, 12; Deut. xviiL 8, 4) 
were the perquisite of the ministers of the 
sanctuary. — 8. The simple records of these 
domestic incidents amongst the sons of the 
prophets are now interrupted by an occurrence 
of a more important character (v. 1-27). 
The chief captain of the army of Syria, to 
whom his country was indebted for some 
signal success, was afflicted with leprosy (t. 
27). One of the members of his establish- 
ment is an Israelite girl, kidnapped by the 

marauders of Syria in one of tiieir forays 
over the border, and she brings into that 
Syrian household the fame of the name and 
skill of Elisha. The news is communicated 
by Naaman himself to the king. Benhadad 
had yet to leam the position and character of 
Elisha. He writes to the king of Israel a 
letter very characteristic of a military prince. 
With this letter, and with a present, and a 
fuU retinue of attendants (13, 15, 23), 
Naaman proceeds to Samaria, to the house of 
Elisha. Elisha still keeps in the background, 
and while Naaman stands at the doorway, con- 
tents himself with sending out a messenger 
with the simple direction to bathe seven times 
in the Jordan. The independent behaviour of 
the prophet, and the simplicity of the pre- 
scription, all combined to enrage Naaman. 
His slaves, however, knew how to deal with 
the quick but not ungenerous temper of their 
master, and the result is that he goes down 
to the Jordan and dips himself seven times, 
*' and his flesh came again like the flesh of a 
little child, and he was clean." His flrst 
business alter his cure is to thank his bene- 
factor. He returns with his whole following, 
and this time he will not be denied the 
presence of Elisha ; but making his way in, 
and standing before him, he gratefiiUy 
acknowledges the power of the God of Israel, 
and entreats him to accept the present which 
he has brought firom Damascus. Elisha is 
firm, and revises the offer, though repeated 
with the strongest adjuration. But Oehaz; 
cannot allow such treasures thus to escape 
him. So he fhunes a story by which the 
generous Naaman is made to send back with 
him to Elisha's house a considerable present 
in money and clothes. He then went in and 
stood before his master as if nothing had 
happened. But the prophet was not to be so 
deceived. His heart had gone after his ser- 
vant through the whole transaction, even to 
its minutest details, and he visits Gehazi 
with the tremendous punishment of the 
leprosy, l^om which he has Just relieved 
Naaman. — 9« (vL 1-7 ). We now return to tho 
sons of the prophets ; but this time the scene 
appears to be changed, and is probably at 
Jericho, and during the residence of Elisha 
there. As one of them was cutting at a tree 
overhanging the stream, the iron of his axe 
fiew off and sank into the water. His cry 
soon brought the man of God to his aid. The 
stream of the Jordan is deep up to the very 
bonk, especially when the water is so low a« 
to leave the wood dry, and is moreover so 
turbid that search would be useless. But 
the place at which the lost axe entered the 
water is shown to Elisha; he breaks off a 
stick and casts it into the stream, and tho 

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iron appears on the surface, and is reeoTered 
by its possessor.— 10. (tL 8-29). Elisha is 
now residing at Dothan, halfway on the 
road between Samaria and Jezreel. The 
incursions of the Syrian marauding bands 
(comp. T. S) still continue. Their manoen- 
rres are not hid from the man of God, and by 
his warnings he sares the king ** not once 
nor twice." A strong party with chariots Is 
despatched to effect the capture of Elisha. 
They march by night, and before morning 
take up their station round tlie base of the 
eminence on which the ruins of Dothan still 
stand. Elisha's servant is the first to dis- 
eover the danger. But Elisha remains un- 
mored by his fears. He prays to JehoTah, 
and the whole of the Syrian warriors are 
struok blind. Then descending, he ofliers to 
lead them to the person and the place which 
they seek. He conducts them to Samaria. 
There, at Uie prayer of the prophet, their 
sight is restored, and they find themselves 
not in a retired country village, but in the 
midst of the capital of Israel, and in the pre- 
sence of the king and his troops. After such 
a repulse it is not surprising that the 
marauding forays of the Syrian troops ceased. 
— 1 1 . (vL 24— vU. 2). But the king of Syria 
•ould not rest under such dishonour. He 
abandons his marauding system, and gathers 
a regular army, with which he lays siege to 
Samaria. The awM extremities to which 
the inhabitants of the place were driven need 
not here be recalled.— 12. (viiL 1-6). We now 
go back several years to an incident oon- 
Beeted with tlie lady of Shunem, at a period 
antecedent to the cure of Naaman and the 
transfer of his leprosy to Oehasi (v. 1, 27). 
Elisha had been made aware of a famine 
which Jehovah was about to bring upon the 
land for seven years; and be had warned 
his fHend the Shunammite thereof that she 
might provide for her safety. At the end 
of the seven years she returned to her native 
pUice, to find that during her absence her 
house with the field-land attached to it had 
been appropriated by some other person. 
To tlie king therefore the Shunammite had 
recourse. And now occurred one of those 
rare ooinddenoes which it is impossible not 
to ascribe to something more than mere 
chance. At the very moment of the en- 
trance of the woman and her son the king 
was listening to a recital by Gehazi of ** all 
the great things which Elisha had done.** 
The woman was instantly recognised by 
Gehasi. From her own mouth the king 
hears the repetition of the wonderful tale, 
and, whether fhnn regard to Elisha, or 
struck by the extraordinary coincidence, 
orders her land to be restored with the 

value of all its produce during her abeence. 
—13. (viii. 7-1 »). Hitherto we have met 
with Uxe prophet only in his own country. 
We now find him at Damascus. He is there 
to carry out the command given to El^ah 
on Horeb to anoint Hazael to be king over 
Syria. At the time of his arrival Benhadad 
was prostrate with his last illness. The 
king's first desire is naturally to ascertain 
his own fate ; and Hasael is commissioned 
to be the beaier of a present to the prophet, 
and to ask the question on the part of his 
master, "Shall I recover of this disease!" 
The reply, probably originally ambiguous, 
is doubly uncertain In the present doubtM 
state of the Hebrew text; but the general 
conclusion was unmistakable: — "Jehovah 
hath showed me that he shall surely die." 
But this was not all that had been revealed 
to the prophet. If Benhadad died, who 
would be king in his stead but the man 
who now stood before him! The prospect 
was one which drew forth the tears of the 
man of Ood. At Hazael's request Elisha 
confesses the reason of his tears. But the 
prospect is one which has no sorrow for 
Hasael. His only doubt is the possibility 
of such good fortune for one so mean. 
"But what is thy sUve, dog that he is, 
that he should do this great thing t " To 
which Elisha replies, "Jehovah hath showed 
me that thou wilt be king over Syria." 
Betuming to the king, Hazael tells him only 
half the dark saying of the man of God — 
"He told me Uiat thou shouldest surely 
recover." But that was the last day of Ben- 
hadad's life.— 14. (ix. 1-10). Two of the 
injunctions laid on El^ah had now been 
carried out ; the third still remained. The 
time was come for the Ailfilment of the curse 
upon Ahab by anointing Jehu king over 
Israel. Elisha's personal share in the trans- 
action was confined to giving directions to one 
of the sons of the prophets. [Jam;.]— 15. 
Beyond this we have no record of Elisha's 
having taken any part in the revolution of 
Jehu, or the events which followed it. He 
does not again appear till we find him on his 
deathbed in his own house (xiiL 14-19).— 16. 
(xiii. 20-22). The power of the prophet, 
however, does not terminate with his death. 
Even in the tomb he restores the dead to 

ELI'SHAH, the eldest son of Javan (Gen. 
X. 4). The residence of his descendants is 
described in Eb. xxvii. 7, as the "isles of 
Elishah," whence the Phoenicians obtained 
their purple and blue dyes. Some connect 
the race of Elishah with the Aeolians, others 
with Elis, and in a more extended sense 
Peloponnesus, or even Bellas. It appears 

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correct to treat it as the designation of a 
rae* rather than of a locality. 

ELISH'AMA, sonof Ammihud, the "prince" 
or " captain " of the trihe of Ephraim in 
the Wilderness of Sinai (Num. L 10, ii. 18, 
TiL 48, X. 22). From 1 Chr. yU. 26 we 
find that he was grandfather to the great 

ELISHE'BA, the wife of Aaron (Ex. Ti. 
23). She was the daughter of Amminadab, 
and sister of Naashon the captain of the 
host of Judah (Num. ii. 3). 

ELISHU'A, one of David's sons, bom 
after his settlement in Jerusalem (2 Sam. 
V. 15 ; 1 Chr. xiT. 6). 

EL'KANAH. 1. Son, or rather grandson 
(see I Chr. yi. 22, 28 [7, 8]) of Korah, 
according to Ex. ri. 24. — 9. Another Ko- 
hathite Lerite, was son of Jeroham, and 
father of Samuel the illustrious Judge and 
Prophet (1 Chr. yi. 27, 34). All that is 
known of him is contained in the above 
notices and in 1 Sam. i. 1, 4, 8, 19, 21, 
23, and ii. 2, 20. 

EL'KOSH, the birthplace of the prophet 
Nahum, hence called ** the Elkoehite," Nab. 
i. 1. Two widelj differing Jewish traditions 
assign as widely different localities to this 
place. In the time of Jerome it was be- 
lieved to exist in a small village of Galilee. 
Others assign it to Alkush, a village on the 
east bank of the Tigris, about two miles 
north of Mosul. The former is more in 
accordance with the internal evidence afforded 
by the prophecy, which gives no sign of 
having been written in Assyria. 

EL'LASAR, the city of Arioch (Gen. xiv. 
1), seems to be the Hebrew representative of 
the old Chaldaean town called in the native 
dialect Lar»a or Laraneha. Lar$a was a 
town of Lower Babylonia or Chaldaea, 
situated nearly halfway between Ur (J/iu^- 
heir) and Erech {Warka)^ on the left 
bank of the Euphrates. It is now Senkereh, 

ELM, Hos. iv. 13. See Oak. 

EL'NATHAN, the maternal grandfather 
of Jehoiachin (2 K. xxiv. 8), is doubtless 
the same man with Elnathan the son of 
Achbor (Jer. xxvi. 22, xxxvi. 12, 25). 

E'LOX. 1. A Hittite, whose daughter 
was one of Esau's wives (Gen. xxvi. 34, 
xxxvi. 2). — 9. The second of the three sons 
attributed to Zebulun (Gen. xlvi. 14 ; Num. 
xxvi. 26) ; and the founder of the family 
of the ELOMFrss. — 3. Elon the Zebulonite, 
who judged Israel for ten years, and was 
buried in Aijalon in Zebulun (Judg. xiL II, 
12).— 4. One of the towns in the border 
of the tribe of Dan (Josh. xix. 43). 

ELOTH. [Elath.] 

EL'TOLAD, one of the cities in the south 

of Judah (Josh. xv. 80) allotted to Simeon 
(Josh. xix. 4) ; and in possession of that 
tribe until the time of David (1 Chr. iv. 

ELU'L, Neh. vi. 16; 1 Maco. xiv. 27. 

EL'TMAS, the Arabic name of the Jew- 
ish magus or sorcerer Barjesus (Acta xiii. 
6 ff.). 

EMBALMING, the process by w'nich dead 
bodies are preserved from putrefaction and 
decay. It was most general among the 
Egyptians, and it is in connexion with this 
people that the two instances which wa 
meet with in the O. T. are mentioned (Gen. 
1. 2, 26). Of the Egyptian method of em- 
balming there remain two minute accounts, 
which have a general kind of agreement, 
though they differ in details. Herodotus 
(ii. 86-89) describes three modes, varying 
in completeness and expense, and practised 
by persons regularly trained to the profession 
who were initiated into the mysteries of 
the art by their ancestors. The embalmers 
first removed part of the brain through the 
nostrils, by means of a crooked iron, and 
destroyed the rest by injecting caustic drugs. 
An incision was then made along the flank 
with a sharp Ethiopian stone, dnd the whole 
of the intestines removed. The cavity was 
rinsed out with palm-wine, and afterwards 
scoured with pounded perfumes. It was 
then filled with pure myrrh pounded, cassia, 
and other aromatics, except fhuikinoense. 
This done, the body was sewn up and 
steeped in natron for seventy days. When 
the seventy days were accomplished, the 
embalmers washed the corpse and swathed 
it in bandages of linen, cut in strips and 
smeared with gum. They then gave it np to 
the relatives of the deceased, who provided 


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ftyr it a irooden case, made in the shape of a 
xoan, in which the dead was placed, and 
deposited in an erect position againat the wall 
of the sepulchral chamber. The second mode 
of embalming ooet aboat 30 minae. In this 
case no incision was made ia the body, nor 
were the intestines removed, bat cedar-oil 
was injected into the stomach by the rectom. 
The oil was prevented firom escaping, and 
the body was then steeped in natron for 
the appointed number of days. On the last 
day the oil was withdrawn, and earned off 
with it the stomach and intestines in a state 
of solution, while the flesh was consumed 
by the natron, and nothing was left but the 
sUn and bones. The body in this state was 
returned to the relatives of the deceased. 
The third mode, which was adopted by the 
poorer classes, and cost but little, consisted 
in rinsing out the intestines with syrmaea, 
an inftislon of senna and cassia, and steeping 
the body for the usual number of days in 
matrum. It does not appear that embalm* 
ing, properly so called, was practised by the 

EMERALD, a precious stone, first in the 
second row on the breastplate of the high- 
priest (Ex. zxviiU 18, xxxix. 11), imported 
to Tyre fh>m Syria (Es. xxvii. 16), used as a 
seal or signet (Ecclus. xxzii. 6), as an orna- 
ment of clothing and bedding (Es. xxviii. 
13 ; Jud. X. 21), and spoken of as one of 
the foundations of Jerusalem (Rev. xxi. 19 ; 
Tob. xiii. 16). The rainbow round the 
throne is compared to Emerald in Rev. 
Iv. 8. 

EMER0D8 (Deut. xxviii. 27 ; 1 Sam. v. 
6, 9, 12, vi. 4, 5, 11), probably JuMorrfundal 
tmmoura, or bleeding piles, are intended. 
These are very common in Syria at present, 
oriental habits of want of exercise and im- 
proper food, producing derangement of the 
liver, constipation, 6to., being such as to 
cause them. 

E'MIMS, a tribe or family of gigantic 
stature which originally inhabited the region 
along the eastern side of the Dead Sea. 
They were related to the Anakim, and were 
generally called by the same name ; but their 
conquerors the Moabites termed them Emim 
—that is "terrible men" (Deut. ii. 11)— 
most probably on account of their fierce 

EMMAN'UEL, Matt. i. 23. [IiotAKtJEi..] 

EMMA'US, the viUage to which the two 
disciples were going when our Lord appeared 
to them on the way, on the day of His resur- 
Tcotion (Luke xxiv. 18). Luke makes its 
distance from Jerusalem sixfy stadia (A. Y. 
'* threescore furlongs *'), or about 7^ miles ; 
and Joeephus mentions *'a village called 

Emmaus " at the same distance. The site of 
Emmaus remains yet to be identified. 

EMMA'US, or NICOP'OLIS ( 1 Maoc. iU. 
40), a town In the plain of Philistia, at the 
foot of the mountains of Judah, 22 Roman 
miles from Jerusalem, and 10 flrom Lydda. 
It was fortified by Bacohides, the general of 
Antiochus Epiphanes, when he was engaged 
in the war with Jonathan Maccabaeus (1 
Mace. ix. 50). It was in the plain beside 
this city that Judas Maccabaeus so signally 
defeated the Syrians with a mere handftU of 
men, as related in I Mace. iii. 57, Iv. 8, Ac. 
A small miserable village called *A9iwds still 
occupies the site of the ancient city. 

EM'MOR, the fieither of Sychem (Acts vii. 
16). [Hamok.] 

EN, at the beginning of many Hebrew 
words, signifies a spring or fountain. 

EN'-DOR, a place in the territory of 
Issachar, and yet possessed by Manasseh 
(Josh. xvii. 11). Endor was long held in 
memory by the Jewish people as connected 
with the great victory over Sisera and Jabin. 
It was here that the witch dwelt whom Saul 
consulted (1 Sam. xxviiL 7). It was known 
to Eusebius, who describes it as a large 
village 4 miles S. of Tabor. Here to the N. 
of Jebel Duhy the name still lingers. The 
distance flrom the slopes of Gilboa to Endor 
is 7 or 8 miles, over difficult ground. 

EN-EOLA'IM, a place named only by Exe- 
kiel (xlvii. 10), apparently as on the Dead 
Sea; but whether near to or far tram 
Engedi, on the west or east side of the Sea, 
it is impossible to ascertain. 

EN-GAN'NIM. 1. A dty in the low 
eountry of Judah, named between Zanoah 
and Tappuah (Josh. xv. 34). — 9. A dty on 
the border of Issachar (Josh. xix. 21), 
aUotted with its ** suburbs" to the Oer- 
ebonite Levitt (xxi. 29), probably Jenin^ 
the first village encountered on the ascent 
ttom the great plain of Esdraelon into the 
hills of the central country. 

ENGEDl, a town in the wilderness of 
Judah (Josh. xv. 62), on the western shore 
of the Dead Sea (Ez. xlvii. 10). It? original 
name was Hazazon-Tamar, on account of the 
palm-groves which surrounded it (2 Chr. xx. 
2 ; Ecclus. xxiv. 14.) Its site Is about the 
middle of the western shore of the lake, at 
the fountain of Ain Jidy, from which the 
place gets its name. It was immediately 
after an assault upon the **Amorites, that 
dwelt in Hazazon-Tamar," that the five 
Mesopotamian kings were attacked by the 
rulers of the plain of Hodom (Gen. xiv. 7 ; 
comp. 2 Chr. xx. 2). Saul was told that 
David was In the ** wilderness of Engedi ;" 
and he took *' 8000 men, and went to seek 

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Parld and his men upon the rocks of the 
wUd goats" (1 Sam. xzir. }.4). The vine- 
vards of Engedi were celebrated by Solomon 
(Cant.1. 14). 
EN-MISH'PAT, Oen. xir. 7. [Kadkh.] 
E'NOCH. 1. The eldest son of Cain (Gen. 
ir. 17), who called the city which he built 
after his name (18).— S. The son of Jared 
and father of Methuselah (Gen. ▼. 21 ff. ; 
Luke ill. 28). In the Epistle of Jude (▼. 24) 
he is described as *' the seventh from Adam ;'* 
and the number Is probably noticed as con- 
▼eying the idea of divine completion and 
rest, while Enoch was himself a type of per- 
fected humanity. After the birth of Methu- 
selah it is said (Gen. ▼. 22-4) that Enoch 
*' i^-alked with God 300 years . . . and he 
was not ; for God took him." The phrase 
*' walked with God " is elsewhere only used 
of Noah (Gen. vi. 9 ; cf. Gen. xtU. 1, &o.), 
and is to be explained of a prophetic life 
spent in immediate converse with the spiri- 
tual world. In the epistle to the Hebrews 
the spring and issue of Enoch's life are 
clearly marked.— Both the Latin and Ctreek 
fathers commonly coupled Enoch and El^ah 
as historic witnesses of the possibility of a 
resurrection of the body and of a true human 
existence in ^ory; and the voice of early 
eccleaiastical tradition is almost unanimous 
in regarding them as "the two witnesses" 
(Bev. xL 8 ff.) who should fall before " the 

ENOCH, THE BOOK OF. The first trace 
of its existence is generally found in the 
Epistie of St. Jude (14, 15), but the words of 
the Apostie leave it uncertain whether he 
derived his quotation firom tradition or from 
writing, though the wide spread of the book 
in the second century seems almost decisive 
in favour of the latter supposition. Consider- 
able fi-agments are preserved in the ChronO' 
graphia of Georgius Syneellus (about 792 
A.D.), and these, with the scanty notices of 
earlier writers, constituted the sole remains 
of the book known in Europe till the close of 
the last century. Meanwhile, however, a 
report was current that the entire book was 
preserved in Abyssinia; and at length, in 
1778, Bruce brought with him on his return 
from Egypt three MSS. containing the com- 
plete Ethiopic translation. The Ethiopio 
translation was made f^om the Greek, and 
probably towards the middle or close of the 
fourth century. But it is uncertain whether 
the Greek text was the original, or itself a 
translation from the Hebrew. In its present 
shape the book consists of a series of revela- 
tions supposed to have been given to Enoch 
and Noah, which extend to the most varied 
aspects of nature and life, and are designed 

to offer a comprehensive vindication of the 
action of Providence. Notwithstanding the 
quotation in St. Jude, and the wide circula- 
tion of the book itself, the apocalypse of 
Enoch was uniformly and distinctly separated 
from the canonical scriptures. 

E'NON, a place ** near to Salim," at which 
John baptized (John iii. ,23). It was evi- 
dentiy west of the Jordan (comp. iiL 22, with 
26, and with i. 28), and abounded in water. 
This is indicated by the name, which is merely 
a Greek version of a Chaldee word, signifying 
** springs." Aenon is given in the Orumas^ 
tieon as 8 miles south of Scythopolis " near 
Salem and the Jordan." 

E'NOS. The son of Seth ; properly called 
Enosh, as in 1 Chr. i. 1 (Gen. iv. 26, v. 6, 7, 
9, 10, 11; Luke iiL 38). 

EN-RO'GEL, a spring which formed one 
of the landmarks on the boundary-line 
between Judah (Josh. xv. 7) and Benjamin 
(xviii. 16). Here, Jonathan and Ahimaax 
remained, after the flight of David, awaiting 
intelligence from within the walls (2 Sam. 
xvii. 17) ; and here, by the stone Zoheleth, 
which is close to En-rogel, Adon^ah held the 
feast, which was the first and last act of his 
attempt on the crown (1 K. i. 9). It may 
be identified with the present " Fountain oi 
the Virgin," *Ain Umm ed-Deuxi^ — the pe- 
rennial source firom which the Fool of Siloam 
is supplied. 

EN-SHEM'ESH, a spring which formed 
one of the landmarks on the north boundary 
of Judah (Josh. xv. 7) and the south boundary 
of Benjamin (xviii. 17), perhaps Ain-Haud 
or Ain-Ch6tr-ih» " Well of the Aposties:" — 
about a mile below Bethany. 

EFAE'NETUS, a Christian at Rome, 
greeted by St. Paul in Bom. xvi. 3, and 
designated as his beloved, and the first fhiit 
of Asia unto Christ. 

EP'APHRAS, a fellow-labourer witii the 
ApoeUe Paul, mentioned Col. L 7, as having 
taught the Colossian church the grace of God 
in truth, and designated a faithftil minister 
of Christ on their behalf. He was at that 
time with St. Paul at Rome (Col. iv. 12), and 
seems by the expression there used to have 
been a Colossian by birth. We find him 
again mentioned In the Epistle to Philemon 
(ver. 23), which was sent at the same time 
as that to the Colossians. Epaphras may be 
the same as Epaphroditus, but the notices in 
the N. T. do not enable us to speak with any 

EPAPHRODI'TUS (Phil. li. 23, iv. 18). 
See above under Epaphras. 

E'PHAH, the first, in order, of the sons of 
Midian (Gen. zxv. 4 ; 1 Chr. i. S3), after- 
wards mentioned by Isaiah (Ix. 6, 7). 

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EPHAH. [MsASumn.] 

ETHBB, fhe second, in order, of the tone 
of Midian (Oen. xzt. 4 ; 1 Chr. i. S8). 

S'PHES-DAM'MIM, » plaoe between Soooh 
and Aiekah, at which the PhilistinM wer« 
encamped before the aifray in which Goliath 
waa kiUed (1 6am. xvii. 1). Under the 
shorter fbrm of Pas-damxim it oooors ones 
again in a similar connexicm (1 Chr. xi. 1&). 

was written by the Apostle St. Paul during 
his first captivity at Borne (Acts xxTiiL 16), 
apparently immediately after he had written 
the Epistle to the Oolossians [Colossiams, ep. 
to], and daring that period (perhaps the 
early part of ▲.!>. 62) when his imprisonment 
had not assomed the scTcrer character which 
eeems to have marked its close. This epistle 
-was addressed to the Christian church at 
Ephesos. [Ephxsxjs.] Its contents may be 
divided into two portions, the first mainly 
dootrmal (ch. L — iU.), the second hortatoiy 
and pnu^eal. The Apostle reminds his eon- 
verts that they had been redeemed fktnn sin 
by grace, and not by works, and he exhorts 
them to walk worthy of this calling, and to 
keep the unity of the Spirit. 

EPH'ESUS, the capital of the Roman pro- 
vince of Asia, and an illustrious city in the 
district of Ionia, nearly opposite the island of 
Samoa. St. Paul's life famishes illustrations 
of the mercantile relations of Ephesus with 
Aehaia on the W., Macedonia on the N., and 
Syria on the E. As to the relations of Ephesus 
to the inland regions of the continent, these 
also are prominentiy brought before us in the 
Apostle's travels. The " upper coasts " (AcU 
xix. 1) through which he p a ss e d , when about 
to take up his residence in the city, were the 
Phrygian table-lands of the interior. Two 
great roads at least, in the Boman times, led 
eastward fhnn Ephesus; one through the 
posses of Tmolus to Sardis (Rev. iiL 1) and 
thence to Oalatia and the N.E., the other xotmd 
the extremity of Pactyas to Magnesia, and so 
up the valley of the Maeander to loonium, 
whence the communication was direct to the 
Euphrates and to the Syrian Antioch. There 
seem to have been Sardian and Magnesian 
gates on the E. side of Ephesus correspond- 
ing to these roads respectively. There were 
also coast-roads leading northwards to Smyrna 
and southwards to Miletus. By the latter of 
these it is probable that the Ephesian elders 
travelled when summoned to meet Paul at 
the latter city (Acts xx. 1 7, 1 8). Cons^cuous 
at the head of the harbour of Ephesus was 
the great temple of Diana or Artemis, the 
tutelary divinity of the city. This building 
was raised on immense substructions, in con- 
•aquenoe of the swampy nature of the ground. 

B3cO. B. 

The earlier temple, which had been begun 
before the Persian war, was burnt down in 
the night when Alexander the Great waa 
bom ; and another stracture, raised by the 
enthusiastic co*operation of all the inhabi- 
tants of " AsU " had taken ita place. The 
magnificence of this sanctuary was a proverb 
throughout the civilised world. In conse- 
quence of this devotion the city of Ephesus 
was called imuc6fiot (Acts xix. 85) or *' war- 
den " of Diana. Another consequence of the 
celebrity of Diana's worship at Ephesus was, 
that a large manufkctory grew up there of 
portable shrines, which strangers purchased, 
and devotees carried with them on Journeys 
or set up in their houses. Of the manuftic- 
turers engaged in this business, perhaps 
Alexander the ''coppersmith" (2 Tim. iv. 
14) was one. The case of Demetrius the 
"silversmith" is explicit. The city was 
celebrated for its magical arts. In illustra- 
tion of the magical books which were publicly 
burnt (ver. 19) under the influence of St. 
Paul's preaching, it is enough here to refer 
to the Jfyhetiam. Writingi (mentioned by 
Plutarch and others), which were regarded 
as a charm when pronounced, and whec 
written down were carried about as amulets. 
Aria was a proconsular province; and in 
harmony with this fsct we find proeonsuls 
(A. V. " deputies ") specially mentioned (ver. 
88). Again we leam ftrom Pliny (v. 81) that 
Ephesus was an assise-town; and in the 
sacred narrative (ver. 88) we find the court- 
days alladed to as actually being held (A. Y. 
** the law is open ") during the uproar. 
Ephesus itself was a ** f^ee city," and had its 
own assemblies and its own magistrates. 
The senate is mentioned by Josophus ; and 
St. Luke, in the marrative before us, speaks 
of " the people " and of its customary assem- 
bUes (ver. 80, A. Y. "a lawful assemUy"). 
We even find conspicuous mention made of 
one of the most important municipal oflloers 
of Ephesus, the ** Town-Clerk " or keeper of 
the records, whom we know firom other 
sources to have been a person of great ia- 
fluenoe and responsibility. It is remarkable 
how all these political and religious cha- 
racteristics of Ephesus, which appear in the 
sacred narrative, are illustrated by inscrip- 
tions and coins. The coins of Ephesus are 
full ol allusions to the worship of Diana in 
various aspects. The Jews were established 
there in considerable numbers (Acts ii. 9, vi. 
9). It is here, and here only, that we find 
disciples of John the Baptist explicitiy men- 
tioned after the ascension of Christ (Acta 
xviii. 25, xix. 8). The case of Apollos 
(xviii. 24) is an exemplification fhrther of 
the intercourse between this place and Alox- 

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andria. The first seeds of Christian truth 
-were possibly sown at Ephesus immediately 
after the Great Pentecost (Acts ii.). In St. 
Paul's stay of more than two years (ziz. 8, 
10, XX. 31), which formed the most important 
passage of his third circuit, and during 
which he laboured, first in the synagogue 
(xix. 8), and then in the school of Tyrannus 
(ver. 9), and also in private houses (xx. 30), 
and during which he wrote the First Epistle 
to the Corinthians, we have the period of the 
chief evangelization of this shore of the 
Aegean. The address at Miletus shows that 
the church at Ephesus was thoroughly orga- 
nised under its presbyters. At a later period 
TraoTHT was set over them, as we learn 
from the two epistles addressed to him. 
Among St. Paul's other companions, two, 
Trophimus and Tychicus, were natives of 
Asia (xx. 4), and the latter probably (2 Tim. 
iv. 12), the former certainly (Acts xxi. 29), 
natives of Ephesus. In the same connexion 
we ought to mention Onesiphorus (2 Tim. i. 
16-18) and his household (ir. 19). On the 
other hand must be noticed certain specified 
Ephenian antagonists of the Apostle, the sons 
of Sceva and his party (Acts xix. 14), Hy- 
menaeus and Alexander (1 Tim. i. 20 ; 2 
Tim. iv. 14), and Phygellus and Hermogenes 
(2 Tim. i. 15). The whole place is now 
utterly desolate, with the exception of the 
small Turkish village at Ayasaluk. The 
ruins are of vast extent. 

EPHOD, a sacred vestment originally ap- 
propriate to the high-priest (Ex. xxviii. 4), 
but afterwards worn by ordinary priests (1 
Sam. xxii. 18), and deemed characteristic of 
the office (1 Sam. ii. 38, xiv. 3 ; Hos. iii. 4). 
For a description of the robe itself see High* 
Pbibst. The importance of the Ephod as the 
receptacle of the breastplate led to its adop- 
tion in the idolatrous forms of worship Insti- 
tuted in the time of the Judges (Judg. viii. 
27, xvU. 6, xviii. 14 ff.). 

E'PHRAIM, the second son of Joseph by 
his wife Asenath. The first indication we 
have of that ascendancy over his elder brother 
Manasseh, which at a later period the tribe 
of Ephraim so unmistakably possessed, is in 
the blessing of the children by Jacob, Gen. 
xlviii. Ephraim would appear at that time 
to have been about 21 years old. He was 
bom before the beginning of the seven years 
of famine, towards the latter part of which 
Jacob had oome to Egypt, 17 years before his 
death (Gen. xlvii. 28). Before Joseph's 
death Ephralm's family had reached the 
third generation (Gen. 1. 28), and it must 
have been about this time that the afftay 
mentioned in 1 Chr. viL 21 occurred. To 
this early period too must probably be re- 

ferred the circumstance alluded to in Po. 
Ixxviii. 9. It is at the time of the sending 
of the spies to the Promised Land that we 
are first introduced to the great hero to whom 
the tribe owed much of its subsequent great- 
ness. Under Joshua the tribe must have 
taken a high position in the nation, to judge 
from the tone which the Ephraimites assumed 
on occasions shortly subsequent to the con- 
quest. The boundaries of the portion of 
Ephraim are given in Josh. xvi. 1-10. The 
south boundary was coincident for part of its 
length with the north boundary of Benjamin. 
It extended firom the Jordan on the E., at 
the reach opposite Jericho, to the Mediterra- 
nean on the W., probably about Joppa. On 
the N. of Ephraim and Manasseh were the 
tribes of Asher, Zebulun, and Issachar. The 
territory thus allotted to the <* house of 
Joseph" may be roughly estimated at 55 
miles f^om E. to YT. by 70 fh>m N. to S., a 
portion about equal in extent to the counties 
of Norfolk and Suffolk combined. But 
though similar in size, nothing can be more 
different in its nature Arom those level 
counties than this broken and hilly tract. 
Central Palestine consists of an elevated dis- 
trict which rises from the flat ranges of the 
wilderness on the south of Judah, and termi- 
nates on the north with the slopes which de- 
scend into the great plain of EsdraJelon. On 
the west a flat strip separates it fh>m the sea, 
and on the east another flat strip forms the 
valley of the Jordan. Of this district the 
northern half was occupied by the greai tribe 
we are now considering. This was tl)e J?ar- 
Sphraim, the ** Mount Ephraim,*' a district 
which seems to extend as fkr south as Ramah 
and Bethel (1 Sam. i. 1, vii. 17 ; 2 Chr. xiii. 
4, 19, compared with xv. 8), places but a 
few miles north of Jerusalem, and within the 
limits of Benjamin. After the revolt of 
Jeroboam, the history of Ephraim is the 
history of the kingdom of Israel, since not 
only cQd the tribe become a kingdom, but the 
kingdom embraced little besides the tribe. 
This is not surprising, and quite susceptible 
of explanation. North of Ephraim the 
country appears never to have been really 
taken possession of by the Israelites. And 
in addition to this original defect there is 
much in the physical formation and circum- 
stances of the upper portion of Palestine to 
explain why those tribes never took any 
active j>art in the kingdom. But on the 
other hand the position of Ephraim was alto- 
gether different. It was one at once of greet 
richness and great security. Her fsTtilD 
plains and well watered valleys oould only be 
reached by a laborious ascent through steep 
and narrow ravines, all but impassable for 

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an army. There I0 no reoord of any attack 
on the central kingdom, either from the 
Jordan valley or the maritime plain. On 
the north side, from the plain of Esdraelon, 
it was more acoessihle, and it was from this 
aide that the final invasion appears to have 
been made. 

E^HRAIBL In«Baal.hasorwhichi8by 
Ephraim" was Absalom's sheep-farm, at 
which took place the murder of Amnon, one 
of the earliest precursors of the gnreat revolt 
(2 Sam. xiiL 23). There is no due to its 

ETHRAIM, a city "in the district near 
the wilderness" to which our Lord retired 
with his disciples when threatened with 
violence by the priests (John zi. 54). Per- 
haps Ophrah and Ephraim are identical, and 
their modem representative Is et'Ta^^ibeh. 
It is situated 4 or 5 miles east of Bethel, and 
16 fhMn Jerusalem. 

E'PH&AIM, GATE OF, one of the gates of 
the city of Jerusalem (3 E. xiv. 13 ; 3 Chr. 
xzv. 23 ; Neh. viii. 16, xii. 39), probably at 
or near the position of the present ** Damascus 

E'PHRAIM, THE WOOD OF, a wood, or 
rather a forest on the E. of Jordan, in which 
the ftital battle was fought between the armies 
of David and of Absalom (3 Sam. xviil. 6). 
The name is probably derived firom the 
slaughter of Ephraim at the fords of Jordan 
by the Oileadites under Jephthah (Judg. xii. 
1. 4, 5). 

EPHRA'IN, a city of Israel, which with its 
dependent hamlets Ab^ah and the army of 
Jodah captured from Jeroboam (3 Chr. xiii. 
19). It has been ooi^ectured that this Eph- 
rain or Ephron is identical with the Ephraim 
by which Abealom*s sheep-lkrm of Baal-hasor 
was situated ; with the city called Ephraim 
near the wilderness in whidh our Lord lived 
for some time ; and with Ophrah, a city of 
Benjamin, apparently not far fh»n Bethel. 
But nothing more than oonjectnre can be 
crrived at on these points. 

EPH'RATAH, or EPH'RATH. 1. Second 
wife of Caleb the son of Hezron, mother of 
Hur, and cnrandmother of Caleb the spy, ac- 
cording to 1 Chr. ii. 19, 60, and probably 34, 
and iv. 4. — 8. The ancient name of Bethle- 
hem-Jndah, as is maniiiest fh>m Gen. zxzv. 
16. 19, xlviil. 7. 

EPH'RON. 1. The son of Zoohar, a 
Hittite, fktm whom Abraham bought the field 
and cave of Machpelah (Gen. xxiiL 8-17 ; 
xxT. 9, zlix. 29, 39, 1. 13).— S. A very 
strong city on the east of Jordan between 
Oantaim (Ashteroth-Kamaim) and Beth- 
ahean, attacked and demoUshed by Judas Mac- 
eabaeos (1 Ifaoo. v. 46-52 • 2 Maoo. xii. 27). 

EPHTION, MOUNT. The "cities cf 
Mount Ephron" formed one of the land- 
marks on the northern boundary of the tribe 
of Judah (Josh. xv. 9). 

EPICURE'ANS, THE, derived their name 
flrom Epicurus (842-271 B.C.), a philosopher 
of Attic descent, whose " Garden '* at Athens 
rivalled in popularity the "Porch" and the 
"Academy." The doctrines of Epicurus 
found wide acceptance in Asia Minor and 
Alexandria, and they gained a brilliant advo- 
cate at Rome in Lucretius (95-50 b.c). The 
object of Epicurus was to find in philosophy 
a practical guide to happiness. True plea- 
sure and not absolute trutii was the end at 
which he aimed ; experience and not reason 
the test on which he relied. It is obvious 
that a system thus framed would degenerate 
by a natural descent into mere materialism ; 
and in this form Epicureism was the popular 
philosophy at the beginning of the Christian 
era. When St Paul addressed " Epicureans 
and Stoics" (Acts xvU. 18) at Athens, the 
philosophy of life was practically reduced to 
the teaching of those two antagonistic 

EPIPH'ANES (1 Mace. 1. 10, x. 1). [Ar- 
nocRus Epiphanbs.] 

EP'IPHI (3 Maco. vi. 38), name of the 
eleventh month of the Eg3n;>tian Yague year, 
and the Alexandrian or Eg3n;>tiau Julian 

EPISTLE. The Epistles of the N. T. in 
their outward form are such as might be ex- 
pected tvom men who were brought into con- 
tact with Greek and Roman customs, them- 
selves belonging to a diflSerent race, and so 
reproducing the imported style with only 
partial accuracy. They begin (the Epistle to 
the Hebrews and 1 John excepted) with the 
names of the writer, and of those to whom 
the Epistle is addressed. Then follows the 
formula of salutation. Then the letter itself 
commences, in the first person, the singular 
andpluralbeing used indiscriminately. When 
the substance of the letter has been com- 
pleted, come the individual messages. The 
conclusion in this case was probably modified 
by the fact that the letters were dictated to 
an amanuensis. When he had done his work, 
the Apostle took up the pen or reed, and 
added, in his own large characters (Gal. vi. 1 1 ) 
the authenticating autograph. In one in- 
stance, Rom. xvi. 22, the amanuensis in his 
own name adds his salutation. An allusion 
in 2 Cor. ilL 1 brings before us another class 
of letters which must have been in frequent 
use in the early ages of the Christian Church, 
by which travellers or teachers were com- 
mended by one ohuroh to the good offices of 

M 2 
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ER, flnt-born of Jndah. Er ** was wicked 
in the sight of the Lord ; and the Lord slew 
him." It does not appear what the nature 
of his sin was; but, trom his Canaanitish 
birth on the mother's side, it was probably 
connected with the abominable idolatries of 
Canaan (Gen. xxxviii. 8-7 ; Num. xxtL 19). 

ER'ECH, one of the cities of Nimrod's 
kingdom in the land of Shinar (Gen. x. 10), 
doubtless the same as OrchoS, 82 miles 8. 
and 48 E. of Babylon, the modem designa- 
tions of the site, Warka, Irka, and Irak, 
bearing a considerable affinity to the original 

ERAST'nS, one of the attendants or dea- 
cons of St. Paul at Ephesus, who with Timothy 
was sent forward into Macedonia while the 
Apostle himself remained in Asia (Acts xix. 
32). He is probably the same with Erastus 
who is again mentioned in the salutations to 
Timothy (2 Tim. iiL 20), though not the 
same with Erastus the chamberlain, or rather 
the public treasurer, of Corinth (Rom. xtL 28). 

ESA'IAS, the form of the name of the 
prophet Isaiah in the N. T. [Isaiah.] 

E'SAR-HA'DDON, one of the greatest of 
the kings of Assyria, was the son of Senna- 
cherib (2 K. xix. 87) and the grandson of 
Sargon who succeeded Shahnaneser. Nothiag 
is really known of Xsar-haddon until his ae- 
ceesion (ab. b.o. 680 ; 2 K. xix. 37 ; Is. 
xxxTiL 88). He appears- by his monuments 
to have heen one of the most powerful — ^if not 
tJu most powerftil^H>f all the Assyrian »o- 
narohs. He carried his arms over all Asia 
between the Persian Gulf^ the Armenian 
mountains, and the Mediterranean. In con- 
sequence of the disaffection of Babylon, and 
its fluent rerolts trwa former Assyrian 
kings, Esar-haddon, haTing subdued the sons 
of Merodach-Baladan who headed the national 
party, introduced the new policy of subeti- 
tuting for the fbrmer goyemment by riceroys, 
a direct dependence upon the Assyrian crown. 
He is the only Assyrian monarch whom we 
find to have actually reigned at Babylon, 
where he built himself a palace, bricks ttom 
which haye been recently recovered bearing 
hiiname. His Babylonian reign lasted thirteen 
years, trom b.o. 680 to b.c 667 ; and it was 
doubtless within this space of time that 
Manasseh, king of Judah, having been seized 
by his captains at Jerusalem on a charge of 
rebellion, was brought before him ai Babylon 
;2 Chr. xxxiiL 11) and detained for a time as 
prisoner there. As a builder of great works 
Esar-haddon is particularly distinguished. 
Besides his palace at Babylon, he built at 
least three others in different parts of his 
dominions, either for himself or his son. 
The south-west palace at Nimrud is the best 

preserved of his constructions. It is con- 
jectured that Esar-haddon died about b.c. 

E'SAU, the eldest son of Isaac, and twin- 
brother of Jacob. The singular i^pearance 
of the child at his birth originated the name 
(Esau means hairy ^ Gen. xxv. 25). This was 
not the only remarkable circumstance con- 
nected with the birth of the infiuit. Even in 
the womb the twin-brothers struggled to- 
gether (xxv. 22). Esau's robust fhune and 
" rough" aspect were the types of a wild and 
daring nature. The peculiarities of his cha- 
racter soon began to develope themselves. 
He was, in flEict, a thorough Bedouin, a ** son 
of the desert," who delighted to roam firee as 
the wind of heaven, and who was impatient 
of the restraints of civilised or settled life. 
His old fother, by a caprice of affection not 
uncommon, loved his wilfhl, vagrant boy; 
and his keen relish for savoury food being 
gratified by Esau's venison, he liked him all 
the better for his skiU in hunting (xxv. 28). 
An event occurred which exhibited the reck- 
Ims character of Esau on the one hand, and 
the selfish, grasping nature of his brother on 
the other. Jacob takes advantage of his 
brother's distress to rob him of that which 
was dear as life itself to an Eastern patriarch. 
Esau married at the age of 40, and contrary 
to the wish of his parents. His wives were 
both Canaanites; and they '*were bitterness 
of spirit unto Isaac and to Rebekah" (Gen.. 
xxvL 34, 85). The next episode in the his^ 
tory of Esau and Jacob is still more painfkd 
than the former. Jacob, through the craft 
of his mother, is again sucoessftd, and secures 
irrevocably the covenant blessing. Esau vows 
vengeance. But he knew not a mother's 
watohftil care. By a characteristic piece of 
domestio policy Rebekah snoeeeded both in 
exciting Isaac's anger against Esau, and ob- 
taining his consent to Jacob's departurcL 
When Esau heard that his fother had com- 
manded Jacob to take a wife of the daughters 
of his kinsman Laban, he also resolved to try 
whether by a new alliance he could prt^tiate 
his parents. He accordLigly married his 
cousin Mahalath, the daughter of Ishmael 
(xxviii. 8, 9). This marriage appears to hav« 
brought him into connexion with the Ish- 
maelitish tribes beyond the valley of Arabah. 
He soon aiterwards established himself in 
Mount Seir ; still retaining, however, some 
interest in his fother's property in Southern 
Palestine. He was residing in Mount Seir 
when Jacob returned ttom Padan<«ram, and 
had then become so rich and powerf^ that the 
impressions of his brother's early offences 
seem to have been almost completely effiMed. 
It does not appear that the brothers again 

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met onui the death of their ftither about 
20 yean afterwards. They onHed in laying 
leaao's body in the care of Maohpelah. Of 
B«aa'B sttbieqaent history nothing is known ; 
for dut of his descendants see EnoM . 

E'SAT, the form of the name of Isaiah in 
Eeolos. xlTiiL 20, 33 ; 2 Esd. iL 18. [Isaiah.] 

ESDRAEfLON. This name is merely the 
Greek finrm of the Hebrew word Jurkkl. It 
ooeors in this exact shape only twice in the 
A. y. (Jnd. iiL 9, It. 6). In Jud. iii. 3 it is 
EsoBAXLOM, and in i. 8 Esdsblom, with the 
addition of ** the great phdn." In the 0. T. 
the plain is called the Yallst op Jeskkbl ; 
by Joeephns ** the great plain.'* The name 
is derived from the old royal city of Jrzbxkl, 
which ooeapied a commanding site, near the 
eastern extremity of the plain, on a spur of 
Mount Qilboa. ** The Great plain of Esdrae- 
lon" extends across Central Palestine fh»n 
the Mediterranean to the Jordan, separating 
the mountain ranges of Carmel and Samaria 
from those of Galilee. The -western section 
of it is properly the plain of Accho, or *JJkka, 
The main body of the plain Is a triangle. Its 
base on the east extends ftrom Jm(m (the 
BUdent Rngannim) to the foot of the hills 
below Naiareth, and is about 15 miles long : 
the north side, formed by the hills of Galilee, 
is about 12 miles long; and the soath side, 
formed by the Samaria range, is about 18 
miles. The apex on the west is a narrow 
pass opening into the plain of *jikka. From 
the base of this triangular plain three branches 
stretch out eastward, like lingers from a 
band, dirided by two bleak, grey ridges— one 
bearing the familiar name of Mount Gilboa ; 
the other called l:^ Franks Little Hermon, 
but by natiTBS Jebel ed-Duhy. The emtral 
branch is the richest as well as the most 
celebrated. This is the «* Valley of Jesreel " 
proper— the battle-field on which Gideon 
triumphed, and Saul and Jonathan were over- 
thrown (Judg. Tii. 1, sq. ; 1 Sam. xxix. and 
xxxi.)« Two things are worthy of special 
notice in the plain of Esdraelon. 1. its 
wonderftil richness. 2. its desolation. If 
we except the eastern branches, there is not 
a single inhabited village on its whole sur- 
face, and not more than one-sixth of its soil 
is cultivated. It is the home of the wild 
wandering Bedouin. 

SSl>RAS. The form of the name of Ezra 
the scribe in 1 and 2 Esdras. 

ESDRAS, FIRST BOOK OF, the first in 
order of the Apocryphal books in the English 
Bible. It was never known to exist in 
Hebrew and formed no part of the Hebrew 
Canon. As regards the contents of the book, 
and the author or authors of it — the first 
ehapter is a transcript of the two last chapters 

of 3 Chr. for the most part verhaUmy and only 
in one or two parts slightly abridged and 
paraphrased. Chapters ill., iv., and v., to 
the end of v. 6, are the original portions of 
the book, and the rest is a transcript more or 
less exact of the book of Eara, with the 
chapters transposed and quite otherwise ar- 
ranged, and a portion of Nehemiah. Henoe 
a twofold design in the compiler is discernible. 
One to introduce and give Scriptural sanction 
to the legend about Zerubbabel ; the other to 
explain the great obscurities of the book of 
Exra, in which however he has signally failed. 
As regards the time and place when the com- 
pilation was made, the original portion is 
that which alone affords much due. This 
seems to indicate that the writer was tho- 
roughly conversant with Hebrew, even if he 
did not write the book in that language. He 
was well acquainted too with the books of 
Esther and Daniel (1 Esdr. iiL 1, 2 sqq.), and 
other books of Scripture {ib, 20, 21, 39, 41, 
ftc, and 45 compared wiUi Ps. cxxxvii. 7). 
But that he did not live under the Persian 
kings, appears by the undiscriminating way 
in which he uses promiscuously the phrase 
Med0$ and PsrnofM, or, Patiant and Medea, 
aooordii^ as he happened to be imitating the 
language of Daniel or of the book of Esther. 

the English Version of the Apocrypha, and so 
called by the author (2 Esdr. i. 1). The 
original title, ** the Apocalypse of Eira," is 
far more appropriate. Chapters iii.-xiv. con- 
sist of a series of angelic revelations and 
visions in which Eara is instructed in some 
of the great mysteries of the moral world, a^d 
assured of the final triumph of the righteous. 
The date of the book is uncertain, but there 
can be no doubt that it is a genuine product 
of Jewish thought. The Apocalypse was pro- 
bably written in Egypt; the opening and 
dosing chapters certainly were. Though this 
book is included among those which are 
" read for examples of life ** by the English 
Church, no use of it is there made in publio 

E'SEK, a well, which the herdsmen of 
Isaac dug in the valley of Gerar (Gen. 
XX vi. 20). 

ESH-BA'AL, the fourth son of Saul, ac- 
cording to the genealogies of 1 Chr. viii. 3 » 
and ix. 89, is doubtless the same person as 


ESH'BAN, a Horlte ; one of the four sons 
of DisHAK (Gen. xxxvL 26 ; 1 Chr. i. 41). 

ESH'COL, brother of Mamre the Amorito, 
and of Aner; and one of Abraham's ctmi- 
panions in his pursuit of the four kings who 
had carried off Lot (Gen. xiv. 18, 24). 


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BROOK OF, a watfy in the neighbourhood of 
Hebron, explored by the spies who were sent 
by Hoses from Kadesh-bamea (Num. xzxiii. 
9 ; Dent. i. 24). The name is still attached 
to a spring of fine water called *Ain'E8hkali, 
in a valley about two miles north of Hebron. 

ESH'EAN, olie of the cities of Judah (Josh. 
XT. 52). 

E'SHEK, a Benjamite, one of the late de- 
scendants of Saul (1 Chr. viii. 89). 

ESH'KALONITES, THE, Josh. xiii. 3. 


ESH'TAOL, a town in the low country— 
the Sh^elah— of Judah, afterwards allotted to 
Dan (Josh. xv. 88, xix. 41). Here Samson 
spent his boyhood, and hither after his last 
exploit his body was brought (Judg. xiii. 25, 
xvi. 81, xviii. 2, 8, 11, 12). 

ESHTEMO'A, and in shorter form E8HTE- 
MOH', a town of Judah, in the mountains 
(Josh. XV. 50), allotted to the priests (xxi. 
14 ; 1 Chr. vi. 57). It was one of the places 
frequented by David and his followers during 
the long period of their wanderings (1 Sam. 
XXX. 28, comp. 81). Its site is at Sanu*a^ a 
village seven miles south of Hebron. . Eshte- 
moa appears to have been founded by the 
descendants of the Egyptian wife of a certain 
Mered (1 Chr. iv. 17). 

ESSE'N^S, a Jewish sect, who, according 
to the description of Josephus, combined the 
ascetic virtues of the Pythagoreans and Stoics 
with a spiritual knowledge of the Divine 
Law. It seems probable that the name sig- 
nifies " «0«r," or ** the sUent^ the mysterious." 
As a sect the Essenes were distinguished by 
an aspiration after ideal purity rather than 
by any special code of doctrines. From the 
Maccabaean age there was a continuous effort 
among the stricter Jews to attain an absolute 
standard of holiness. Each class of devotees 
was looked upon as practically impure by 
their successors, who carried the laws of 
purity still farther ; and the Essenes stand at 
the extreme limit of the mystic asceticism 
which was thus gradually reduced to shape. 
To the Pharisees they stood nearly in the same 
relation as that in which the Pharisees them- 
selves stood with regard to the mass of the 
]>eople. There were isolated communities 
of Essenes, which were regulated by strict 
rules, anaI(^ous to those of the monastic in- 
stitutions of a later date. All things were 
held in common, without distinction of pro- 
perty ; and si)ecial provision was made for the 
relief of the poor. Self-denial, temperance, 
and labour— especially agriculture — were the 
marks of the outward life of the Essenes ; 
purity and divine communion the objects of 
their aspiration. Slavery, war, and com- 
merce were alike forbidden. Their best- 

known settlements were on the N.W. shore 
of the Dead Sea. i 

ES'THER, the Persian name of Hadassah, 
daughter of Abihail the son of Shlmei, the son 
of Kish, a Benjamite. Esther was a beautiful 
Jewish maiden, whose ancestor Kish had 
been among the captives led away fh>m Jeru- 
salem by Nebuchadnezzar when Jehoiachin 
was taken captive. She was an orphan with- 
out father or mother, and had been brought 
up by her cousin Mordecai, who had an oflSce 
in the household of Ahasuerus king of Persia, 
and dwelt at '* Shushan the palace." When 
Yashtl was dismissed fh>m being queen, and 
all the fairest virgins of the kingdom had 
been collected at Shushan for the king to 
make choice of a successor to her from among 
them, the choice fell upon Esther. The king 
was not aware, however, of her race and 
parentage ; and so, on the representation of 
Haman the Agagite that the Jews scattered 
through his empire were a pernicious race, he 
gave him fall power and authority to kill 
them all, young and old, women and children, 
and take possession of their property. The 
means taken by Esther to avert this great 
calamity from her people and her kindred are 
fully related in the book of Esther. History 
is wholly silent both about Yashti and Esther. 
Herodotus mentions only one of Xerxes' 
wives ; Scripture mentions two only. If in- 
deed either of them were wives at all. It 
seems natural to conclude that Esther, a cap- 
tive, and one of the harem, was not of the 
highest rank of wives, but that a special 
honour, with the name of queen, may 
have been given to her, as to Yashti before 
her, as the fevourite concubine or inferior 
wife, whose offspring, however, if she had 
any, would not have succeeded to the Persian 

ES'THER, BOOK OF, one of the latest of 
the canonical books of Scripture, having been 
written late in the reign of Xerxes, or early 
in that of his son Artaxerxes Longimanus. 
The author is not known, but may very pro- 
bably have been Mordecai himself. Those 
who ascribe it to Esra, or the men of the 
Great Synagogue, may have merely meant 
that Ezra edited and added it to the canon of 
Scripture, which he probably did. The book 
of Esther is placed among the hagiographa 
by the Jews, and in that first portion of them 
which they call *' the five rolls." It is some- 
times emphaUcally called Megilldh (" roU"), 
without other distinction, and is read through 
by the Jews in their synagogues at the feast 
of Purim. It has often been remarked as a 
peculiarity of this book that the name of God 
does not once occur in it. The style of 
writing is remarkably chaste and simple. It 

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doM not in the least aavoor of romance. The 
Hebrew la Tery like that of Ezra and parts of 
the Chronicles; generally pure, but mixed 
vith some words of Persian origin, and some 
of Chaldaio afllnity. In short it is just what 
one would expect to find in a work of the age 
to which ihe book of Esther professes to belong. 
As regards the Septuagint rersion of the 
book, it oonsists of the canonical Esther with 
Tarious interpolations prefixed, interspersed, 
and added at ihe close. Though, however, 
the interpolations of the Greek copy are thus 
manifest, they make, a oonsiBtent and in- 
telligible story. But the Apocryphal addi- 
tions aa they are inserted in some editions of 
the Latin Vulgate, and in the English Bible, 
are incomprehensible. 

E'TAM. 1. A Tillage of the tribe of 
Simecm, spedfled only in the list in 1 Chr. 
iv. 33 (comp. Josh. xix. 7). — ^8. A place in 
Judah, fortified and garrisoned by Rehoboam 
(3 Chr. xL 6). Here, according to the state- 
ments of Josephus and the Talmudists, were 
the sources of the water ftrom which Solomon's 
gardens and pleasure-grounds were fed, and 
Bethlehem and the Temple supplied. 

E'TAH, THE BOCK, a cliff or lofty rock, 
into a cleft or chasm of which Samson retired 
after his slaughter of the Philistines (Judg. 
XT. 8, 11). This natural stronghold was in 
the tribe of Judah ; and near it, probably at 
its foot, was Lehi or Ramath-lehi, and £n- 
hakkore (xr. 9, 14, 17, 19). The name 
Etam was held by a city in the neighbourhood 
of Bethlehem (3 Chr. xi. 6), which is known 
to have been situated in the extremely uneven 
and broken country round the modern Vrtaa. 
Here is a fitting scene for the adventure ot 

E'THAM, one of the early resting-places of 
the Israelites when they quitted Egypt, the 
podtian of which may be very nearly fixed 
in eonseqnence of its being described as ** in 
the edge of the wilderness" (Ex. xiiL 30 ; 
Num. xxxiiL 6, 7). Etham may be placed 
where the cultivable land ceases, near the Seba 
Bidr or Seven WelU, about three miles firom the 
western side of the ancient head of the gulf. 

EfTHAN. 1. Etbak thb EzaAHiTX, one 
of the four sons of Mahol, whose wisdom was 
excelled by Solomon (1 K. iv. 81 ; 1 Chr. 
ii. 6). His name is in the title of Ps. Ixxxix.— 
8. Son of Kishi or Kushaiah ; a Merarite 
Lcvite, head of that family in the time of 
king Dav|d (1 Chr. vi. 44), and spoken of as 
a "singer." With Heman and Asaph, the 
heads of the other two families of Levites, 
Ethan was appointed to sound with cymbals 
Cxv. 17, 19). 

ETH'ANIM. [Months.] 

ETilBA'AL, king of Sidon and father of 

Jezebel (IK. xvi. 81). Josephus represents 
him as king of the Tyrians as well as the 
Sidonians. We may thus identify him with 
Eithobalus, who, after having assassinated 
Fheles, usurped the throne of Tyre for 82 
years. The date of Ethbaal's reign may be 
given as about b.c. 940-908. 

ESTHER, one of the cities of Judah in the 
low country, the Shufelah (Josh. xv. 43), 
allotted to Simeon (xix. 7). 

ETHIO'PIA. The country which the 
Oreeks and Bomans described as " Aethiopia*' 
and the Hebrews as ** Cush " lay to the S. of 
Egypt, and embraced, in its most extended 
sense, the modem Nvbta^ Sennaar, Kordqfan^ 
and northern Abyuinia^ and in its more 
definite sense the kingdom of MeroS. Syene 
marked the division between Ethiopia and 
Egypt (Ez. xxix. 10). The Hebrews do not 
appear to have had much practical acquaint- 
ance with Ethiopia itself, though the Ethio- 
pians were well known to them through their 
intercourse with Egypt. The inhabitants of 
Ethiopia were a Hamitic race (Oen. x. 6). 
They were divided into various tribes, of 
which the Sabaeans were the most powerful. 
The history of Ethiopia is closely interwoven 
with that of Eg3n;>t. The two countries were 
not unfrequently united under the rule of the 
same sovereign. Shortly before our Saviour's 
birth a native dynasty of females, holding the 
official title of Candace (Flin. vi. 85), held 
sway in Ethiopia, and even resisted the 
advance of the Rcmian arms. One of these is 
the queen noticed in Acts viii. 37. 

ETHIO 'PLAN WOMAN. The wife of Moses 
is so described in Num. xii. 1. She is else- 
where said to have been the daughter of a 
Midianite, and in consequence of this some 
have supposed that the allusion is to another 
wife whom Moees married after the death of 

ETHIO'PIANS. Properly "Cush" or 
"Ethiopia " in two passages (Is. xx. 4 ; Jer. 
xlvi. 9). Elsewhere " Cushites," or inhabi- 
tants of Ethiopia (3 Chr. xii. 8, xiv. 13 [11], 
18 [13], xvi. 8, xxi. 16 ; Dan. xi. 43 ; Am. 
ix. 7 ; Zeph. U. 13). 

EUBU'LUS, a Christian at Rome men- 
tioned by St. Paul (3 Tim. iv. 31). 

EUER'GETES. [Frouurr.] 

EUNI'CE, mother of Timotheus (3 Tim. i. 

EUNUCH. The law (Dcut. xxiil. 1 ; 
eomp. Lev. xxii. 34) is repugnant to thu« 
treating any Israelite. The origination of 
the practice is ascribed to Somiramis, and is 
no doubt as early, or nearly so, as Eastern 
despotism itself. The complete assimilatiop 
of the kingdom of Israel, and latterly of Judah 
to the neighbouring models of despotism, is 

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traceable in the rank and prominence of 
cunuohs (2 K. Tiii. 6, ix. 82, xziii. 11, xxr. 
19 ; Is. Ivi. 8, 4 ; Jer. xxix. 2, xxxlv. 19, 
xxxTliL 7, xlL 16, lU. 25). They moeUy ap- 
pear ifd one of two relations, either military 
aa "set over the men of war,** greater 
tmstworthlness possibly eonnterbalaneing 
inferior courage and military vigour, or asso- 
ciated, as we mostly recognise them, with 
women and children. We find the Assyrian 
Bab-Saris, or chief eunuch (2 K. xriii. 17), 
employed together with other high officials as 
ambassador. It is probable that Daniel and 
his companions were thus treated, in fkilfil- 
ment of 2 K. xx. 17, 18; Is. xxxix. 7; 
comp. Dan. L 3, 7. The court of Herod of 
course had its eunuchs, as had also that of 
Queen Candaee (Acts Till. 27.) 

EUC/DIAS, a Christian woman at Philippi 
(Phil. !▼. 2). The name is correctly Eu- 


EUPHBATES is probably a word of Aryan 
origin, signifying "the good and abounding 
riyer." It is most frequently denoted in 
the Bible by the term "the rirer." The 
Euphrates is the largest, the longest, and by 
far the most important of the riven of 
Western Asia. It rises from two chief sources 
in the Armenian mountains, and flows into 
the Persian Gulf. The entire course is 1780 
miles, and of this distance more than two- 
thirds (1200 miles) is navigable for boats. 
The width of the river is greatest at the 
distance of 700 or 800 miles from its mouth 
—that is to say, from its Junction with the 
Khabour to the village of Warm. It there 
averages 400 yards. The annual inundation 
of the Euphrates is caused by the melting of 
the snows in the Armenian highlands. It 
oocun in the month of May. The great 
hydraulic works ascribed to Nebuchadnezzar 
had for their chief object to control the inun- 
dation. The Euphrates is first mentioned in 
Scripture as one of the four riven of Eden 
(Gen. iL 14). Ita celebrity is there suffi- 
ciently indicated by the absence of any ex- 
planatory phrase, such as accompanies the 
names of the other streams. We next hear 
of it in the covenant made with Abraham 
(Gen. XV. 18), where the whole country troim 
"the great river, the river Euphrates" to 
the river of Egypt is promised to the chosen 
race. During the reigns of David and Solo- 
mon the dominion of Israel actually attained 
to the full extent both ways of the original 
promise, the Euphrates forming the boundary 
of their empire to the N.E., and the nver of 
Egypt to the S.W. This wide-spread territory 
was lost upon the disruption of the empire 
under Behoboam ; and no more is heard in 
Bcnpturt of the Euphrates until the expedition 

of Necho against the Babylonians in the reign 
of Joeiah. The river still brings down as 
much water as of old, but the precious ele- 
ment is wasted by the neglect of man ; the 
various watercourses along which it was in 
former times conveyed are dry; the main 
channel has shrunk ; and the wate. stagnates 
in unwholescnne manhes. 

EUPOL^EMUS, the " son of John, the son 
of Accos," one of the envoys sent to Bome 
by Judas Maccabaeus, dr. b.c. 161 (1 Mace. 
viU. 17 ; 2 Maoc. iv. 11). He has been 
identified with the historian of the same 
name, but it is by no means clear tiiat the 
historian was of Jewish descent. 

ElTBOCfLYDON, the name given (Acts 
xxviL 14) to the gale of wind which off the 
south coast of Crete seised the ship in which 
St. Paul was ultimately wrecked on the coast 
of Malta. It came down from the island, snd 
therefore must have Uown, mote or less, 
fktnn the northward. 

EUTTCHUS, a youth at Troas (Acts xx. 
9), who sitting in a window, and having 
fiillen asleep while St. Paul was discoursing 
hx into the night, fell twai the third story, 
and being taken up dead, was miraculously 
restored to life by the ApoStle. 

EYANGEUST, means "the publisher 
of glad tidings,** and therefore seems com- 
mon to the work of the Christian ministry 
generally ; yet in Eph. iv. 11, the " evange- 
lists** appear on the one hand after the 
"apostles** and "prophets:** on the other 
before the " pastora ** and " teachers.** This 
passage accordingly would lead us to think of 
them as standing between the two other 
groups — sent forth as missionary preaohen 
of the Goq>el by the first, and as such pre- 
paring the way for the laboun of the second. 
The same inference would seem to follow the 
occurrence of the word as applied to Philip 
in Acts xxi. 8. It follows tnm what has 
been said that the calling of the Evangelist is 
the proclamation of the glad tidings to those 
who have not known them, rather than the 
instruction and pastoral care of those who 
have believed and been baptised. It follows 
also that the name denotes a foork rather 
than an order. The Evangelist might or 
might not be a Bishop-Elder or a deacon. 
The Apostles, so far as they evangelized (Act* 
viii. 25, xiv. 7 ; 1 Cor. L 17), might claim 
the title, though there were many Evange- 
lists who were not Apostles. If the Gospel 
was a written book, and the office of the 
Evangelists was to read or distribute it, then 
the writera of such books were preeminently 
THE Evangelists. In later liturgical language 
the word was applied to the reader of the 
Gospel for the day. 

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EVE, the name given in Scripture to the 
lint woman. The aooonnt of Eve's creation 
is foond at Gen. ii. 21, 32. Perhaps that 
^hich we are chiefly intended to learn from 
the narrative is the foundation upon which 
Che union between man and wife Is built, viz., 
identity of nature and oneness of origin. 
Ttirongh the snbtilty of the serpent, Eve was 
beguiled into a violation of the one command- 
ment which had been imposed upcm her and 
Adam. The Scripture account of Eve dosee 
with the birth of Seth. 

E'VI, one of the five kings or princes of 
Midian, slain by the Israelites (Num. xzxL 
8 ; Josh. xiii. 21). 

E'YIL-MER'ODACH (2 K. xxv. 27), the 
■on and successor of Nebuchadnezzar. He 
reigned but a short time, having ascended the 
throne on the death of Nebuchadnezzar in 
B.C. 601, and being himself succeeded by 
Neriglissar in b.o. 559. He was murdered 
by Neriglissar. 

muHJeaium. — ^The Jewish system of ezoom- 
muni^tion was threefold. For a first offence 
a delinquent was subjected to the penalty of 
Jfiddui, The twenty-four offences for which 
it was inflicted are various, and range in 
heinousness trom. the offence of keeping a 
fierce d<^ to that of taking God's name in 
vain. The offender was first cited to appear 
in court ; and if he refused to appear or to 
make amends, his sentence was pronounced. 
The term of this punishment was thirty days ; 
and it was extended to a seeond and to a 
third thirty days when necessary. If at the 
end of that time the offender was still 
contumacious, he was subjected to the second 
ezoratununi^ition termed Cherem, a word 
meaning something devoted to God (Lev. 
xxtU. 21, 28; Ex. xxii. 20 [19]; Num. 
xviiL 14). Severer penalties were now 
attached. The sentence was delivered by a 
court of ten, and was accompanied by a 
solemn malediction. Lastly followed Slutm- 
mdthdt which was an entire cutting off ftom 
the congregation. The punishment of excom- 
munication is not appointed by the Law of 
Moses. It is founded on the natural right of 
self-protection which all societies enjoy. The 
ease of Korah, Datlian, and Abiram (Num. 
xvi.), the curse denounced on Mercs (Judg. 
V. 28), the commission and proclamation of 
Ezra (viL 26, x. i), and the reformation of 
Nehemiah (xiii. 25), are appealed to by the 
Talmudists as precedents by which their pro- 
ceedings are regulated. In the New Testa- 
ment, Jewish excommunication Is brought 
prominently before us in the case of the man 
that was bom blind (John ix.). The ex- 
pressions here used refer, no doubt, to the 

first fbrm of excommunication, or Niddui* 
In Luke vL 22, it has been thought that our 
Lord refnrred spedflcally to the three forms 
of Jewish excommunication : *' Blessed are ye 
when men shall hate you, and when they shall 
MparaU you tram their company, and shall 
reproach you, and eatt out your name as evil, 
for the Son of Man's sake." The three words 
Tcry accurately express the simple separation, 
the additional malediction, and the final ex- 
clusion of mddtdf ehtrem, and $hammSthS, — 
U. Chrittion Sxeomtmmieation, — Excom- 
munication, as exerdsed by the Christian 
Church, is not merely founded on the natural 
right poss e ssed by all societies, nor merely on 
the example of the Jewish Church and nation. 
It was instituted by our Lord (Matt, xviii. 
15, 18), and it was practised and commanded 
by St. Paul (1 Tim. i. 20 ; 1 Cor. v. 11 ; Tit. 
ilL 10). In the Epistles we find St Paul 
firequently claiming the right to exercise 
discipline over his converts (comp. 2 Cor. 
L 23, xiiL 10). In two cases we find him 
exercising this authority to the extent of 
cubing off offenders from the Chureh. 
What is the taVL meaning of the expres- 
sion, ** deliver unto Satan," is doubtfiiL 
All agree that exoommunication is con- 
tained in it, but whether it implies any ftirther 
punishment, inflicted by the extraordinary 
powers committed specially to the Aposties, 
has been questioned. Introduction into the 
Church is, in St. Paul's mind, a translation 
from the kingdom and power of Satan to the 
kingdom and government of Christ. This 
being so, he could hardly more naturally de- 
scribe the efflect of excluding a man firom 
the Church than by the words, ** deliver him 
unto Satan." In addition to the claim to ex- 
ercise discipline, and its actual exercise in 
the fiorm of excommunication, by the Aposties, 
we find Apostolic precepts directing that dis- 
oipltne should be exendsed by the rulers of 
the Church, and that in some cases excom- 
munication should be r^rted to (2 Thess. 
iii. 14; fiom. xvi. 17; Gal. v. 12; 1 
Tim. vi. 3 ; Tit. iU. 10 ; 2 John 10 ; 8 John 
10 ; Bev. ii. 20). There are two passages 
still more important to our subject (Gal. i. 8, 
9 ; 1 Cor. xvi. 22). It has been supposed 
that these two expressions, "let him be 
Anathema," " let him be Anathema Maran- 
atha," refer respectively to the two later 
stages of Jewish excommunication — the eA«- 
rem and the shammdthd. The Nature of 
Exoommunication is made more evident by 
the acts of St. Paul than by any investigation 
of Jewish practice or of the etymology of 
words. We thus ilnd, (1) that it is a 
spiritual penalty, involving no temporal pun- 
ishment, except accidentally ; (2) that it con- 

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sists in separation Arom the oommonion of 
the Cboroh ; (S) that its object is the good of 
the sufferer (1 Cor. t. 6), and the protection 
of the sound members of the Church (2 Tim. 
ill. 17) ; (4) that its subjects are those who 
are guilty of heresy (I Tim. i. 20), or gross 
immoraUty (1 Cor. v. 1) ; (6) that it is in- 
flicted by the authority of the Church at 
large (Matt, xviii. 18), wielded by the high- 
est ecclesiastical officer (1 Cor. ▼. 3 ; Tit. iii. 
10) ; (6) that this officer's sentence is pro- 
mulgated by the congregation to which the 
offender belongs (1 Cor. t. 4), in deference 
to his superior judgment and command (2 
Cor. ii. 9), and in spite of any opposition on 
the part of a minority (2b. 6) ; (7) that the 
exclusion may be of indefinite duration, or for 
a period; (8) that its duration may be 
abridged at the discretion and by the in- 
dulgence of the person who has imposed the 
penalty {lb. 8) ; (9) that penitence is the 
condition on which restoration to commun- 
ion is granted {lb. 7) ; (10) that the sentence 
is to be publicly reversed as it was pablidy 
promulgated {lb. 10). 

EXILE. [Captititt.] 

EX'ODUS (that is, going out [of Egypt]), 
the second book of the Law or Pentateuch. 
It may be divided into two principal parts : 
I. Historical, i. 1-xviii. 27 ; and U. Legis- 
lative, xix. 1-xl. 38. The former of these 
may be subdivided into (1.) the preparation 
for the deliverance of Israel Arom their bond- 
age in Egypt; (2.) the accomplishment of 
that deliverance. I. (1.) The first section 
(i. 1-xii. 86) contains an account of the 
following particulars : — The great inoreane 
of Jacob's posterity in the land of Egypt, and 
their oppression under a new dynasty, which 
occupied the throne after the death of Joseph 
(ch. i.) ; the birth, education, and flight of 
Moses (ii.) ; his solemn call to be the de- 
liverer of his people (iii. 1-iv. 17), and his 
return to Egypt in consequence (iv. 18-31) ; 
hJs first ineffectual attempt to prevail npon 
Pharaoh to let the Israelites go, which only 
resulted in an increase of their burdens (v. 
1-21) ; a ftirther preparation of Moses and 
Aaron for their office, together with the ac- 
count of their genealogies (v. 22-vii. 7) ; 
the successive signs and wonders, by meanjs 
of which the deliverance of Israel from the 
land of bondage is at length accomplished, 
and the institution of the Passover (vii. 8-xii. 
S6). (2.) A narrative of events from the 
departure out of Egypt to the arrival of the 
Israelites at Mount Sinai. II. The solemn 
establishment of the Theocracy on Mount 
8iuai. This book in short gives a sketch of 
the early history of Israel as a nation : and 
the history has three dearly marked stages. 

First we see a nation enslaved; next a 
nation redeemed ; lastly a nation set apart, 
and through the blending of its religious and 
political life consecrated to the service of God. 

EX'ODUS, THE, of the Israelites f^om 
Egypt. On the date of this event, see Eotft, 
p. 149. The history of the Exodus itself 
commences with the close of that of the Ten 
Plagues. [Plaoubs of Eotpt.] In the night 
in which, at midnight, the firstborn were 
slain (Ex. xii. 29), Pharaoh urged the de- 
parture of the Israelites (ver. 81, 32). They 
at once set forth Arom Rameses (ver. 37, 89), 
apparently during the night (ver. 42), but 
towards morning, on the 15th day of the first 
month (Num. xxxiil. 3). They made three 
journeys and encamped by the Red Sea. Here 
Pharaoh overtook them, and the great miracle 
occurred by which they were saved, while the 
pursuer and his army were destroyed. [Rkd 
Sea, Passaob of.] 

EXORCIST. The use of the term exor- 
cists in Acts xix. 13 confirms what we know 
from other sources as to the common practice 
of exorcism amongst the Jews. That some, 
at least, of them not only pretended to, but 
possessed, the power of exorcising, appears 
by our Lord's admission when he asks the 
Pharisees, " If I by Beelzebub east out devils, 
by whom do your disciples oast them out V* 
(Matt. xiL 27). What means were employed 
by real exorcists we are not informed. 
David, by playing skilfully on a harp, pro- 
cured the temporary departure of the evil 
spirit which troubled Saul (1 Sam. xvL 23). 
It was the profane use of the name of Jesus 
as a mere charm or spell which led to the 
disastrous issue recorded in the Acts of the 
Apostles (xix. 13-16). The power of casting 
out devils was bestowed by Christ while on 
earth npon the Apostles (Matt x. 8) and the 
seventy disciples (Luke x. 17-19), and was, 
according to His promise (Mark xvL 17), 
exercised by believers after His Ascension 
(Acts xvL 18) ; but to the' Christian miracle, 
whether as performed by our Lord nimself or 
by His followers, the N. T. writers never 
apply the terms " exorcise " or " exorcist." 

EXPIATION. [Sacbifick.] 

EZE'EIEL, one of the four greater pro- 
phets, was the son of a priest named Buri, and 
was taken captive in the captivity of Jehoia- 
chin, eleven years before the destruction of 
Jerusalem. He was a member of a oommu- 
nity of Jewish exiles who settled on the 
banks of the Chebar, a " river " or stream of 
Babylonia. It was by this river *'in the 
land of the Chaldaeans " that God's message 
first reached him (i. 3). His call took place 
** in the fifth year of king Jehoiachin's cap- 
tivity," B.O. 595 (i 2), <*in the thirtieth 

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year in the fourth month.*' The latter ex- 
pression is uncertain. It now seems gene- 
rally agreed that it was the 80th year trom 
the new era of Nabopolassar, father of Nebu- 
chadnezzar, who began to reign b.c. 625. 
The use of this Chaldee epoch is the more 
appropriate as the prophet wrote In Babylo- 
nia, and he gives a Jewish chronol(^y in 
ver. 2. The decision of the question is the 
less important because in all other places 
Ezekiel dates from the year of Jehoiachin's 
oaptirity (xxix. 17, xxz. 20, et passim). 
We learn from an incidental allusion (xxiv. 
18] — the only reference which he makes to 
his personal history— that he was married, 
and had a house (tUI. 1) in his place of exile, 
and lost his wife by a sudden and unforeseen 
stroke. He lived in the highest considera- 
tion among his companions in exile, and 
their elders consulted him on all occasions 
(viiL 1, xi. 35, xiv. 1, XX. 1, fto.). The last 
date he mentions Is the 37 th year of the 
captivity (zxix. 17), so that his mission ex- 
tended over twenty-two years, during part of 
which period Daniel was probably living, and 
already famous (Ez. xiv. 14, xxviii. 3). He 
is said to have been murdered in Babylon by 
tome Jewish prince whom he had convicted 
of idolatry, and to have been buried in the 
tomb of Shem and Arphaxad, on the banks of 
the Euphrates. The tomb, said to have been 
built by Jehoiachin, was shown a few days' 
journey Arom Bagdad. Ezekiel was distin- 
guished by his stem and inflexible energy of 
will and character ; and we also observe a 
devoted adherence to the rites and ceremonies 
of his national religion. The depth of his 
matter, and the marvellous nature of his 
visions, make him occasionally obscure. The 
book is divided into two great parts— of 
which the destruction of Jerusalem is the 
turning-point ; chapters i.-xxiv. contain pre- 
dictions delivered before that event, and 
xxv.-xlviii. after it, as we see fh)m xxvi. 3. 
Again, chapters i.-zxxii. are mainly occupied 
with correction, denunciation, and reproof; 
while the remainder deal chiefly in consola- 
tion and promise. A parenthetical section in 
the middle of the book (xxv.-xxxii.) contains 
a group of prophecies against seven foreign 
notions, the septenary arrangement being 
apparently intentional. There are no direct 
quotations fh>m Ezekiel in the New Testa- 
ment, but in the Apocalypse there are many 
parallels and obvious allusicms to the later 
chapters (xL-xlviii.). 

(Num. xxxiii. 35 ; Deut. ii. 8 ; 1 K. iz. 26, 
xxii. 48 ; 2 Chr. viii. 17), the last station 
named for the encampment of the Israelites 
before they came to the wildemess of Zin. 

It probably stood at Ain d-OhudySn, about 
ten miles up what is now the dry bed of the 
Arabah, but which was probably then the 
northern end of the gulf. 

EZ'RA, called Esdras in the Apocrypha, 
the famous Scribe and Priest, descended fh>m 
HiUdah the high-priest in Josiah's reign, from 
whose younger son Azariah sprung Seraiah, 
Ezra's father, quite a diflierent person fh>m 
Seraiah the high-priest (Ezr. vii. 1). AU 
that is really known of Ezra is contained in 
the four last chapters of the book of Ezra 
and in Neh. viii. and xii. 36. From these 
passages we learn that he was a learned ani 
pious priest residing at Babylon in the time 
of Artaxerxes Longimanus. The origin of 
his influence with the king does not appear, 
but in the seventh year of his reign, in spite 
of the unfavourable report which had been 
sent by Rehum and Shimshai, he obtained 
leave to go to Jerusalem, and to take with 
him a company of Israelites, together with 
priests, Levites, singers, porters, and Nethi- 
nim. The Journey of Ezra and his com- 
panions ftom Babylon to Jerusalem took Just 
four months ; and they brought up vrith them 
a large f^ree-will oflSering of gold and silver, 
and silver vessels. It appears that his great 
design was to elTect a religious reformation 
among the Palestine Jews, and to bring them 
back to the observation of the Law of Moses, 
from which they had grievously declined. 
His first step, accordingly, was to enforce a 
separation firom Uieir wives upon all who 
had made heathen marriages, in which num- 
ber were many priests and Levites, as well as 
other Israelites. This was effected In little 
more than six months after his arrival at 
Jerusalem. With the detailed account of this 
important transaction Ezra's autobiography 
ends abruptly, and we hear nothing more of 
him till, 13 years afterwards. In the 20th of 
Artaxerxes, we find him agabi at Jerusalem 
with Nehemiah ** the Tirshatha." It seems 
probable that after he had effected the above- 
named reformation, and had appointed com- 
petent judges and magistrates, with authority 
to maintain it, he himself returned to the 
king of Persia. The ftmctlons he executed 
under Nehemiah's government were purely 
of a priestly and ecclesiastical character. But 
in such he filled the first place. As Ezra is 
not mentioned after Nehemiah's departure 
for Babylon in the 82nd Artaxerxes, and as 
everything fell into confusion during Nehe- 
miah's absence (Neh. xiii.), it is not unlikely 
that Ezra may have died or returned to 
Babylon before that year. There was a Jew- 
ish tradition that he was buried in Persia. 
The principal works ascribed to him by the 
Jews are : — 1. The institution of the Great 

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Synagogue. 2. The settling the canon of 
Scripture, and restoring, correcting, and 
editing the whole sacred Tolome. 3. The 
introduction of the Chaldee chara<iter instead 
of the old Hebrew or Samaritan. 4. The au- 
thorship of the books of Chronicles, Ezra, 
N'ehemiah, and, some add, Esther ; and, many 
of the Jews say, also of the books of Ezekiel, 
Daniel, and the tweWe prophets. 5. The 
establishment of synagogues. 

EZ'RA, BOOK OF, is a continuation of the 
books of Chronicles. Like these books, it 
consists of the contemporary historical jour- 
nals kept from time to time, which were after- 
wards strung together, and either abridged 
or added to, as the case required, by a later 
hand. That later hand, in the book of Ezra, 
was doubtless Ezra's own, as appears by the 
four last chapters, as well as by other matter 
inserted in the preyious chapters. The chief 
portion of the last chapter of 2 Chr. and Ezr. 
i. was probably written by Daniel. As re- 
gards Ezr. it, and as for as iii. 1, it is found 
(with the exception of clerical errors) in the 
7 th ch. of Nehemiah, where it belongs beyond 
a shadow of doubt. The next portion ex- 
tends from iii. 2 to the end of ch. vi. With 
the exception of one large explanatory addi- 
tion by Ezra, extending fh>m iv. 6 to 23, 
this portion is the work of a writer contem- 
porary with Zerubbabel and Jeshua, and an 
eye-witness of the rebuilding of the Temple 
in the beginning of the reign of Darius Hy- 
staspia. That it was the prophet Haggai be- 
comes tolerably sure when we observe ftirther 
the remarkable coincidences in style. Ezr. 
iy. 6-28 is a parenthetic addition by a much 
later hand, and, as the passage meet clearly 
shows, made in the reign of Artaxerxes 
Longimanus. The compiler who inserted ch. 
ii., a document drawn up in the reign of 
Artaxerxes to illustrate the return of the 
captives under Zerubbabel, here inserts a 
notice of two historical facts— of which one 
occurred in the reign of Xerxes, and the 
other in the reign of Artaxerxes — to illustrate 
the oppoeition offered by the heathen to the 
rebuilding of the Temple in the reign of 
Cyrus and Cambyses. The last four chapters, 
beginning with oh. vii., are Ezra's own, and 
continue the history after a gap of fifty- 
eight years— lh>m the sixth of Darius to the 
seventh of Artaxerxes. It is written partly in 
Heorew, and partly in Chaldee. The Chaldee 
begins at iv. 8, and continues to the end of 
vi. 18. The letter or ded^e of Artaxerxes, 
vii. 12-26, is also given in the original Chal- 
dee. The period covered by the book is 
eighty years, trom the first of Cyrus, b.c. 
586, to the beginning of the eighth of Ar- 
taxerxes B.C. 456. 

FABLE. Of the fable, as distinguished 
from the Parable [Fakablk], we have 
but two examples in the Bible, (1.) that of 
the trees choosing their king, addressed by 
Jotham to the men of Shechem (Judg. ix. 
8-15) ; (2.) that of the cedar of Lebanon and 
the thistle, as the answer of Jehoash to the 
challenge of Amaziah (2 K. xiv. 9). The 
fables of false teachers claiming to belong to 
the Christian church, alluded to by writers 
of the N. T. (1 Tim. i. 4, iv. 7 ; Tit. i. 14 ; 
2 Pet. i. 16], do not appear to have had the 
character of fables, properly so called. 

FAIR HAVENS, a harbour in the island 
of Cretx (Acts XX vii. 8), though not men- 
tioned in any other ancient writing, is still 
known, by its own Greek name, and appears 
to have been the harbour of Lasaxa. These 
places are situated four or five milee to the 
£. of Cape Matala, which is the most con- 
spicuous headland on the S. coast of Crete, 
and immediately to the W. of which the coast 
trends suddenly to the N. 

FAIRS, a word which occurs only in £i. 
xxvii. and there no less than seven times 
(ver. 12, 14, 16, 19, 22, 27, 33) : in the last 
of these verses it is rendered " wares," and 
this we believe to be the true meaning of the 
word throughout. 

FALLOW-DEER (Heb. yaehmfir). The 
Heb. word, which is mentioned only in Deut. 
xiv. 5 and in 1 K. iv. 28, is probably the 
Alcelaphua hubalis of Barbary and N. Africa. 
It is about the size of a stag and lives in herds. 

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FABUNE. la the whole of SjrU and 
Arabia, the frnita of the earth most ever be 
dependent on rain; the waterahede haying 
fen large apringt, and the amall riTen not 
being foffleient for the irrigation of eren the 
level landa. If therefora the heavy rains <a 
Xovember and December fiil, the snstenanee 
of the people is out off in the parohing drought 
of harrest-time, when the ooontry is almost 
deroid of moistnra. Egypt, again, owes all 
its fertility to its mighty river, whose annual 
rise inondates nearly the whole land. The 
eaoses of dearth and Camine in Egypt ara 
occasioned by defective inundation, preceded 
and accompanied and followed by prevalent 
easterly and southerly winds. The first fe- 
mine recorded in the Bible is that of Abraham 
after he had pitched his tent on the east of 
Bethel (Oen. xii. 10). We may conolode that 
this famine was extensive, although this is 
not quite proved by the feet of Abraham's 
going to Egypt ; for on the occasion of the 
second famine, in the days of Isaac, this pa- 
triarch found rcAige with Abimdech king of 
the Philistines in Oerar (Oen. zxvL 1 sq.). 
We hear no mora of times of scarcity until 
the great femine of Egypt which *' was over 
all the face of the earth." We have men- 
tioned the chief causes of femines in Egypt : 
this instance diifen in the providential re- 
eorrenee of seven yean of i^entf , wheraby 
Joseph was enabled to provide against the 
eoming dearth, and to supply not only the 
population of Egypt with com, but those of 
the surrounding countries (Goi. xli. 58>A7). 
The modem history of E^pt throws some 
eorious light on these andent records of fa- 
mines ; and instances of their recurrence 
may be dted to assist us in understanding 
their course and extent. The most remark- 
able funine was that of the raign of the 
F4timee Khaleefeh, £1-Mustansir bilUh, 
which is the only instance on record of one 
of seven yeara' duration in Egypt since the 
time of Joseph (a.h. 457-464, A.n. 1064- 
1071). Vehement drought and pestilence con- 
tinued for seven consecutive years, so that 
the people ate corpses, and animals that died 
of themselves. The femine of Samaria re- 
sembled it in many partioulara; and that 
very briefly recorded in 3 K. viiL 1, S, affords 
another instance of one of seven years. In 
Arabia, femines ara of frequent occurranoe. 

FA&THINO. Two names of coins in the 
N. T. ara rendered in the A. Y. by this word. 
—1. Ko^paynif, qmadrant (Matt v. 36 ; Mark 
riL 42), a coin current in Palestine in the 
time of Our Lord. It was equivalent to two 
lepta (A. Y. ** mites "). The name quadrans 
was originally given to the quarter of the 
Boman as, or piece of three uiwiae, therefora 

also called ternndus.— 3. iovd^pcor (Matt. x. 
39 ; Luke xiL 6), properly a small as, osso- 
Htm, but in the time of Our Lord used as 
the Or. equivalent of the Lat. oi. The ren- 
dering of the Yulg. in Luke xii. 6 makes it 
probable that a single coin is intended by 

FASTS. — ^I. One tut only was appointed 
by the law, that on the day of Atonement. 
Thera is no mention of any other periodical 
fisst in the O. T., except in Zech. vlL 1-7, 
viii. 19. From these passages it appean that 
the Jews, during their activity, observed 
four annual fests, in the fourth, fifth, seventh, 
and tenth months. Zechariah simply dis- 
tinguishes the fests by the months in which 
they wera observed; but the Mishna and 
St. Jerome give statements of certain his* 
torioal events which they were intended to 
commemorate. The number of annual fests 
in the present Jewish Calendar has been 
multiplied to twenty-eight.— II. Public fesu 
wera occasionally proclaimed to express na- 
tional humiliation, and to supplicate divine 
fevour. In the case of public danger, the 
proclamation appeara to have been accom- 
panied with the blowing of trumpets (Joel IL 
1-15). The following instances ara recorded 
of strictly national fests : — Samuel gathered 
**all Israel" to Mispeh and proclaimed a 
A«t (1 Sam. vii. 6) ; Jehoshaphat i^pointed 
one "throughout all Judah" when he was 
preparing for war against Moab and Ammon 
(3 Chr. XX. 8) ; in the rdgn of JeholaUm, 
one was proclaimed for '* all the people in 
Jerusalem and all who came thither out of 
the cities of Judah," when the prophecy of 
Jeremiah was publicly read by Baruch ( Jcr. 
xxxvL 6-10; cf. Baruch i. ft); three days 
after the feast of Tabernacles, when the 
second temple was completed, " the childran 
of Israel assembled with festing and with 
saokelothes and earth upon them " to hear 
the law read, and to confess their sins (Neh. 
iz. 1). Thera ara raferences to general fests 
in the Prophets (Jod L 14, iL 1ft ; Is. Iviii.), 
and two ara noticed in the books of the Mac- 
cabees (1 Maoo. ilL 46^7 ; 3 Mace xiii. 10- 
13).— in. Private occasional fasts ara re- 
cognised in one passage of the law (Num. 
XXX. 18). The instances given of individuals 
festing under the influence of grief; vexation, 
or anxiety, ara numerous. — lY. In the N. T. 
the only raferences to the Jewish fests ara 
the mention of ** the Fast," in Acta xxvii. 9 
(generally understood to denote the Day of 
Atonement), and the allusions to the weekly 
fests (Matt. ix. 14 ; Mark ii. 18 ; Luke v. 83, 
xviiL 13 ; Acts x. 80). These fasts origin- 
ated some time after the captivity. They 
wera observed on the second and #fth days of 

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the week, which being appointed as the dajs 
for pablio fasts, seem to have been selected 
for these private voluntary fasts. — V. The 
Jewish fasts were observed with various de- 
grees of strictness. Sometimes there was en- 
tire abstinence from food (Esth. iv. 16, &o.). 
On other occasions, there appears to have 
been only a restriction to a very plain diet 
(Dan. X. 3). Those who fasted frequently 
dressed in saolcoloth or rent their clothes, put 
ashes on their head and went barefoot (1 K. 
xxi 27 ; Neh. ix. 1 ; Ps. xxxv. 13).— VI. 
The sacrifice of the personal will, which gives 
to fasting all its value, is expressed in the 
old term used in the law, t^fflicting the sou/. 

FAT. The Hebrews distinguished between 
tiie suet or pure fat of an animal, and the fat 
which was intermixed with the lean (Neh. 
viii. 10). Certain restrictions were imposed 
upon them in reference to the former : some 
parts of the suet, viz., about the stomach, 
the entrails, the kidneys, and the tail of a 
sheep, which grows to an excessive size in 
many eastern countries, and produces a large 
quantity of rich fat, were forbidden to be eaten 
in the case of animals offered to Jehovah in 
sacrifice (Lev. iii. S, 9, 17, vU. 8, 28). The 
ground of the prohibition was that the fat 
was the richest part of the animal, and there- 
fore belonged to Him (iiL 16). The pre- 
sentation of the fat as the richest part of the 
animal was agreeable to the dictates of natural 
feeling, and was the ordinary practice even of 
heathen nations. The burning of the fat of 
sacrifices was particularly specified in each 
kind of ofliering. 

FAT, i. e. Vat. The word employed in the 
A. V. to translate the Hebrew term yekeb, in 
Joel ii. 24, iii. 18. The word commonly 
used for ytM is " winepress " or " winefat," 
and once *<pressfat*' (Hag. IL 16). The 
'* vats '* appear to have been excavated out 
of the native rock of the bills on which the 
vineyards lay. 

FATHER. The position and authority of 
the father as the head of the family is ex- 
pressly assumed and sanctioned in Scripture, 
as a likeness of that of the Almighty over His 
creatures. It lies of course at the root of 
that so-called patriarchal government (Gen. 
iii. 16 ; 1 Oor. xi. 3), which was introductory 
to the more definite systems which followed, 
and which in part, but not wholly, super- 
seded it. The father's blessing was regarded 
as eonferring special benefit, but his male- 
diction special ii^ury, on those on whom it 
feU (Gen. ix. 36, 27, xxviL 27-40, xlviii. 
15, 20, xlix.) ; and so also the sin of a parent 
was held to affect, in certain oases, the wel- 
fare of hit desoendanU (2 K. t. 27). The 
ei«nmand to honour parents is noticed by 

St. Paul as the only one of the Decalogue 
which bore a distinct promise (Ex. xx. 12 ; 
Eph. vi. 2), and disrespect towards them was 
condemned by the Law as one of the worst 
ofcrimes(Ex.xxL15, 17; lTim.i.9). It is 
to this well recognised theory of parental au- 
thority and supremacy that the very various 
uses of the term ** father " in Scripture are 
due. "Fathers" is used in the sense of 
seniors (Acts vii. 2, xxii. 1), and of parents 
in general, or ancestors (Dan. v. 2; Jer. 
xxvii. 7 ; Matt xxiii. 30, 32). 

FATHOM. [Mbasurbs.] 

FEASTS. [Festivals.] 

FE'LIX, a Roman procurator of Judaea, 
appointed by the Emperor Claudius, whose 
fireedman he was, on the banishment of Ven- 
tidius Cumanus in a.d. 53. Tacitus states 
that Felix and Cumanus were Joint procur- 
ators ; Cumanus having Galilee, and Felix 
Samaria. Felix was the brother of Claudius's 
powerful fk«edman Pallas. He ruled the 
province in a mean, cruel, and profiigate 
manner. His period of office was ftUl of 
troubles and seditions. St. Paul was brought 
before FeUx in Caesarea. He was remanded 
to prison and kept there two years, in hcpeg 
of extorting money fh>m him (Acts xxiv. 26, 
27). At the end of that time Pordus Festos 
[Fbstus] was appointed to supersede Felix, 
who, on his return to Rome, was accused by 
the Jews in Caesarea, and would have suffered 
the penalty due to his atrocities, had not his 
brother Pallas prevailed with the Emperor 
Nero to spare him. This was probably in 
the year 60 a.d. The wife of Felix was 
Drusilla, daughter of Herod Agrippa L, the 
former wife of Azizus King of Emesa. 

FERRET, one of the unclean creeping 
things mentioned in Lev. xi. 80. The animal 
referred to was probably a reptile of the 
liaard tribe. The Rabbinical writers seem 
to have identified this animal with the 

FESTIVALS.— I. The religious times or- 
dained in the Law fall under three heads : — 
(1.) Those formally connected with the insti- 
tution of the Sabbath ; (2.) The historical or 
great festivals ; (8.) The Day of Atonement. 
— (1.) Immediately connected with the in- 
stitution of the Sabbath are~(a) The weekly 
Sabbath itself. (6) The seventh new moon 
or Feast of Trumpets, (e) The Sabbatical 
Tear, (d) The Tear of Jubilee.— (2.) The 
great feasts are: — (a) The Passover. (6) 
The Feast of Pentecost, of Weeks, of Wheat- 
harvest, or, of the First-fruits, (e) The 
Feast of Tabernacles, or of Ingathering. On 
each of these occasions every male Israelito 
was commanded ** to appear before the Lord,** 
that is, to attend in the ooort of the taher- 

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node or the temple, and to make his offering 
with a iojtal heart (Dent xxvii. 7 ; Neh. 
TiiL 9-12). The attendance of women was 
yolnntary, but the zealous often went up to 
the Paseover. On all the days of Holy Con- 
Toeation there was to be an entire suspension 
of ordinary labour of all kinds (Ex. xii. 16 ; 
Ler. xtL 29, xxiii. 21, 24, 25, 86). But on 
the intenrening days of the longer festivals 
work might be carried on. Besides their re- 
ligious purpose, the great fbstiTals must have 
bad an important bearing on the maintenance 
of a fdeling of national unity. The frequent 
recurrence of the sabbatical number in the 
organisation of these festivals is too remark- 
able to be passed over, and seems when viewed 
in connexion with the sabbatical sacred times, 
to fhmish a strong proof that the whole sys- 
tem of the festivals of the Jewish law was 
the product of one mind. The agricultural 
significance of the three great festivals is 
clearly set forth in the account of the Jewish 
eocred year contained in Lev. xxiii. The 
times of the festivals were evidently ordained 
In wisdom, so as to interfere as little as pos- 
sible with the industry of the people. — (8.) 
For the Day of Atonement see that article. — 
n. After the captivity, the Feast of Pnrim 
(Esth. ix. 20 sq.) and that of the Dedication 
(1 Maoc. iv. 56) were instituted. 

FES'TUS, POK'CIUS, successor of Felix as 
procurator of Judaea (Actsxxiv. 27), sent by 
Nero probably in the autumn of the year 
CO A.D. A few weeks after Festus reached 
his province he heard the cause of St. Paul, 
who had been left a prisoner by Felix, in the 
presence of Herod Agrippa II. and Bemice 
hia sister (Acts xxv. 11, 12). Judaea was in 
the same disturbed state during the procu- 
ratorship of Festus, which had prevailed 
through that of his predecessor. He died 
probably in the summer of 62 a.i>., having 
ruled the province less than two years. 

FIG, FIG-TREE (Heb. afndh), a word of 
fi«quent occurrence in the O. T., where it 
signifies the tree Fieu» Cariea of Linnaeus, 
and also its trvdU The fig-tree is very com- 
mon in Palestine (Deut. riii. 8). Mount 
Olivet was funous for its fig-trees in ancient 
times, and they are still found there. *' To 
sit under one's own vine and one's own fig- 
tree " became a proverbial expression among 
th/o Jews to denote peace and prosperity (1 
K. iv. 25 ; Mic iv. 4 ; Zech. iiL 10). 

FIR (Heb. birSih, bir6th Is. xiv. 8 ; Es. 
xxTiL 5, ftc.). As the term "cedar** is in 
all probability applicable to more than one 
tree^ so also " fir '* in the A. Y. represents 
probably one or other of the following trees : 
— 1. Pinos sylvestrii^ or Sootoh fir ; 2. larch ; 
S« CoimssQs semperrlrenS} or oypressy all 

which are at this day found in the Le- 

FIRE is represented as the symbol of 
Jehovah's presence, and the instroment of 
his power, in the way either of approval or 
of destruction (Ex. iii. 2, xiv. 19, &c.). 
Parallel with this application of fire and with 
its symbolical meaning is to be noted the 
similar use for sacrificial purposes, and the 
respect paid to it, or to the heavenly bodies 
as symbols of deity, which prevailed among 
so many nations of antiquity, and of which 
the traces are not even now extinct: e.g. 
the Sabaean and M agian systems of worship, 
and their alleged connexion with Abraham ; 
the occasional relapse of the Jews themselves 
into sun-, or its corrupted form of fire-wor- 
ship (Is. xxviL 9 ; Deut. xvii. 8, &c.), the 
worship or deification of heavenly bodies or 
of fire, prevailing to some extent, as among 
the P<h-sians, so also even in Egypt. Fire 
for sacred purposes obtained elsewhere than 
from the altar was called " strange fire,'* and 
for the use of such Nadab and Abihu were 
punished with death by fire from God (Lev. 
X. 1, 2 ; Num. iii. 4, xxvi. 61). 

FIREPAN, one of the vessels of the 
Temple service (Ex. xxvii. 8, xxxvlii. 8 ; 2 
K. xxv. 15 ; Jer. Iii. 19). The same word is 
elsewhere rendered '* snuff-dish *' (Ex. xxv. 
88, xxxvii. 28 ; Num. iv. 2) and " oenser ** 
(Lev. X. 1, xvL 12 ; Num. xvi. 6 ff.). There 
appear, therefore, to have been two articles 
so called : one, like a chafing-dish, to carry 
live coals for the purpose of burning incense ; 
another, like a snuffer-dish, to be used in 
trimming the lamps, in order to carry the 
snuffiert and convey away the snuff. 

FIRKIN. [WnoBTS akd Measvrbs.] 

FIRMAMENT. The Hebrew term rdkUi, 
so translated, is generally regarded as ex- 
pressive of simple ta^Hmsion, and is so ren- 
dered in the margin of the A. Y. (Gen. i. 6). 
The root means to expand by beating, 
whether by the hand, the foot, or any instru- 
ment. It is especially used of beating out 
metals into thin plates (Ex. xxxix. 8 ; Num. 
xvL 89). The sense of toUdUtf, therefore. Is 
combined with the ideas of exjnmtiom and 
temtity in the term. The same idea of 
$oliditjf runs through all the references to the 
rdkia. In Ex. xxiv. 10, it is represented as 
a solid fioor. So again, in Ei. i. 22-26, the 
"firmament** is the fioor on which the 
throne of the Most High is placed. Further, 
the office of the rdJ^ in the economy of the 
world demanded strength and tubttamee. It 
was to serve as a division between the waters 
above and the waters below {Otn, i. 7). In 
keeping with this view the rMa was pro- 
Tided with "windows*' (Gen. vii. 11; Is. 

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xziv. 18; MaUiiL 10) and "doors** (Ps. 
IxxTlii. 2S), through which the rain and the 
snow might descend. A secondary purpose 
which the rSkia served was to support the 
hearenly hodies, sun, moon, and stars (Oen. 
i. 14), in which they were fixed as nails, and 
from which, consequently, they might be said 
to drop off (Is. xiv. 12, xxxiv. 4 ; Matt. 
xxlT. 29). 

FIRST-BORN. Under the Law, in memory 
of the Exodus, the eldest son was regarded 
as devoted to Ood, and was in every case to 
be redeemed by an offering not exceeding 5 
shekels, within one month from birth. If 
he died before the expiration of 80 days, the 
Jewish doctors held the father excused, but 
liable to the payment if he outlived that time 
(Ex. xiiL 12-15, xxii. 29 ; Num. viii. 17, 
xviii. 15, 16 ; Lev. xxviL 6). The eldest son 
received a double portion of the fkther*8 in- 
heritance (Deut. xxL 17), but not of the 
mother's. Under the monarchy, the eldest 
son usually, but not always, as appears in the 
case of Solomon, succeed<id his father in the 
kingdom (1 K. i. SO, ii. 22). The male first- 
born of animals was also devoted to Ood (Ex. 
xiU. 2, 12, 18, xxiL 29, xxxiv. 19, 20). 
Unclean animals were to be redeemed with 
the addition of one-fifth of the value, or else 
put to death ; or, if not redeemed, to be sold, 
and the price given to the priests (Lev. 
xxviL 18, 27, 28). 

FIRST-FRUITS. 1. the Law ordered in 
general, that the first of all ripe fhiits and of 
liquors, or, as it is twice expressed, the first 
of flrst-Aruits, should be offered in Ood*s 
house (Ex. xxii. 29, xxiiL 19, xxxiv. 26). 
2. On the morrow after the Passover sabbath, 
i. e. on the 16th of Nisan, a sheaf of new com 
was to be brought to the priest, and waved 
before the altar, in acknowledgment of the 
gift of fhiitfUneas (Lev. xxiU. 5, 6, 10, 12, 
ii. 12). 8. At the expiration of 7 weeks 
firom this time, i. e. at the Feast of Pentecost, 
an oblation was to be made of 2 loaves of 
leavened bread made ftrom the new flour, 
which were to be waved in like manner with 
the Passover sheaf ( Ex. xxxiv. 22 ; Lev. 
xxiU. 15, 17 ; Num. xxviii. 26). 4. The 
feast of ingathering, i. e. the Feast of Taber- 
nacles in the 7th month, was itself an ac- 
knowledgment of the fhiits of the harvest 
(Ex. xxiii. 16, xxxiv. 22 ; Lev. xxiii. 89). 
These four sorts of offerings were national. 
Besides them, the two following were of an 
individual kind. 5. A oake of the first 
dough that was baked, was to be offered as a 
\ heave-offering (Num. xv. 19, 21). 6. The 
first-fhiits of the land were to be brought in 
a basket to the holy place of God*s choice, 
and there presented to the priest, who was 

to set the basket down before the altar (Deut. 
xxvi. 2-11). — ^The offerings were the per- 
quisite of the priests (Num. xviii. 11 ; Deut. 
xviii. 4). Nehemiah, at the Return flrom 
Captivity, took pains to reorganise the offer- 
ings of first-fruits of both kinds, and to ap- 
point places to receive them (Neh. x. 85, 87, 
xii. 44). An offering of first-fruits is men- 
tioned as an acceptable one to the prophet 
Elisha (2 K. iv. 42). 

FISH. The Hebrews recognised fish a* 
one of the great divisions of the animal 
kingdom, and, as such, give them a place in 
the account of the creation (Oen. L 21, 28), 
as well as in other passages where an ex- 
haustive description of living creatures is in- 
tended (Oen. ix. 2 ; Ex. xx. 4 ; Deut. iv. 
18; 1 K. iv. 83). The Mosaic law (Lev. 
xL 9, 10) pronounced unclean such fi^ a* 
were devoid of fins and scales : these were 
and are regarded as unwholesome in Egypt. 
Among the Philistines, Dagon was repre- 
sented by a figure, half man and half fish (1 
Sam. V. 4). On this account the worship of 
fish is expressly prohibited (Deut. iv. 18). 
In Palestine, the Sea of Oalilee was and still 
is remarkably well stored with fish. Jeru- 
salem derived its supply chiefly trom the 
Mediterranean (comp. Ex. xlvii. 10). The 
existenoe of a regular fish-market is implied 
in the notice of tiie fish-gate, which was 
probably contiguous to it (2 Chr. xxxiiL 14 ; 
Neh. iii. 8, xiL 89 ; Zeph. t 10). 

FITCHES (t. e. Yktchxs), the repreaenta- 
tive in the A. V. of the two Heb. words 
oussemeth and ketmteh. As to the former see 
Rtx. XeUach denotes without doubt the 
NigeUa saftDO, an herbaceous annual plant 
belonging to the natural order SanunculacM* 


Digitized by ^OOQ IC 




and mb-order HelUboreae^ which grows in 
the S. of Europe and in the N. of AfHoa. 

FLAG, the representative in the A. V. 
of ^the two Heb. words dehi and tCph, 
\. Aeh4t a word, according to Jerome, of 
Egyptian origin, and denoting "any green 
and coarse herbage, such as rushes and reeds, 
which grows in marshy places." It seems 
probaUe that some tpee^fie plant is denoted 
in Job Tiii. 1 1 . The word occurs once again 
in Gen. Ixi. 2, 18, where it is said that the 
seren well-faroured kine came up oat of the 
rirer and fed In an 6eh4l. It is perhaps the 
C^pems neuUntuM, 3. Bfiph (Ex. ii. 3, 6 ; 
la. xix. 6) appears to he osed in a rery wide 
sense to denote ** weeds of any kind." 

FLAGON, a word employed in the A. V. 
to render two dtstinet Hebrew terms: 1. 
AtkUhah (3 Sam. tL 19; 1 Chr. zvi. 8; 
Cant. 11. 5 ; Hos. iii. 1). It really means a 
cake of pressed raisins. 3. Nebei (Is. xxii. 
24), is conmionly used for a bottle or vessel, 
originally probably a skin, bat in later times 
a piece of pottery (Is. zzx. 14). 

FLAX. Two words are used for this plant 
in the O. T., or rather the same word slightly 
modified. Eliminating all the places where 
the words are used for the article manufoc- 
tared in the thready the pieee^ or the made 
«9> garment^ we reduce them to two (Ex. ix. 
31 ; Josh. ii. 6). It seems probable that 
the cultivation of flax for the purpose of the 
raanofacture of linen was by no means con- 
fined to Egypt ; but that originating in India 
it spread over Asia at a very early period of 
antiquity. That it was grown in Palestine 
even before the conquest of ttiat country by 
the Israelites appears from Josh. ii. 6. The 
various processes employed in preparing the 
flax for manufacture into doth are indicated : 
— 1. The drying process. 2. The peeling 
of the stalks, and separation of the fibres. 
3. The hackling (Is. xix. 9). That flax was 
otie of the most important crops in Palestine 
appears from Hos. ii. 5, 9. 

FLEA, an insect twice only mentioned in 
Scripture, vue., in 1 Sam. xxiv. 14, xxvi. 30. 
Fleas are abundant in the East, and afford 
the subject of many proverbial expressions. 

FLESH. [Food.] 

FLINT. The Heb. ehaildmUk is rendered 
flimt in Deut. viii. 15, xxxii. 18 ; Ps. cxiv. 
8 i and Is. L 7. In Job xxviii. 9 the same 
word is rendered rock in the text, and./Itfi< 
in the margin. In Ez. iiL 9 the English 
word ** flint " occurs in the same sense, but 
there it reprments the Heb. Tkor. 

FLOOD. [Noah.] 

FLOUR. [BasAn.] 

FLUTE (1 K. L 4, marg. [Ptpb]), a musical 
Instrument mentioned aaumgst ottiers (Dan. 

Sm . D. B. 

iii. 8, 7, 10, 15] as used at the worship of 
the gfolden image which Nebuchadneaiar had 
set up. 

FLUX, BLOODY (Acts xxviU. 8), the 
same as our dysentery, which in the East is, 
though sometimes sporadic, generally epi- 
demic and infectious, and then assumes its 
worst form. 

FLY, FLIES. 1. ZihCb occurs only in 
Eccl. X. 1 and in Is. vii. 18, and is probably 
a generic name for any insect. The z^httb 
frtmi the rivers of Egypt has been identified 
with the *imb of which Bruce gives a descrip- 
tion, and which is evidently some species of 
Tabanm, 2. ^Arob (** swarms of fiiet" 
"divers sorts of flies,** A. V.), the name of 
the insect, or intteets, which God sent to 
punish Pharaoh ; see Ex. viii. 21-31 ; Ps. 
Ixxviii. 45, cv. 81. As the *6rSb are said to 
have filled the houses of the Egyptians, it 
seems not improbable that common flies 
(Musoidae) are more especially intended. 
The identification of the *drSb with the cock- 
roach is purely gratuitous. 

FOOD. The diet of Eastern nations has 
been in all ages light and simple. As com- 
pared with our own habits, the chief points 
of contrast are the small amount of animal 
food consumed, the variety of articles used 
as accompaniments to bread, the substitution 
of milk in various forms for our liquors, and 
the combination of what we should deem 
heterogeneous elements in the same dish, or 
the same meat The chief point of agree- 
ment is the large consumption of bread, the 
importance of which in Uie eyes of the 
Hebrew is testified by the use of the term 
lechem (originally food of any kind) specifi- 
cally for bread, as well as by the expression 
" staff of bread " (Lev. xxvi. 26 ; Ps. cv. 
16 ; Ez. iv. 16, xiv. 18). Simpler prepara- 
tions of com were, however, common ; some- 
time the fresh green ears were eaten in a 
natural state, the husks being rubbed off by 
the hand (Lev. xxiii. 14 ; Deut. xxiii. 25 ; 
2 K. iv. 42 ; Matt. xii. 1 ; Luke vi. 1) ; 
more frequently, however, the grains, after 
being careftilly picked, were roasted in a pan 
over a fire (Lev. U. 14), and eaten as 
« parched com," in which form they were an 
ordinary article of diet, particularly among 
labourers, or others who had not the means 
of dressing food (Lev. xxiU. 14 ; Ruth ii. 14 ; 
1 Sam. xvU. 17, xxv. 18 ; 2 Sam. xvii. 28) : 
this practice is still very usual in the East. 
Sometimes the grain was bruised (A. V. 
"beaten," Lev. ii. 14, 16), and then dried in 
the sun ; it was eaten either mixed with oil 
(Lev. iL 15), or made into a soft cake (A. Y. 
" dough ;" Num. xv. 20 ; Neh. x. 87 ; Ez. 
xliv. 80). The Hebrews used a great variety 

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of articles (John xxi. 5) to give a reUsli to 
bread. Sometimes salt was so used (Job Ti. 
C), as we learn from the passage jost quoted ; 
sometimes the bread was dipped into the sour 
wine (A. Y. " rinegar ") which the laboorers 
drank (Ruth ii. 14) ; or, where meat was 
eaten, into the gravy, which was either 
served up separately for the purpose, as by 
Gideon (Judg. vi. 19), or placed in the 
middle of the meat-dish, as done by the 
Arabs. Milk and its preparations hold a 
conspicuous place in Eastern diet, as afford- 
ing substantial nourishment; sometimes it 
was produced in a treah state (Oen. xviiL 8), 
but more generally in the form of the modem 
MHrn, i. e. sour milk (A. V. " butter ;** Oen. 
xviii. 8 { Judg. V. 25 ; S Sam. xvU. 29). 
Fruit was another source of subsistence : figs 
stand first in point of importance ; they were 
generally dried and pressed into cakes. 
Grapes were generally eaten in a dried state 
as raisins. Fruit-cake forms a part of the 
daily food of the Arabians. Of vegetables 
we have most frequent notice of lentils (Gen. 
XXV. 84 ; 2 Sam. xvlL 28, xxiU. 11 ; Ex. iv. 
9), which are still largely used by the Be- 
douins in travelling ; beans (2 Sam. xvii. 28 ; 
Ex. iv. 9), leeks, onions, and garlick, which 
were and still are of a superior quality in 
Egypt (Norn. xi. 5). The modem Arabians 
consume but few vegetables : radishes and 
leeks are most in use, and are eaten raw with 
bread. In addition to these classes we have 
to notice some other important articles of 
food : in the first place, honey, whether the 
natural product of the bee (1 Sam. xlv. 25 ; 
Matt. iii. 4), which abounds in most parts of 
Arabia, or of the other natural and artificial 
productions included under that head, espe- 
cially the dibt of the Syrians and Arabians, 
«. s. grape-Juice boiled down, which is still 
extensively used in the East ; the latter is 
supposed to be referred to in Oen. xliii. 11, 
and Ex. xxviL 17. With regard to oil, it 
does not appear to have been used to the ex- 
tent we might have anticipated. Eggs are not 
often noticed, but were evidently known as 
artioles of food (Is. x. 14, lix. 5 ; Luke xi. 
12). The Orientals have been at all times 
sparing in the use of animal food : npt only 
does the excessive heat of the climate render 
it both unwholesome to eat much meat, and 
expensive firom the necessity of immediately 
consuming a whole animal, but beyond this 
the ritual regulations of the Mosaic law in 
ancient, as of the Koran in modem times, 
have tended to the same result. The prohi- 
bition expressed against consuming the blood 
of any animal (Gen. ix. 4) was more fully 
developed in the Levitlcal law, and enforced 
by the penalty of death (Uv. ilL 17, vlL 26, 

xix. 26 ; Deut. xii. 16 ; 1 Sam. xir. S2 ff. } 
Ex. xliv. 7, 15). Certain portions of the fat 
of sacrifices were also forbidden (Lev. iiL 9, 
10), as being set apart for the altar (Lev. iii. 
16, vU. 25 ; cf. 1 Sam. U. 16 ff. ; 2 Chr. vii. 
7). In addition to the above. Christians 
were forbidden to eat the fiesh of animals, 
portions of which had been offered to idols. 
All beasts and birds classed as unclean (Lev. 
xi. 1 ff. ; Deut. xiv. 4 ff.) were also pro- 
hibited. Under these restrictions the Hebrews 
were permitted the free use of animal food : 
generally speaking they only availed them- 
selves of it in the exercise of hospitality (Gen . 
xviii. 7), or at festivals of a religious (Ex. 
xiL 8), public (1 K. i. 9 ; 1 Chr. xiL 40), or 
private character (Gen. xxviL 4 ; Luke xv. 
23) : it was only in royal households that 
thero was a daily consumption of meat (IK. 
iv. 28 ; Neh. v. 18). The animals killed for 
meat were — calves (Gen. xviii. 7 ; 1 Sam. 
xxviiL 24 ; Am. vL 4) ; lambs (2 Sam. xiL 
4 ; Am. vi. 4) ; oxen, not above three years 
of age (1 K. i. ; Prov. xv. 17 ; Is. xxiL 
18 ; Matt xxii. 4) ; kids (Oen. xxvU. 9 ; 
Judg. vi. 19 ; 1 Sam. xvi. 20) ; harts, roe- 
bucks, and faUow-deer (1 K. iv. 28) ; birds 
of various kinds ; fish, vrith the exception of 
such as were without scales and fins (Lev. 
xi. 9 ; Dent. xiv. 9). Locusts, of which 
certain species only were estecnned clean 
(Lev. xL 22), were occasionally eaten (Matt. 
iiL 4), but considered as poor Care. 

FOOTMAN, a word employed in the Auth. 
Version in two senses. 1. Generally, to dis- 
tinguish those of the people or of the fighting- 
men who went on foot from those who were 
on horseback or in chariots. But, 2. The 
word occurs in a more special sense (in 1 
Sam. xxii. 17 only), and as the translation 
of a different term from the above. This 
passage affords the first mention of the 
existence of a body of swift runners in at- 
tendance on the king, though such a thing 
had been foretold by Samuel (1 Sam. TiiL 
11). This body appears to have been after- 
wards kept up, and to have been distinct 
fhnn the body-guard— the six hundred and 
the thirty — who were originated by David. 
See 1 K. xiv. 27, 28 ; 2 Chr. xiL 10, 11 ; 
2 K. xi. 4, 6, 11, 18, 19. In each of these 
oases the word is the same as the above, and 
is rendered "guard;" but the translators 
were evidently aware of its signification, tut 
they have put the word *' runners " in the 
margin in two instances (1 K. xiv. 27 ; 2 K. 
xL 18). 

FOREST. Although Palestine has never 
been in historical times a woodland eountry, 
yet there can be no doubt that there was 
much more wood formerly than there Is at 

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present. (1.) The wood of Ephraim clothed 
the elopes of the bills that bordered the plain 
of Jezieel, and the plain it5cll in the neigh- 
bourhood of Bethahan (Josh. xrii. 15 £f.]> 
{2.) ^ The wood of Bethel (2, K. 11. 23, 24) 
vaa situated in the ravine which descends to 
the plain of Jericho. (3.) The forest of 
Hareth (1 Sam. xxii. 5) wan somewhere on 
the border of the Philistine plain^ in the 
fiouthem part of Judah. (4,) The wood 
through which the Israelites passed in their 
pursuit of the Philistines (1 Sam. xIt. 25) 
was probably near A^alon (comp. v. 31). 
(5.) the ** wood " (Ps. cxxxii. 6) implied in 
the name of Eirjath-jearim (1 Sam. vll. 3) 
must have been similarly situated, as also 
(6.) were the ** forests '* in which Jotham 
placed his forts (2 Chr. xxtU. 4). (7.) The 
plain of Sharon was partly covered with wood 
(la. Ixv. 10). (8.) The wood in the wilder- 
ness of Zlph, in which David concealed him- 
self (1 Sam. xxiii. 15 tf.), lay S.E. of Hebron. 
The house of the forest of Lebanon { 1 K. vii. 
2, X. 17, 21 ; 2 Chr. ix. 16, 20) was so called 
probably from being fitted up with cedar, 

FORTUNA'TUS (1 Cor. xvi. 17), one of 
three Corinthians, the others being Stephanas 
and Achaicus, who were at Ephesus when St. 
Paul wrote his first Epistle. There is a 
Fortunatus mentioned at the end of Clement's 
first Epistle to the Corinthians, who was 
possibly the same person. 

FOUNTAIN. Ajnong the attractive fea- 
tures presented by the Land of Promise to 
the nation migrating from Egypt by way of 
the desert, none would be more striking than 
the natural gush of waters from the ground. 

Fquuuiu at Nasanstb. (fiobwia. 

The springs of Palestine, though short-lived, 
are remarkable for their abundance and 
beauty, ei^pecially those which fall into the 
Jordan and its lakes throughout its whole 
course. The spring or fountain of living 
water, the " eye "of the landscape, is dis- 
tinguished in all Oriental languages from the 
artificially sunk and enclosed well. Jerusa- 
lem appears to have possessed either more 
than one perennial spring, or one issuing by 
more than one outlet. In Oriental cities 
generally public fountains are frequent. 
Traces of such fountains at Jerusalem may 
perhaps be found in the names En-Rogel (3 
Sam. xvLi. 17), the " Dragon* well " or foun- 
tain, and the "gate of the fountain" (Neh, 
ii. IS, 14). 

FOWL. Several distinct Hebrew and 
Greek words are thus rendered in the A. V. 
of the Bible. Of these the most common ia 
^oph, which is usually a collective term for 
all kinds of birds. In 1 K. Iv. 23, among 
the daily provisions for Solomon's table, 
'* fatted fowl " are included. In the N. T, 
the word translated *' fowls " is most fre- 
quently that which comprehends all kinds of 
birds (including ravens ^ Luke xU. 24]. 

FOX (Heb, sknuil) . Probably the "jackal " 
is the animal signified in almost all the 
passages in the O. T. where the Hebrew term 
occurs. The shu*dltm of Judg. kv. 4 are 
evidently "jackals," and not "foxes,'* for 
the former animal Is gregarious, whereas the 
latter is solitary in it« habits. With respect 
to the jackals and foxes of Palestine, there in 
no doubt that the common jackal of the 
country is the Canis aureus^ which may be 
heard every night in the villages. A vulpine 


C*tmi Sifrimam. 
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animal, ander the name of Oanis Sffriaeu$, 
occurs in Lebanon. The Egyptian Fulpe$ 
NUotietUt and doubtless the common fox of 
our own country, are Palestine species. 

FRANKINCENSE, a vegetable resin, brit- 
tie, glittering, and of a bitter taste, used for 
the purpose of sacrificial fumigation (Ex. 
XXX. 34-86). It is obtained by successive 
incisions in the bark of a tree called the 
arhor thuris^ the first of which yields the 
purest and whitest kind ; while the produce 
of the after incisions is spotted with yellow, 
and as it becomes old loses its whiteness 
altogether. The Hebrews imported their 
frankincense fh)m Arabia (Is. Ix. 6 ; Jer. vi. 
20), and more particularly firom Saba; but 
it is remarkable that at present the Arabian 
Libanum, or Olibanum, is of a very inferior 
kind, and that the finest ft-anldncense im- 
ported into Turkey comes through Arabia 
from the islands of the Indian Archipelago. 
There can be little doubt that the tree which 
produces the Indian frankincense is the Bo9- 
vffllia terraia of Roxburgh, or Botwellia 
thurifera of Colebrooke. It is still extremely 
uncertain what tree produces the Arabian 

FROG. The mention of this reptile in the 
O. T. is confined to the passage in Ex. viiL 
2-7, &o., in which the plague of ftogs is de- 
scribed, and to Ps. Ixxviii. 45, ov. 80. In 
tlie N. T. the word occurs once only in Rev. 
xvi. 18. There Is no question as to the ani- 
mal meant. The only known species of trog 
which occurs at present in Egypt it the Satut 
edetderUa^ the edible frog of the continent. 

xiii. 16 ; Dent. vi. 8, xL 18 ; Matt. xxilL 6). 
These ** fh)ntlets »* or " phylacteries " were 
strips of parchment, on which were written 
four passages of Scripture (Ex. xiiL 2-10, 
11-17 ; Deut. vi. 4-9, 13-28) in an Ink pre- 
pared for the purpose. They were then 
rolled up in a cas6 of blaek calfUdn, which 
was attached to a stiffer piece of leather, 
having a thong one finger broad, and one and 
a half cubits long. They were placed at the 
bend of the left arm. Those worn on the 
forehead were written on four strips of parch- 
ment, and put into four little ceUs wiUiln a 
square case, on which the letter ^ was 
written. The square had two thongs, on 
which Hebrew letters were inscribed. That 
phylacteries were used as amulets Is certain, 
and was very natural. The expression ** they 
make broad their phylacteries*' (Matt, xxili. 
%) refers not so much to the phylactery Itself, 
which seems to have been of a prescribed 
breadth, as to the case In which the parch- 
ment was kept, which the Pharisees, among 
their other pretentious customs (Mark viL 

8, 4 ; Luke v. 88, &o.), made as conspicuous 
as they could. It is said that the Pharisees 
wore them always, whereas the common 
people only nsed them at prayers. The 
modern Jews only wear them at morning 
prayers, and sometimes at noon. In our 
Lord's time they were worn by all Jews, ex- 
cept the Karaites, women, and slaves. Boys, 
at the age of thirteen years and a day, were 
bound to wear them. The Karaites explained 
Deut. vi. 8, Ex. xill. 9, &c., as a figurtUive 
command to remember the law, as is certainly 
the ease in similar passages (Prov. ill. 8, vi. 
21, vii. 8; Cant. viU. 6, Ac.). It seems 
clear to us that the scope of these injunctions 
favours the Karaite Interpretation. 

Fhiotlets or PlijUeteriM. 

FULLER. The trade of the AiUers, so far 
as It is mentioned in Scripture, appears to 
have consisted chiefly In cleansing garments 
and whitening them. The process of ftxUlng 
or cleansing cloth consisted in treading or 
stamping on the garments with the feet or 
with bats in tubs of water, in which some 
alkaline substance answering the purpose of 
soap had been dissolved. I'he substanoea 
used for this purpose which are mentioatd In 
Scripture are natrum (Prov. xzT. 2C ; Jer. 
U. 22) and soap (Mai. lli. 2). Other snb. 
stances also are mentioned as being employed 
in cleansing, which, together with alkali, 
seem to identify the Jewish with the Roman 
process, as urine and chalk. The process of 
whitening garments was performed by rub- 
bing into them chalk or earth of some kind. 
Creta Clmolla (Cimollte) was probably the 
earth most frequently used. The trade of 
the fUUers, as causing offensive smells, and 
also as requiring space for drying clothes^ 

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appears to have been carried on at Jeroaalem 
outside the cit y. 

FULLER'S FIELD, THE, a fpot near 
Jenuakm (S K. XTiiL 17 ; Is. TiL S, xxxri. 
3) 80 cloae to the walls that a person speaking 
f!rom there oonld be heard on them (3 K. 
xTiii 17, 36). One resort of the follers of 
Jenisalon wonld seem to haTe been below 
the dtj cm the soath-east side. But Rab- 
shakeh and his "great host" mnst hare 
cofoe from the north ; and the Fuller's Field 
was theredore, to judge from this circum- 
stance, on the table-land on the northern 
side of the eitj. 

FUNERALS. [Btoial.] 

FURLONG. [Ukasuus.] 

FURNACE. Various kinds of ftamaces are 
noticed in the Bible, such as a smelting or 
calcjnlng Aimaee (Gen. xix. 38 ; Ex. ix. 8, 
10, xix. 18),eepeciaUy a lime-kiln (Is. xxxiU. 
13 ; Am. iL 1) ; a refining ftoiace (Pror. 
XTiL 8, xxvii. 31 ; Ex. xxU. 18 ff.) ; a large 
furnace built like a brick-kiln (Dan. iiL 33, 
18). The Peralans were in the habit of using 
the fbmace as a means of inflicting capital 
punishment (Dan. I. e, ; Jer. xxix. S3 ; 3 Mmoc 
▼iL 6 ; Hoe. vii. 7). 

GA'AL, son of Ebed, aided Che Sheohe- 
mites in their rebellion against Abi- 
melech (Jndg. ix.). 

OA'ASH. On the north side of " the bill 
of Gaasb" was the city which was given to 
Joshua (Josh. xxIt. 80 ; Judg. ii. 9 ; comp. 
Joflh. xix. 49, 50). It does not appear to 
haTe been recognised. 

QA'BA. The same name as Gkba. It is 
fbund in the A. y. in Josh. xviiL 34 ; Ezr. iL 
36 ; Neh. vii. 80. 

OAB'BATHA, the Hebrew or Chaldee ap- 
pellation of a place, also called *' Pavement," 
where the Judgment-seat or bema was planted, 
from his place on which Pilate delivered our 
Lord to death (John xix. IS). The place was 
outside the praetorium, for Pilate brought 
Jesus fiorth ttma. thence to it It is sug- 
gested that Qabhatha is a mere translation of 
^ pavement." It is more probably from an 
ancient root signifying height or roundness. 
In this «ase Gaibbatha designated the ele- 
vated Bema ; and the ** pavement" was pos- 
sibly seme mosaic or tesselated work, either 
iorming the bema itself; or the ilooring of the 
eourt immediately round it. 

OA'BRIEL. The word, which is not in 
itself distinctive, but merely a description of 
the angelic office, is used as a proper name or 
title in Dan. viiL 16, ix. 31, and in Luke L 
19, 36. In the otdinary traditions, Jewish 
and Christian, Gabriel is spoken of as one of 

the archangels. In Scripture he is set forth 
only as the representative of the angelio 
nature in its ministration of comfort and 
sympathy to man. 

GAD, Jacob's seventh son, the flrst-bom of 
Zilpah, Leah's maid, and whole-brother to 
Asher (Gen. xxx. 11-18, xlvi. 16, 18). The 
word means either "fortune" or "troop;" 
hence Leah said at his birth — " a troop (of 
children) cometh " (Gen. xxx. ii. *, comp. 
xlix. 19). Of the childhood and Ufe of the 
patriarch Gad nothing is preserved. At the 
time of the descent into Egypt seven sons are 
ascribed to him. The alliance between the 
tribes of Reuben and Gad was doubtless in- 
duced by the similarity of their pursuits. Of 
all the sons of Jacob these two tribes alone 
returned to the land which their forefathers 
had left fire hundred years before, with their 
occupations unchanged. At the halt on the 
east of Jordan we find them coming forward 
to Moses with the representation that they 
•* have cattle "— " a great multitude of catOe," 
and the land where they now are is a " place 
for cattle." They did not, however, attempt 
to evade taking their proper share of the 
difficulties of subduing the land of Canaan, 
and after that task had been elTeoted they 
were dismissed by Joshua " to their tents," 
to their " wives, their little ones, and their 
cattle," which they had left behind them in 
Oilead. The country allotted to Gad appears, 
speaking roughly, to have lain chiefly about 
the centre of the land east of Jordan. The 
south of that district — from the Amon 
{Wady Mqjeb), about halfway down the 
Dead Sea, to Heshbon, nearly due east of 
Jerusalem — was occupied by Reuben, and at 
or about Heshbon the possessions of Gad com- 
menced. They embraced half Gilead, as the 
oldest record specially states (Deut. iii. 13), 
or half the land of the children of Ammon 
(Josh. xiii. 35), probably the mountainous 
district which is intersected by the torrent 
Jabbok, including, as its most northern town, 
the ancient sanctuary of Mahanaim. On the 
east the Airthest landmark given is " Aroer, 
that flices Rabbah," the present Amnum (Josh, 
xiii. 35). West was the Jordan (37). Such 
was the territory allotted to the Gadites, but 
there is no doubt that they soon extended 
themselves beyond these limits. The offloinl 
records of the reign of Jothom of Judoh 
(1 Chr. V. 11, 16) show them to have been 
at that time established over the whole of 
Gilead, and in possession of Bashan as far as 
Salcah, and very far both to the north and 
the east of the border given them originally, 
while the Manassites were pushed still ftirthor 
northwards to Mount Hermon (1 Chr. v. 33). 
The character of the tribe is throughout 

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stronglj marked— fierce and warlike — "strong 
meu of might, men of war for the battle, that 
ooold handle shield and buckler, their faces 
the faces of lions, and like roes upon the 
mountains for sw^tness." Gad was carried 
into captiTity by Tiglath-Pileser (1 Chr. ▼. 26), 
and in the time of Jeremiah the cities of the 
tribe seem to have been inhabited by the 

GAD, "the seer," or "the king's seer," 
i, e. DaTld's (1 Chr. xxix. 39 ; 2 Chr. xxix. 
25 ; 2 Sam. xxiv. 11 ; 1 Chr. xzi. 9), was a 
" prophet" who appears to have Joined David 
when in the hold (1 Sam. zzii. 5). He re- 
appears in connexion with the punishment 
inflicted for the numbering of the people 
(2 Sam. xxiT. 11-19 ; 1 Chr. xzi. 9-19). He 
wrote a book of the Acts of David (1 Chr. 
xxix. 29), and also assisted in the arrange- 
ments for the musical service of the " house 
of God" (2 Chr. xxix. 26). 

GAD. Properly "the Gad," with the 
article. In the A. Y. of Is. Ixv. 11 the clause 
" that prepare a table for that troop " has in 
the margin instead of the last word the proper 
name " Gad," which evidently denotes some 
idol worshipped by the Jews in Babylon, 
though it is impossible positively to iden- 
tify it. 

GAiyARA, a strong city situated near the 
river Hieromax, east of the Sea of Galilee, 
over against Scythopolis and Tiberias, and 
sixteen Roman miles distant frnra each of 
those plaoea. Josephus calls it the capital of 
Peraea. A large district was attached to it. 
Oadara itself is not mentioned in the Bible, 
but it is evidently identical with the "oountry 
of the Gadarenes," or Gergesenes (Matt. viii. 
2$ ; Mark v. 1 ; Luke viU. 26, 87). The 
ruins of this dty, now called Vm Km^ are 
about two mfles in circumference. Gadara 
derives its greatest interest ftrom having been 
the scene of our Lord's miracle in healing the 
demoniacs (Matt. viii. 28-84 ; Mark v. 1-21 ; 
Luke viii. 26-40). The whole circumstances 
or the narrative are strikingly illustrated by 
the features of the oountry. Another thing 
i9 worthy of notice. The most interesting 
remains of Gadara are its tombs, which dot 
the difli for a considerable distance round the 
eity. Gadara was captured by Vespasian on 
the first outbreak of the war with the Jews ; 
all its inhabitants massacred ; and the town 
itself, with the surrounding villages, reduced 
to ashes. 

GAI'US. [JoHX, StcoifD AHD Thiu> 
Episixn OP.] 

GAL'AAD, the Greek form of the word 


GALA'TIA, is UteraUy the " Gallia" of the 
East. The Galatians were in their origin a 

stream of that great Keltic torrent which 
poured into Greece in the third century before 
the Christian era. Some of these invaders 
moved on into Thrace, and appeared on the 
shores of the Hellespont and Bosporus, when 
Nicomedes I., king of Bithynia, being then 
engaged in a civil war, invited them across to 
help him. At the end of the Republic, 
Galatia appears as a dependent kingdom ; at 
the beginning of the Empire as a province 
(a.d. 26). The Roman province of Galatia 
may be roughly described as the central region 
of the peninsula of Asia Minor, with the pro- 
vinces of Asia on the west, Cappaoocia on 
the east, Pamphtxja and Cilicia on the 
south, and BirimtiA and Pontus on the 
north. These Eastern Gauls preserved much 
of their ancient character, and something of 
their ancient language. The prevailing 
speech, however, of the district was Greek. 
The inscriptions found at Ancyra are Greek, 
and St. Paul wrote his Epistle in Greek. It 
is difficult at first sight to determine in what 
sense the word Galatia is used by the writers 
of the N. T., or whether always in the same 
sense. In the Acts of the Apostles the 
Journeys of St. Paul through the district are 
mentioned in very general terms. On all ac- 
counts it seems most probable that Galatia is 
used by St Luke as an ethnographical term, 
and not for the Roman province ai that 

was written by the Apostle St. Paul not long 
after his Journey through Galatia and Phrygia 
(Acts zviiL 23), and probably in the early 
portion of his two years' and a half stay at 
Ephestts, which terminated with the Pente- 
cost of AJ>. 67 or 68. The Epistle appears 
to have been called forth by the machinations 
of Judaizing teachers, who, shortly before the 
date of its composition, had endeavoured to 
seduce the churches of this province into a 
recognition of circumcision (v. 2, 11, 12, 
vi. 12, sq.), and had openly sought to de- 
preciate the apostolic claims of St. Paul 
(oomp. i. 1, 11). The scope and contents of 
the EpisUe are thus— (1) apologetic (i., ii.) 
and polemical (iii. iv.) ; and (2) hortatory 
and practical (v., vi) : the positions and de- 
monstrations of the former portion being used 
with great power and persuasiveness in the 
exhortetions of the latter. Two historical 
questions require a brief notice: — 1. The 
mtmber ^ visits made by St Paul to the 
churches of Galatia previous to his writing 
the Epistle. These seem certainly to have 
been two. The Apostle founded the churches 
of Galatia in the visit recorded Acts xvi. 6, 
during his second missionary Journey, about 
A.n. iU ftDd revisited them at the period and 

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on the oeeation mentioned Aeti xviiL 28, 
•when he irent through the country of Galatia 
end Phrygia. On this oocasion it would seem 
probable that he found the leaven of Judaism 
beginning to work in the churches of Golatla. 
S. doeely allied with the preceding question 
is that of the date, and the place £rom which 
the Epistle was written. It was probably 
written about the same time as the Epistle to 
the Bomans at Corinth, during the three 
months that the Apoatle stayed there (Acts 
zz. 2, 8), apparently the winter of ▲.d. 67 
or 5$. 

GALBANUM, one of the perftmies em- 
pU^ed in the preparation of the sacred incense 
(Ex. zxz. 84). The galbannm of commerce 
is brought chiefly firom India and the Levant. 
It is a resinous gum of a brownish yellow 
colour, and strong, disagreeable smeU, usually 
met with in masses, but sometimes found 
in yellowish tear-like drops. But, though 
galbanum itself is well known, Uie plant 
which yields it has not been exactly deter- 

GAL'EED, the name given by Jacob to the 
heap which he and Laban made on Mount 
Gilead in witness of the covenant then entered 
into between them (Gen. xxxi. 47, 48 ; wmp, 
23, 25). 

GALILEE. This name, which in the 
Boman age was applied to a large province, 
eeems to have been originally confined to a 
Httle ** circuit " of country round Kedesh- 
Naphtali, in which were situated the twenty 
towns given by Solomon to Hiram, king of 
Tyre, as payment for his work in conveying 
timber fhnn Lebanon to Jerusalem (Josh. 
XX. 7; 1 K. ix. 11). They were then, or 
subsequently, occupied by strangers, and for 
this reason Isaiah gives to the district the 
name "Galilee of the Gentiles" (Is. ix. 1). 
It is probable that the strangers increased in 
number, and became during the ciq>tlvity the 
great body of the inhabitants; extending 
themselves also over the surrounding country, 
they gave to their new territories the old 
name, until at length Galilee became one of 
the largest provinces of Palestine. In the 
time of our Lord all Palestine was divided 
into three provinces, Judaea, Samaria, and 
Galilee (Acts ix. 31 ; Luke xvii. 11 ; Joseph. 
B, /. iii. 8). The latter included the whole 
northern section of the country, including 
the ancient territories of Issachar, Zebulun, 
Asher, and Naphtoll. On the west it was 
boundied by the territory of Ptolemais, which 
probably included the whole plain of Akka to 
the foot of Carmel. The southern border ran 
along the base of Carmel and of the hlUs of 
Samaria to Mount Gilboa, and then deecended 
the valley of Jcareel by ScythopoUs to the 

Jordan. The river Jordan, the Sea of 
Galilee, and the upper Jordan to the fountain 
at Dan, formed the eastern border ; and the 
northern ran firom Dan westward across the 
mountain ridge till it touched the territory 
of the Phoenicians. Galilee was divided into 
two sections, "Lower" and "Upper." Lower 
Galilee included the great plain of Esdraelon 
with its offshoots, which run down to the 
Jordan and the Lake of Tiberias ; and the 
whole of the hiU-conntry adjoining it on the 
north to the foot of the mountain-range. It 
was thus one of the richest and most beautiftil 
sections of Palestine. The chief towns of 
Lower Galilee were Tiberias, Tarichaea, at 
the southern end of the Sea of Galilee, and 
Sepphoris. The towns most celebrat^ in 
N. T. history are Naaareth, Cana, and Tiberias 
(Luke L 26 ; John ii. 1, vi. 1). Tapper Galilee 
embraced tiie whole mountain-range lying 
between the upper Jordan and Phoenicia. 
To this region the name "Galilee of the 
Gentiles" is given in the O. and N. T. (Is. 
ix. 1 ; Matt. iv. 15). The town of Caper- 
naum, on the north shore of the lake, was in 
upper Galilee. Galilee was the scene of the 
greater part of our Lord's private lifb and 
public acts. His early years were spent at 
Nazareth ; and when He entered on His great 
work He made Capernaum His home (Matt, 
iv. 18. ix. 1). It is a remarkable fkct that 
the first three Gospels are chiefly taken up 
with our Lord's ministrations in this pro- 
vince, while the Gospel of John dwells more 
upon those in Judaea. The nature of our 
Lord's parables and illustrations was greatly 
influenced by the peculiar features and pro- 
ducts of the country. The Apostles were all 
either Galileans by birth or residence (Acts i. 
11). After the destruction of Jerusalem, 
Galilee became the chief seat of Jewish 
schools of learning, and the residence of their 
most celebrated Babbins. 

GALILEE, SEA OF. [Gxmiibsabxth.] 
GALL, the representative in the A. V. of 
the Hebrew words mirirdh, or mirSr6h, and 
r6*h, 1. Mirii'dh or mMSrdh denotes ety- 
mologically " that which is bitter ;" see Job 
xiii. 26, "thou writest bitter things against 
me." Hence the term is applied to the 
"bile" or "gall" ihmx iU intense bitterness 
(Job xvL 18, XX. 25) ; it is also used of the 
"poison" of berpents (Job xx. 14), which 
the ancients erroneously believed was their 
gall. 2. S^eh, generally translated "gall" 
by the A. Y. is in Hos. x. 4 rendered " hem- 
look :" in Deut. xxxii. 88, and Job xx. 16, 
r^h denotes the "poison" or "venom" of 
serpents. From Deut. xxix. IS, and Lam. 
ilL 19, compared with Hos. x. 4, it is evident 
that the Heb. term denotes some bitter, and 

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perhaps poinonoiu plant. Other writers hare 
supposed, and 'with some reason (from Deut 
xxxii. 32), that some berry-bearing plant 
most be intended. Gesenius onderstands 
*' poppies." The capsules of the Papaneraceae 
may well give the name of roth (" head ") 
to the plant in question, Just as we speak of 
poppy heads. The various species of this 
family spring up quickly in com-flelds, and 
the juice is extremely bitter. A steeped solu- 
tion of poppy heads may be " the water of 
gall" of Jer. viii. 14. The passages in the 
Gospels which relate the circumstance of the 
Roman soldiers offering our Lord, Just before 
his cruoiflxion, " vinegar mingled with gall," 
according to St. Matthew (xxvii. S4), and 
"wine mingled with myrrh," according to 
St. Mark's account (xv. 2S), require some 
consideration. "Matthew, in his usual 
way," as Hengstenberg remarks, '* desig- 
nates the drink theologically : always keeping 
his eye on the prophecies of the 0. T., he 
speaks of gall and vinegar for the purpose of 
rendering the fulfilment of the Psalms more 
manifest. Mark again (xv. 23), according to 
hit way, looks rather at the outward quality 
of the dnnk." "Gall" is not to be under- 
stood in any other sense than as expressing 
the bitter nature of the draught. Notwith- 
standing the almost concurrent opinion of 
ancient and modem commentators that the 
" wine mingled with myrrh " was offered to 
our Lord as an anodyne, we cannot readily 
come to the same conclusion. Had the sol- 
diers intended a mitigation of suffering, they 
would doubtless have offered a draught 
drugged with some substance having narcotic 
properties. The drink in question was pro- 
bably a mere ordinary beverage of the 

GALLEY. [Ship.] 

OAL'LIO. Junius Annaeus Gallio, the 
Roman pro-consul of Achaia when St. Paul 
was at Ck>rinth, a.d. 53, under the Emperor 
Claudius (Acts xviii. 12). He was brother 
to Lucius Annaeus Seneca, the philosopher. 
Jerome in the Chronicle of Eusebius says 
that he committed suicide in the year 65 


OAMA'LIEL. 1. SonofPedahzur; prince 
or captain of the tribe of Manasseh at the 
census at Sinai (Num. i. 10, ii. 20, vii. 54, 
59), and at starting on the march through 
the wilderness (x. 23). — 2. A Pharisee and 
celebrated doctor of the law, who gave 
prudent worldly advice in the Sanhedrim re- 
specting the treatment of the followers of 
Jesus of Nazareth (Acts v. 84 ff.). We learn 
from Acts xxii. 3 that he was the preceptor 
of 9t. Paul. He is generally identified with the 
very celebrated Jewish doctor Gamaliel. This 

Gamaliel was son of Rabbi Simeon, and grand- 
son of the celebrated Hillel ; he was president 
of the Sanhedrim under Tiberius, Caligula, 
and Claudius, and is reported to have died 
eighteen years before the destruction of Jeru- 

GAMES.' Among the Greeks the rage for 
theatrical exhibitions was such that every 
city of any size possessed its theatre and 
staidium. At Ephesus an annual contest was 
held in honour of Diana. It is probable that 
St. Paul was present when these games were 
proceeding. A direct reference to the ex- 
hibitions that took place on such occasions is 
made in 1 Cor. xv. 82. St. Paul's Epistles 
abound with allusions to the Greek contests, 
borrowed probably from the Isthmian games, 
at which he may well have been present 
during his first xiAX to Corinth. These con- 
tests (2 Tim. iv. 7 ; 1 Tim. vl. 12) were 
divided into two classes, the paneratium^ con- 
sisting of boxing and wrestling, and the 
pentathlon, consisting of leaping, running, 
quoiting, hurling the spear, arid wrestling. 
The competitors (1 Cor. ix. 25 ; 2 Tim. ii. 5) 
required a long and severe course of previous 
training (1 Tim. iv. 8), during which a par- 
ticular diet was enforced (1 Cor. ix. 25, 27). 
In the Olympic contests these preparatory ex- 
ercises extended over a period of ten months, 
during the last of which they were conducted 
under the supervision of appointed oflicers. 
The contests took place in the presence of a 
vast multitude of spectators (Hcb. xii. 1 ), the 
competitors being the spectacle (1 Cor. iv. 9 ; 
Heb. X. 88). The games were opened by the 
proclamation of a herald (1 Cor. ix. 27), 
whose office it was to give out the name and 
country of each candidate, and especially tc 
announce the name of the victor before the 
assembled multitude. The judge was selected 
for his spotless integrity (2 Tim. iv. 8) : his 
office was to decide any disputes (CoL Ui. 15) 
and to give the prize (1 Cor. ix. 24 ; Phil, 
iii. 14), consisting of a crown (2 Tim. IL 5, 
iv. 8) of leaves of wild olive at the Olympic 
games, and of pine, or at one period, ivy, at 
the Isthmian games. St Paul alludes to two 
only out of the five contests, boxing and 
running, most fluently to the latter. In 
boxing (cf. 1 Cor. ix. 26) the hands and arms 
were bound with the eestus, a bond of leather 
studded with nails. The foot-race (2 Tim. 
iv. 7) was run in the stadium (1 Cor. ix. 24), 
an oblong area, open at one end and rounded 
in a semicircular form at the other, along the 
sides of which were the raised tiers of seatu 
on which the spectators sat. The judge was 
stationed by the goal (Phil. iii. 14), which 
was clearly visible firom one end of the iUh- 
dium to the other. 

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GARDEN. Gardens in the East,^ u the 
Hebrew word indicatee, are Incloeuree, on 
the ontskirts of towns, plants with Tarious 
trees and shrubs. From the allusions in the 
Bible we learn that they were surrounded hj 
hedges of thorn (Is. ▼. 6), or walls of stone 
(ProT. xxIt. 81). For ftirther protection 
lodges (Is. L 8 ; Lam. iL 6) or watchtowers 
(Mark xU. 1) were bnUt in them, in which 
sat the keeper (Job xxvii. 18) to drive away 
the wild beasts and robbers, as is the c^ise 
to this day. The gardens of the Hebrews 
were planted with flowers and aromatic 
ihrube (Cant. tL 2, ir. 16), besides olives, 
fig-trees, nuts, or walnuts (Cant. vl. 11), 
pcunegnmates, and others for domestic use 
(Ex. xxiiL 11; Jer. xxix. ft ; Am. ix. 14). 
Gardens of herbs, or kitchen-gardens, are 
mentioned in Deut xi. 10, and 1 K. xxL 2. 
Coenmbers were grown in them (Is. i. 8 ; 
Bar. Ti. 70), and probably slso melons, leeks, 
onions, and garlick, which are spoken of (Num. 
xi. ft) as the productions of a neighbouring 
country. The rose-garden in Jerusalem, said 
to hare been situated westward of the temple 
mount, is remarkable as having been one of 
the few gardens which, trcm the time of the 
prophets, existed within the city walls. But 
of all the gardens of Palestine none is pos- 
sessed of associations more sacred and im- 
perishable than the garden of Getbsemane, 
beside the oil-presses on the slopes of OliTet. 
In a climate like that of Palestine the neigh- 
bourhood of water was an important consi- 
deration in selecting the site of a garden. To 
the old Hebrew poets ** a well-watered gar- 
den,** or **a tree planted by the waters,** 
was an emblem of luxuriant fertility and ma- 
terial prosperity (Is. Iviii. 1 1 ; Jer. xviL 8, 
xxxL 12). Frcmi a neighbouring stream or 
cistern were supplied the channels or con- 
duits, by which the gardens were intersected, 
and the water was thus conveyed to all parts 
(Ps. i. 3 ; Eccl. ii. 6 ; Ecdus. xxiv. 30). It 
is matter of doubt what is the exact meaning 
of the expression **to water with the foot" 
in Deut. xL 10. — ^The Hebrews made use of 
gardens as places of burial (John xix. 41). 
Manasaeh and his son Amon were buried in 
the garden of their palace, the garden of 
Uxia (2 K. xxL 18, 26). — The retirement of 
gardens rendered them favourite places for 
devotion (Matt xxvi. 36 ; John xviii. 1 ; cf. 
Gen. xxiv. 68). In the degenerate times of 
the monarchy they were selected as the icenes 
of idolatrous worship (Is. i. 29, Ixv. 8, Ixvi. 
17) and images of the idols were probably 
erected in them.— The traditional gardens 
and pools of Solomon, supposed to be alluded 
to in Eod. ii. ft, 6, are shown in the Wadp 
Urtu^ (i. «. Hortus), about an hour and 

a quarter to the south of Bethlehem. The 
" king's garden," mentioned in 2 K. xxv. 
4 ; Neh. iiL 1ft ; Jer. xxxix. 4, lii. 7, was 
near the pool of Siloam, at the mouth of the 
Tyropoeon, north of Bir Eyub, and was formed 
by the meeting of the valleys of Jehoshaphat 
and Ben Hinnom. 

GARUCK (Num. xL ft), is the AlUum Sa- 
tivum of T.innaens, which abounds in Egypt. 

GARMENT. [Dbsss.] 

GATE. The gates and gateways of eastern 
cities andently held, and still hold, an im^ 
portant part, not only in the defence but in 
the public economy of the place. They are 
thus sometimes taken as representing the city 
Itself (Gen. xxii. 17, xxiv. 60; Deut. xii. 
12 ; Judg. V. 8 ; Ruth iv. 10 ; Ps. Ixxxvii. 
2, cxxii. 2). Among the special purposes for 
which they were used may be mentionedr— 

1. As places of public resort (Gen. xix. I, 
xxiii. 10, xxxiv. 20, 24 ; 1 Sam. iv. 18, &c.;. 

2. Places for publto deliberation, adminis- 
tration of justice, or of audience for kings 
and rulers, or ambassadors (Deut. xvL 18, 
xxi. 19, xxv. 7 ; Josh. xx. 4 ; Judg. ix. 3ft, 
ftc.). 8. PubUc markets (2 K. vil. I). In 
heathen towns the open spaces near the gates 
appear to have been sometimes used as places 
for sacrifice (Acts xiv. 13; comp. 2 K. xxiii. 
8). Regarded therefore as positions of great 
importance the gates of cities were carefully 
guarded and closed at nightfall (Deut. iil. ft ; 
Josh. iL 5, 7 ; Judg. ix. 40, 44). They con- 
tained chambers over the gateway (2 Sam. 
xviiL 24). The doors themselves of the larger 
gates mentioned in Scripture were two-leaved, 
plated with metal, closed with locks and fost- 
ened with metal bars (Deut. iii. ft ; Ps. cvii. 
16; Is. xlv. 1, 2). Gates not defended by 
iron were of course liable to be set on fire 
by an enemy (Judg. ix. 52). The gateways 
of royal palaces and even of private hounes 
were often richly ornamented. Sentences 
ttom the Law were inscribed on and above the 
gates (Deut. vi. 9 ; Is. liv. 12 ; Rev. xxi. 21). 
The gates of Solomon's Temple were very mas- 
sive and costly, being overlaid with gold and 
carvings (1 K. vL 84, 3ft ; 2 K. xviU. 16). 
Those of the Holy Place were of olive-wood, 
two-leaved, and overUiid with gold ; thoee of 
the temple of fir (1 K. vi. 31, 82, 84; Ex. 
xli. 28, 24). The figurative gates of pearl 
and precious stones (Is. liv. 12 ; Rev. xxi. 
21) may be regarded as having their types 
in the massive stone doors which are found 
in some of the ancient houses in Syria. These 
are of single slabs several inches thick, 
sometimes 10 foet high, and turn on stone 
pivots above. The parts of the doorwa> were 
the threshold (Judg. xix. 27) ; the side-posts, 
the lintel (Ex. xii. 7). In the Temple, Lc- 

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vites, and in bonnes of the wealthier classes, 
and in palaces, persons were especially ap- 
pointed to keep the door (Jer. xxxr. 4 ; 2 E. 
xii. 9, xxT. 18, Ac). 

GATH, one of the fire royal cities of the 
Philistines (Josh. xiii. S ; 1 Sam. Ti. 17) ; and 
the native place of the efiant Goliath (1 Sam. 
xvii. 4, 23). It probably stood npon the con- 
spicuous hill now called 7«//-e«-^4/^A, npon 
the side of the plain of Philistia, at the foot 
of the mountains of Jndah ; 10 miles £. of 
Ashdod, and about the same distance S. by 
E. of Ekron. It is irregular in form, and 
about 200 ft. high. Gath occupied a stronif 
position (2 Chr. xi. 8) on the border of Jndah 
and PhiUstU (1 Sam. xxi. 10; 1 Chr. xviii. 
1 ) ; and f^om its strength and resources 
fonning the key of both countries, it was the 
scene of frequent struggles, and was often 
captured and recaptured (2 Chr. xi. 8, xxvi. 
G ; 2 K. xii. 17 ; Am. tI. 2). The ravages 
of war to which Gath was exposed appear to 
have destroyed it at a comparatively early 
period, as it is not mentioned among the 
other royal cities by the later prophets (Zeph. 
ii. 4 ; Zech. ix. 5, 6). It is familiar to the 
Bible student as the scene of one of the most 
romantic incidents in the life of king David 
(1 Sam. xxi. 10-15). 

a town on the border of the territory of Zebu- 
Inn, not tar from Japbia, now T7{fa (Josh. 
xix. 12, 18), celebrated as the native place of 
the prophet Jonah (2 E. xiv. 25). EUMeah- 
had, a village 2 miles E. of S^fHriehf is the 
ancient Gath-hepher. 

GATH-RIM'MON. 1. A city given out of 
the tribe of Dan to the Levites (Josh. xxi. 
24 ; 1 Chr. vi. 69), situated on the plain of 
PhUistia, apparently not tar fh>m Joppa 
(Josh. xix. 45) — 9. A town of the half tribe 
of Manasseh west of the Jordan, assigned to 
the Levites (Josh. xxi. 25). The reading 
Gath-rinunon is probably an error of the 

GA'ZA (properly Azaah), one of the five 
chief cities of the Philistines. It is remark- 
able for its continuous existence and import- 
ance fh>m the very earliest times. The 
secret of this unbroken history is to be found 
in the situation of Gaza. It is the last town 
in the 8.W. of Palestine, on the fh)ntier to- 
wards Egypt. The same peculiarity of situ- 
ation has made Gaza important in a military 
sense. Its name means ** the strong ;'' and 
this was well elucidated in its siege by Alex- 
ander the Great, which lasted five months. 
In Gen. x. 19 it appears, even before tbe call 
of Abraham, as a *' border '* city of the Ca- 
naanites. Ii the conquest of Joshua the 
territory of Gaza is mentioned as one which 

he was not able to subdue (Josh. x. 41, xi. 
22, xiii. 8). It was assigned to the tribe of 
Judah (Josh. xv. 47), and that tribe did ob- 
tain possession of it (Judg. L 18) ; but they 
did not hold it long ; for soon afterwards we 
find it in the hands of the Philistines (Judg. 
iii. 8, xiii. 1, xvi. 1. 21) ; indeed it seems to 
have been their capital ; and apparently con- 
tinued through the times of Samuel, Saul, and 
David to be a Philistine city (1 Sam. vi. 17, 
xiv. 52, xxxi. 1 ; 2 Sam. xxi. 15). Solomon 
became master of "Azzah" (1 K. iv. 24). 
But in after times the same trouble with the 
Philistines recurred (2 Chr. xxi. 16, xxvL 6, 
xxviiL 18). The passage where Gaza is 
mentioned in the N. T. (Acto viiL 26) is talX 
of interest. It is the account of the baptism 
of the Ethiopian eunuch on his return fhim 
Jerusalem to Egypt. The words " which is 
desert " have given rise to much discussion. 
The probability is, that they refer to the road, 
and are used by the angel to inform Philip, 
who was then in Samaria, on what route he 
would find the eunuch. Besides the ordinary 
road traca. Jerusalem by Ramleh to Gaza, there 
was another, more favourable for carriages 
(Acts viii. 28), farther to the south through 
Hebron, and thenoe through a district com- 
paratively without towns and much exposed 
to tbe incursions of people trcm the draert. 
The modem OktoMeh is situated partly on an 
oblong hill of moderate height, and partly on 
the lower ground. The climate of the place 
is almost tropical, but it has deep wells of 
excellent water. There are a few palm-trees 
in the town, and its firuit-orohards are very 
productive. But the chief feature of the 
neighbourhood is the wide-q;>read olive-grove 
to tbe N. and N.E. 

OAZ'ARA, a place fluently mentioned 
in the wars of the Maccabees, and of great 
importance in the operations of both parties 
(1 Maoo. ix. 62, xiii. 58, xiv. 7, 88, 84, 86, 
XV. 28, xvi. 1 ; 2 Maco. x. 32-86). There Is 
every reason to believe that Gazara was the 
same place as the more ancient Gxzsft or 

GA'ZEB, 2 Sam. v. 25 ; 1 Chr. xiv. 16. 


GE^A, a city of Benjamin, with " sub- 
urbs," allotted to the priests (Josh. xxi. 17 ; 
1 Chr. vi. 60). It is named amongst the first 
group of the Bei^amite towns ; apparently 
those lying near to and along the north 
boundary (Josh, xviii. 24). Here the name 
is given as Gaba. During the wars of the 
earlier part of the reign of Saul, Geba was 
held as a garrison by the Philistines (1 Sam. 
xiii. 8), but they were ejected by Jonathan. 
Later in the same campaign we find it re- 
ferred to to define the position of the two 

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rooks which stood in the rarine below the 
gnxrUon of Miohmash, in terms which fix 
Geba on the south and Michmash on the 
north of the raTine (1 Sam. xir. 5 ; the A. Y. 
has here Oibeah). Exactly in accordance 
with this is the position of the modern Tillage 
ciJtba, which stands pictnresquely on the 
top of its steep terraced hill, on the rery edge 
of the great Wady Swoeinitf looking north- 
wards to the opposite Tillage, which also re- 
tains its old name of MAkhnuu, 

GE'BAL, a proper name, occurring in Ps. 
Ixxxiii. 7, in connexion with Edom and 
Moab, Ammon and Amalek, the Philistines 
and the inhabitants of Tyre. The contexts 
both of the psalm and of the historical records 
will jnstUy our assuming the Oebal of the 
Psalms to be one and the same city with the 
Gebal of Exekiel (xxTii. 0), a maritime town 
of Phoenicia. From the &ct that its inhabit- 
ants are written " Oiblians " in the Vulg., and 
«* Biblians" in the LXX., we may infer their 
identity with the Olblites, spoken of in eon- 
nexi<m with Lebanon by Joshua (xiii. 5), and 
that of their dty with the "Blblus" (or 
Byblus) of profane literature. It is called 
Jdtail by the Arabs, thus rcTiTing the old 
Biblical name. 

GEDALI'AH, son of Ahikam (Jeremiah's 
protector, Jer. xxri. 24), and grandson of 
Shaphan the secretary of king Josiah. After 
the destruction of the Temple, b.c. 588, Ne- 
buchadnezzar departed fh>m Judaea, leaTing 
Qedaliah with a Chaldean guard (Jer. xl. 6) 
at Hizpah, to goTcm the Tine-dressers and 
husbandmen (Jer. lii. 16) who were exempted 
firom captiTity. Jeremiah joined Gedaliah ; 
and Mizpah became the resort of Jews from 
TariouB quarters (Jer. xl. 6, 11). He was 
murdered by Ishmael two months after his 

GE'DER. The king of Geder was one of 
the 81 kings who were orereome by Joshua 
on the west of the Jordan (Josh. xiL 13). It 
is possible that it may be the same place as 
the Geder named in 1 Chr. iT. 39. 

GEI/EROTH, a town in the low country 
of Judah (Josh. xt. 41 ; 2 Chr. xxtIU. 18). 

GEDO'R, a town in the mountainous part 
of Judah (Josh. xt. 58), a few miles north 
of Hebron. Robinson disooTcred a JtdUr 
halfway between Bethlehem and Hebron, 
about two miles west of the road. 

GEHA'ZI, the senrant or boy of Elisha. 
"He was sent as the prophet's messenger 
on two occasions to the good Shunammite 
(2 K. It.) ; obtained frauaulently money and 
garments fk-om Naaman, was miraculously 
smitten with incurable leprosy, and was dis- 
missed ftrom the prophet's serTice (2 K. t.). 
Later in the history he is mentioned as 

being engaged in relating to King Joram 
all the great things which Elislia had done 
(2 K. Tiii.). 

GEHEN'NA. [HnwoM.] 

GEMARrAH. 1. Son of Shaphah the 
scribe, and fiftther of Michaiah. He was one 
of the nobles of Judah, and had a chamber in 
the honse of the Lord, fh>m which Baruch 
read Jeremiah's alarming prophecy in the 
ears of all the people, b.c. 606 (Jer. xxxTi.). 
— ^2. Son of Hilkiah, was made the bearer of 
Jeremiah's letter to the oaptiTe Jews (Jer. 

GEMS. [Stonzs, PKKcioim.] 

GENEALOGY. In Hebrew the term for 
genealogy or pedigree is *' the book of the 
generations;" and because the oldest his- 
tories were usually drawn up on a genea- 
logical basis, the expression often extended 
to the whole history, as is the case with the 
Gospel of 8t Matthew, where " the book of 
the generation of Jesus Christ " includes the 
whole history contained in that GospeL The 
promise of the land of Canaan to the seed 
of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob snocessiTely, 
and the separation of the Israelites teom the 
Gentile world ; the expectation of Messiah 
as to spring from the tribe of Judah ; the ex- 
clusiTely hereditary priesthood of Aaron with 
its dignity and emoluments; the long suc- 
cession of kings in the line of DaTid ; and the 
whole diTision and occupation of the land 
upon genealogical principles by the tribes, 
families, and houses of fS&^ers, gaTO a deeper 
importance to the science of genealogy among 
the Jews than perhaps any other nation. 
With Jacob, the founder of the nation, the 
system of reckoning by genealogies was much 
farther dcTcloped. In Gen. xxxt. 22-26, we 
haTe a formal account of the sons of Jacob, 
the patriarchs of the nation, repeated in Ex. 
i. 1-5. In Gen. xlTi. we haTe an exact gene- 
alogical census of the house of Israel at the 
time of Jacob's going down to Egypt. When 
the Israelites were in the wilderness of Sinai, 
their number was taken by DiTine command 
" after their families, by the house of their 
fitthers." According to these genealogical di- 
Tisionsthey pitched their tents, and marched, 
and offered their gifts and offerings, chose 
spies, and the whole land of Canaan was par- 
celled out amongst them. When DaTid esta- 
blished the temple sendees on the footing 
which continued till the time of Christ, he 
diTided the priests and LcTites into courses 
and companies, each under the family chief. 
When Hezekiah reopened the temple, and 
restored the temple serTiees which had fallen 
into disuse, he reckoned the whde nation by 
genealogies. When Zerubbabel brought back 
the captivity from Babylon, one of his first 

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cares seems to hare been to take a census of 
those that retarned, and to settle them ac- 
cording to their genealogies. Passing on to 
the time of the birth of Christ, we hare a 
striking incidental proof of the continuance 
of the Jewish genealc^cal economy in the 
foct that when Augustus ordered the census 
of the empire to be taken, the Jews in the 
prorince of Syria immediately went each one 
to his own city. Another proof is the exist- 
ence of our Lord's genealogy in two forms as 
given by St. Matthew and St. Luke. The 
mention of Zacharias, as "of the course of 
Abia," of Elisabeth, as ** of the daughters of 
Aaron," and of Anna the daughter of Pha- 
nuel, as " of the tribe of Aser," are farther 
indications of the same thing. From all this 
it is abundantiy manifest that the Jewish 
genealogical records continued to be kept till 
near the destruction of Jerusalem. But there 
can be littie doubt that the registers of the 
Jewish tribes and families perished at the 
destruction of Jerusalem, and not before. It 
remains to be said that Just notions of the 
nature of the Jewish genealc^cal records are 
of great importance with a riew to the right 
interpretation of Scripture. Let it only be 
remembered that these records have respect 
to political and territorial diTisions, as much 
as to strictly genealogical descent, and it will 
at once be seen how erroneous a conclusion 
it may be, that all who are called ** sons *' 
of such or such a patriarch, or chief father, 
must necessarily be his rery children. If any 
one funily or house became extinct, some 
other would succeed to its place, called after 
its own chief ftither. Hence of course a 
census of any tribe drawn up at a later pe- 
riod, would exhibit different diTisions fh>m 
one drawn ap at an earlier. The same prin- 
ciple must be borne in mind in interpreting 
any particular genealogy. Again, when a 
pedigree was abbreviated, it would naturally 
specify such generations as would indicate 
from what chief houses the person descended. 
But then as regards the chronological use of 
the Scripture genealogies, it follows from the 
above view that great caution is necessary in 
using them as measures of time, though they 
are invaluable for this purpose whenever we 
can be sure that they are complete. The 
Jewish genealogies have two forms, one giv- 
ing the generations in a descending, the other 
in an ascending scale. Examples of the de- 
scending form may be seen in Ruth iv. 18-22, 
or 1 Chr. iii. Of the ascending 1 Chr. vi. 
88-48 (A. V.) ; Ear. vii. 1-5. Females are 
named in genealogies when there is anything 
remarkable about them, or when any right 
or property is transmitted through them. 
Bee Gen. xi. 29, xxil. 33, xxv. 1-4, xxxv. 

32-26 ; Ex. vi. 38 ; Num. xxvL 88 ; 1 Chr. 
ii. 4, 19, 50, 35, &c. 

New Testament gives us the genealogy of but 
one person, that of our Saviour. The follow- 
ing propositions will explain the true con- 
struction of these genealogies : — 1. They are 
both the genealogies of Joseph i. e. of Jesus 
Christ, as the reputed and legal son of Jo- 
seph and Mary. 3. The genealogy of St. 
Matthew is Joseph's genealogy as legal suc- 
cessor to the throne of David. St. Luke's is 
Joseph's private genealogy, exhibiting his real 
birth, as David's son, and thus showing why 
he was heir to Solomon's crown. The simple 
principle that one evangelist exhibits that 
genealogy ishich contained the successive heirs 
to David's and Solomon's throne, while the 
other exhibits the paternal stem of him who 
was the heir, explains all the anomalies of 
the two pedigrees, their agrreements as well 
as their discrepancies, and the circumstance 
of there being two at all. 8. Mary, the 
mother of Jesus, was in all probability the 
daughter of Jacob, and first cousin to Joseph 
her husband. 

GENERATION. In the long-Uved Patri- 
archal age a generation seems to have been 
computed at 100 years (Gen. xv. 16 ; oomp. 
18, and Ex. xii. 40) ; but subsequentiy the 
reckoning was the same which has been 
adopted by other civiUsed nations, vis., from 
thirty to forty years (Job xlii. 16). For 
generation in the sense of a definite period of 
time, see Gen. xv. 16 ; Deut. xxiii. 8, 4, 8, 
Ac. As an indefinite period of time : — for 
time pastf see Deut xxxii. 7 ; Is. Iviii. 12 ; 
for XimejiUure, see Ps. xlv. 17, Ixxil. 5, &c. 
Generation is also used to signify the men of 
an age, or time, as eontea^torariet (Gen. vi. 
9 ; Is. liii. 8) ; posterity^ especially in legal 
formulae (Lev. iii. 17, ftc.) ; fatAer$f or aw 
eeetore (Ps. xlix. 19). 

GENES'ARETH. [Gkkitxsasbt.] 

GEN'ESIS, the first book of the Lait or 
Pentateuch, so called from its titie in the Sep- 
tuagint, that is. Creation. Respecting its inte- 
grity and author, see Pkmtatkuch. The book 
of Genesis (with the first chapters of Exodus) 
describes the steps which led to the establish- 
ment of the Theocracy. It is a part of the 
writer's plan to tell us what the Divine pre- 
paration of the world was, in order to show, 
first, the significance of the call of Abraham, 
and next, the true nature of the Jewish theo- 
cracy. He begins with the creation of the 
world, because the God who created the 
world and the God who revealed Himself to 
the fathers is the same God. The book of 
Genesis has thus a character at once special 
and univetsal. It embraces the world; it 

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•peaks of God as the God of the whole human 
raee. Bat as the introdnetioa to Jewish his- 
torj, it makes the oniTersal interest snhor- 
iUnate to the nationaL Fire principal persons 
are the pillars, so to speak, on which the 
whole sape rstr u ctu re rests : Adam, Noah, 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. — ^L Adam. The 
creation of the world, and the earliest history 
of mankind (eh. i.-iii.). As yet no dirergence 
of the difTerent families of man.— II. IToah. 
The history of Adam's descendants to the 
death of Noah (ir.-ix.). Here we hare (1) 
the line of Cain branching olT while the his- 
tory follows the ibrtones of Beth, whose de- 
scendants are (2) traced in genealogical sue- 
cession, and in an nnbroken line as far as 
Noah, and (8) the history of Noah himself 
(▼i.-iz.), continued to his death.— IlL Abra- 
hmm. Noah's posterity till the death of Abra- 
ham (x.-xzT. 18). Here we have (1) the 
peopling of the whole earth by the descend- 
ants of Noah's three sons (xL 1-9). The his- 
tory of two of these is then dropped, and (2) 
the line of Shem only pursued (xi. 10-32) as 
fhr as Terah and Abraham, wha« the genea- 
logical table breaks off. (8) Abraham is now 
the prominent figure (xii.-xxv. 18). But as 
Termh had twt> other sons, Nahor and Haran 
(xL 37), some notices respecting their families 
ore added. Lot's migration with Abraham 
into the land of Canaan is mentioned, as well 
as the tsct that he was the father of Moab 
and Amman (xix. 87, 88), nations whose later 
history was intimately connected with that 
of the posterity of Abraham. Nahor remained 
in Mesopotamia, but his family is briefly enu- 
merated (xxM. SO-24), chiefly no doubt for 
Bebekah's sake, who was afterwards the wife 
of Isaac. Of Abraham's own children, there 
branches olT flrst the line by Ishmael (xxi. 
9, fto.), and next the children by Keturah ; 
and the genealogical notices of these two 
branches of his posterity are apparently 
brought together (xxt. 1-6, and xxt. 12-18), 
in order that, being here sererally diiffnlswed 
at the end of Abraham's life, the main riream 
of the narratiye may flow in. the channel of 
Isaac's ftnttines. — IV. Itaae. Isaac's life 
(XXT. 19-xxxT. 39), a life in itself retiring 
and unerentAiL But in his sons the flnal 
aeparation takes place, learing the field dear 
for the great story of the chosen seed. Even 
when Nahor*s funily comes on the scene, as 
it does in ch. xxix., we hear only so much of 
it as is necessary to throw light on Jacob's 
history. — V. Jacob. The history of Jacob 
and Joseph (xxxri. 1). Here, after Isaac's 
death, we hare (1) the genealogy of Esau 
(xxxri.), who then drops out of the narrative, 
in order that (2) the history of the Patriarchs 
may be carried on without intermiMion to 

the death of Joeeph (xxxvii.4.).— It wiU be 
seen that a spedflo plan is preserved through- 
out. The nudn purpose is never forgotten. 
God's relation to Israel holds the first place 
in the writer's mind. It is this which it is 
his object to convey. The history of that 
chosen seed, who were the heirs of the pro- 
mise and the guardians of the Divine oracles, 
is the only history which interprets man's 
relation to God. By iu light all others shine, 
and may be read when the time shall come. 
Meanwhile, as the difterent families drop off 
here and there from the prindpal stock, their 
course is briefiy indicated. Beyond all doubt, 
then, we may trace in the book of Genesis a 
systcnnatic plan. 

GENNES'ARET, SEA OF, called in the 
O.T. ««the Sea of Chinnereth," or "Cin- 
neroth" (Num. xxxiv. 11; Josh. xiL 8), 
f^rom a town of that name which stood on or 
near its shore (Josh. xix. 85). At its north- 
western angle was a beautiftd and fertile 
plain caUed ** Gennesaret " (Matt. xiv. 84 ; 
Mark vL 58), tnm. which the name of the 
lake was taken. The lake is also called in 
the N.T. ** the sea of Galilee," from the pro- 
vince of Galilee which bordered on its western 
side (Matt. iv. 18 ; Mark viL 81 ; John vi. 
1) ; and "the sea of Tiberias," from the 
celebrated dty (John vi. 1). Its modem 
name is Bohr TSAarfyah. Most of our Lord's 
public life was q>ent in the environs of the 
Sea of Gennesaret. This region was then 
the most densely peopled in all Palestine. 
No less than niiu dties stood on the very 
shores of the lake. The sea of Gennesaret is 
of an oval shape, about thirteen geographical 
miles long, and six broad. The river Jordan 
enters it at its northern end, and passes out 
at its southern end. In fact the bed of the 
lake is Just a lower section of the great 
Jordan valley. Its most remarkable feature 
is its deep depression, being no less than 700 
feet below the levd of the ocean. The 
scenery is Ueak and monotonous. The great 
depression makes the climate of the shores 
almost tropioal. This is very sensibly fdt by 
the traveller in going down from the plains 
of Galilee. In summer the heat is intense, 
and even in early spring the air has some- 
thing of an Egyptian balmlnees. The water 
of the lake is sweet, cool, and transparent ; 
and as the beach is everywhere pebbly it has 
a beautiftil sparkling kx^ It abounds in 
fish now as in andent t i "***- 

GENTILES. In the O. T. the Heb. ffpfm 
signified the nations, the surrounding nations, 
foreiffnen as opposed to Israel (Neh. t. 8), 
and was used with an invidious meaning. In 
the N. T. it is used as equivalent to Groolu 
But the A. V. is not consistent in its transla- 

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tion of the word Sellen^ sometiines rendering 
it by ** Greek " (AcU xir. 1, XTii. 4 ; Rom. 
L 16, X. 12), Bometimesbj " Gentile** (Rom. 
il. 9, 10, iiL 9 ; 1 Cor. x. 82). The latter 
Tue of the word eeeniB to have Arisen firom 
the almost onirersal adoption of the Greek 

GE'RA, one of the ** sons," i. e. deseend- 
ants, of Benjamin, enumerated in Gen. xlvl. 
21, as already liring at the time of Jacob's 
migration into Egypt. He was son of Bela 
(1 Chr. TiiL 8). The text of this last passage 
ia very corrupt ; and the difllsrentGeras there 
named seem to reduce themselres into one — 
the same as the son of Bela. Gera, who is 
named (Jndg. iii. 15) as the ancestor of 
Ehud, and in 2 8am. xri. 6, as the ancestor of 
Shimei who cursed David, is probably also 
the same person. 

GERAH. [Wkiohts amd MsAsumas.] 

OE'RAR, a very ancient city south of Gasa. 
It occurs chiefly in Genesis (x. 19, xx. 1, 
xxtI. 16) ; also incidentally in 2 Chr. xiv. 
18, 14. It most hare trenched on the 
"south" or "south country" of later 
Palestine. From a comparison of xxi. 82 
with xxYi. 28, 26, Beersheba would seem to 
be Just on the rerge of this territory, and 
perhaps to be its limit towards the N.E. 

GER'GESENES. [Gadaxa.] 

GER'IZIM. On the position of Mount 
Gerizim, see Ebal. It is an important 
question whether Gerizim was the mountain 
on which Abraham was directed to offer his 
son Isaac (Gen. xxii. 2, and sq.). First, then, 
let it be obserred that it is mo< the mountain, 
but the district which is there called Moriah, 
and that tmteeedsntljf to the occurrence which 
took place *'upon one of the moontains " in 
its Ticinity — a consideration which of itself 
would naturally point to the locality, already 
known to Abraham, as the plain or plains of 
Moreh, ««the land of rision," *'iiie high land ;" 
and therefore consistently ** the land of adora- 
tion," or ** religious worship," as it is rari- 
oualy explained. That all Uiese interpreta- 
tions are incomparably more applicable to the 
natural features of Gerisim and its neigh- 
bourhood, than to the hillock (in comparison) 
upon which Solomon built his temple, none 
can for a moment doubt who hare seen 
both. [MomiAH.] The Samaritans, therefore, 
through whom the tradition of the true site 
of Gerizim has been preserred, are probably 
not wrong when they point out still — as they 
have done fhim time immemorial — Gerizim 
as the hiU upon which Abraham's ** fkith wis 
made perfect." Another tradition of the 
Samaritans is fkr less trustworthy: riz., that 
Mount Gerizim was the spot where Melchise- 
deoh met Abraham — though there certainly 

was a Salem or Shalem in that neighbourhood 
(Gen. xxxiiL 18). Lastly, the altar which 
Jacob built was not on Gerizim, as tlie 
Samaritans contend, though probably about 
its base, at the head of the plain between it 
and Ebal, ** in the parcel of a field '* which 
that patriarch purchased fhnn the children of 
Hamor, and where he spread his tent (Gen. 
xxxiU. 18-20). Here was likewise bis weU 
(John iv. 6), and the tomb of his son Joseph 
(Josh. xxiv. 82), both of which are still 
shown. — ^We now enter upon the second 
phase in the history of Gerizinu Acoordinip 
to Josephus, a marriage contracted be t wee n 
Manasseh, brother of Jaddus, the then high- 
priest, and the daughter of Sanballot the 
Cuthaean (comp. 2 K. xrii. 24), harinip 
created a great stir amongst the Jews, who 
had been strictly forbidden to contract alien 
marriages (Ezr. ix. 2; Neh. xiiL 23), 
Sanballat, in order to reconcile his son-in-law 
to this unpopular affinity, obtained leave 
firom Alexander the Great to build a temple 
upon Mount Gerizim, and to inaugurate a 
rival priesthood and altar there to those ot 
Jerusalem. "Samaria thenceforth," says 
Prideaux, " became the common reftige and 
asylum of the refritctory Jews." Gerizim is 
likewise still to the Samaritans what Jerusalem 
ii to the Jews, and Mecca to the Mahometans. 

OER'SHOM. 1. The first-born son of 
Moses and Zipporah (Ex. ii. 22, xviii. 8). 
The name is explained in these passages as = 
**a stranger there," in allusion to Moses* 
being a foreigner in Midian — '* For he said, 
I have been a stranger (Ghr) in a foreign 
land." Its true meaning, taking it as a 
Hebrew word, is ** expulsion." The drcum- 
dskm of Gershom is probably related in Ex. 
iv. 25. — 0. The form under which the name 
Gbbsbon — the eldest son of Levi — is given 
in several passages of Chronicles, viz., 1 Chr. 
vL 16, 17, 20, 48, 62, 71, xv. 7. 

GER8H0N, the eldest of the three sons of 
Levi, bom before the descent of Jacob's fiunily 
into Egypt (Gen. xlvi. 11 ; Ex. vi. 16). But, 
though the eldest bom, the families of Gershon 
were outstripped in fame by their younger 
brethren of Kohath, from whom sprang Moses 
and the priestly line of Aaron. At the census 
in the wilderness of Sinai the whole number 
of the males of the sens of Gershon was 7500 
(Num. iii. 22), midway between the Kohathites 
and the Merarites. The sons of Gershon (tho 
Gershonites) had charge of the fabrics of the 
Tabernad»— thecovering8,ourtains, hangings, 
and cords (Num. iiL 25, 26, iv. 25, 26) ; for 
the transport of these they had two covered 
wagons and four oxen (viL 8, 7). In the 
encampment their station was behind the 
Tabernacle, on the west side (Num. liL 2Z\ 

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In the apportkuunent of the Leritieel dtlM 
thirteen fell to the lot of the Genhonites. 
These were in the northern trihes — two in 
Manaeteh heyond Jordan, four in laaaohar, 
four in Asher, and three in Naphtali. 

GE'SHUR, a UtUe prineipaHtj in the 
north-caatem corner of Bashan, adjoining the 
prorinoe of Argob (Deut iiL 14), and the 
kingdom of Aram (Syria in the A. Y. ; 3 Sam. 
XT. 8 ; comp. 1 Chr. L 28). It is highly 
probable that Geshor was a section of the 
wild and rugged r^;ion now called tl-L^ak. 

Inhabitants of Geshor (Deut. iiL 14 ; Josh, 
xii 5, ziii. 11).— 9. An ancient tribe which 
dwelt in the desert between Arabia and 
Phnirtia (Josh. xiiL 2 ; 1 Sam. zxtU. 8). 

GETHSEM'ANE, a smaU **farm*' (A. Y. 
" place ;*' Matt. xxri. 86 ; Mark zir. 82), 
situated across thtf brook Kedron (John zviii. 
1), probably at the foot of Mount OliTet 
(Luke xxii. 89), to the N.W., and about \ or 
f of a mile English frem the walls of Jerusa- 
lem. There was a ** garden," or rather 
orchard, attached to it, to which the oliye, 
flg, and pomegranate doubtless iuTited resort 
by their hospitable shade. And we know 
firom the Evangelists Luke (xxil. 89) and 
John (xTiiL 2) that our Lord ofttimes resorted 
thither with his disciples. But Gethsemane 
has not come down to us as a scene of mirth ; 
it was the scene of the Agony of the Son of 
God on the evening preceding His Passion. 
A modem garden, in which are eight vener- 
able olive-trees, and a grotto to the north, 
detached fhun it, and in closer connexion with 
the Church of the Sepulchre of the Ylrgin, 
are pointed out as Uie true Gethsemane. 
Against the contemporary antiquity of the 
olive-trees, it has been urged that Titus cut 
down all the trees round about Jerusalem. 
The probability would seem to be that they 
were planted by Christian hands to mark the 
spot: unless, like the sacred olive of the 
Acropolis, they may have reproduced them- 

GEZ'ER, an ancient city of Canaan, whose 
king, Horam, or Elam, coming to the assist- 
ance of Lachish, was killed with all hU 
people by Joshua (Josh. x. 88, xii. 12). It 
formed one of the landmarks on the sooth 
boundary of Epbraim, between the lower 
Beth-horon and the Mediterranean (xvi. 8), 
the western limit of the tribe (1 Chr. vU. 28). 
It was allotted with its suburbs to the 
Kohathite Levites (Josh. xxi. 21 ; 1 Chr. vi. 
67) ; but the original inhabitants were not 
dispossessed (Judg. i. 29) ; and evendown to 
the reign of Solomon the Canaanites were still 
dwelling there, and paying tribute to Israel 

(1 K. ix. 16). Ewald takes Gecer and 
Geshur to be the same. In one place Gob is 
given as identical with Geser (1 Chr. xx. 4 ; 
comp. 2 Sam. xxi. 18.) 

GIANTS. 1. They are first spoken of in 
Gen. vi. 4, under the name NephUim, We are 
told in Gen. vi. 1-4 that *' there wer9 Nephilim 
in the earth,'* and that afterwards the "sons 
of God » mingling with the beautiftil ** daugh- 
ters of men " produced a race of violent and 
insolent Qihhorim (A. Y. "mighty men"). 
But who were the parents of these giants I 
who are " the sons of God " T They were 
most probably the pious Sethites, though the 
prevalent opinion both in the Jewish and early 
Christian Church is that they were angels. It 
was probably this ancient view which gave 
rlM to the spurious Book of Enoch, and the 
notion quoted from it by St. Jude (6), and 
alluded to by St. Peter (2 Pet iL 4). 2. Thx 
BxpHAiM, a name which frequenUy occurs. 
The earliest mention of them is the record of 
their defeat by Chedorlaomer and some allied 
kings at Ashteroth Kamaim (Gen. xiv. 6). 
Extirpated, however, ftrom the east of Pales- 
tine, they long found a home in the west (2 
Sam. xxi. 18, sq. ; 1 Chr. xx. 4). It is pro- 
bable that they had possessed districts west of 
the Jordan in early times, since the " YaUey 
of Rephaim" (2 Sam. v. 18 ; 1 Chr. xL 15 ; 
Is. xvii. 5), a rich valley S.W. of Jerusalem, 
derived its name from them. They were 
probably an aboriginal people (rf which the 
EioM, Akakim, and Zvux were branches. 

GIB'BETHON, a town allotted to the tribe 
of Dan (Josh. xix. 44), and afterwards given 
with iU " suburbs" to the Kohathite Levites 
(xxL 28). 

GIB^AH, a word employed in the Bible 
to denote a " hill." Like most words of this 
kind it gave its name to several towns and 
places in Palestine, which would doubtless be 
generally on or near a hilL They are— 1. 
GiBXAH, a dty in the mountain-district of 
Judah, named with Maon and the southern 
Carmel (Josh. xv. 57 ; and crmp. 1 Chr. ii. 
49, &c.). — 9. GiBXATH, is enumerated among 
the last group of the towns of Benjamin, 
next to Jerusslem (Josh, xviii. 28). It is 
generally taken to be the place which after- 
wards became so notorious as "Gibeoh-of- 
Benjamin " or " of-Saul." But this was five 
or six mil s north of Jerusalem. The name 
being in the " construct state " — Gibeath and 
not Gibeah — may it not belong to the follow- 
ing name Kiijath, and denote the hill ad- 
Joining that town \ — 8. The place in which 
the Ark remained from the time of its return 
by the Philistines tiU its removal by David (2 
8am. vi. 8, 4 ; eomp. 1 Sam. viL 1, 2).— 4. 
Gibxah-of-Bkhjamim, first vg^pe^n in the 

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tragical story oi the Levite and his concubine 
(Judg. xix., XX.). It was then a "city/* 
with the usual open street or square (Jndg. 
xix. 15, 17, 20), and containing 700 ** chosen 
men" (xx. 15), probably the same whose 
skill as slingers is preserved in the next Terse. 
In many particulars Gibeah agrees very 
closely with Thtleii-eUFtUf a conspicuous 
eminence just four miles north of Jerusalem, 
to the right of the road. "We next meet with 
Gibcah-of-BeqJamin during the Philistine 
wars of Saul and Jonathan (1 Sam. xiii., xiv.). 
It now bears its ftUl title. As " Gibeah-of- 
Bcnjamin " this place is referred to in 2 Sam. 
xxiii. 29 (comp. 1 Chr. xi. 81), and as 
** Gibeah " it is mentioned by Hosea (▼. 8, 
Ix. 9, X. 9), but it does not again appear in 
the history. It is, howerer, almost without 
doubt identical with — 0. Gibsah-op-Savl. 
This is not mentioned as Saul's dty till after 
his anointing (1 Sam. x. 26), when he is said 
to have gone "home" to Gibeah. In the 
subsequent narratiTe the town bears its ftiU 
name (xi. 4). — 6. Gibrah-im-the-Fikld, 
named only in Judg. xx. SI, as the place to 
which one of the "highways" led fh>m 
Gibeah-of-BeiOAo^ii^* I^ ^ probably the 
^ame as Geba. The "meadows of Oaba" 
(A. V. Gibeah ; Judg. xx. 88) hare no con- 
nexion with the " field," the Hebrew words 
being entirely different. 

GIB'EON, one of the four cities of the 
HiTiTKs, the inhabitants of which made a 
league with Joshua (ix. 8-15), and thus 
escaped the (kte of Jericho and Al (oomp. xi. 
19). Gibeon lay within the territory of 
Benjamin (xriil. 25), and with Us ** suburbs " 
was allotted to the priests (xxL 17), of whom 
it became afterwards a principal station. It 
retains its ancient name almost intact, JBl-Jib. 
Its distance from Jerusalem by the main road 
is as nearly as possible 6) rnOes ; but there is 
a more direct road reducing it to 5 miles. 

GIB'EONITES, THE, the people of Gibeon 
and perhaps also of the three dties associated 
with Gibeon (Josh. ix. 17)— Bifites ; and who 
on the discovery of the stratagem by which 
they had obtained the protection of the Israel- 
ites, were condemned to be perpetual bondmen, 
hewers of wood and drawers of water for the 
congregation, and for the house of God and al- 
tar of Jehorah (Josh. ix. 28, 27). Saul i^>- 
pears to have brc^en this oovmant, and in afit 
of enthusiasm or patriotism to have killed some 
and devised a general massacre of the rest (2 
Sam. zxL 1, 2, 5). This was expiated many 
years after by giving up seven men of Saul's 
descendants to the Gibeonites, who hung 
them or crucified them " before Jehovah " — 
as a kind of sacrifice*— in Gibeah, Baal's own 
town (4, e, 9). 

GIB'LITES, THE. [Gkbal.] 

GID'EON, a Manassite, youngest son of 
Joash of the Abiexrites, an undistinguished 
funily who lived at Ophrah, a town probaU j 
on the west of Jordan (Judg. vi. 15). He was 
the fifth recorded Judge of Israel, and for 
many reasons the greatest of them all. When 
we first hear of him he was grown up and 
had sons (Judg. vi. 11, viii. 20), and fh)m 
the apostrophe of the angel (vi. 12) we may 
conclude that he had already distinguished 
himself in war against the roving bands of 
nomadic robbers who had oppressed Israel 
for seven years, and whose countless multi- 
tudes (compared to locusts ftrora their terrible 
devastations, vL 5) annually destroyed all th« 
produce of Canaan, except such as oould be 
concealed in mountain-fastnesses (vi. 2). It 
was probably during this disastitras period 
that the emigration of Elimelech todc p1ao» 
(Ruth i. 1, 2). When the angel appeared, 
Gideon was threshing wheat with a flail in 
the winepress, to conceal it firom the preda- 
tory tyrants. His call to be a deliverer, and 
his destruction of Baal's altar, u« related in 
Judg. vi. After this begins the second act of 
Gideon's life, aothed by the Spirit of God 
(Judg. vi. 84 ; comp. 1 Chr. xii. 18; Luke 
xxiv. 49), he blew a trumpet, and was Joined 
by Zebulun, Naphtali, and even the reluctant 
Asher. Strengthened by a double sign from 
God, he reduced his army of 82,000 by the 
usual proclamation (Deut. xx. 8; comp. 1 
Mace. UL 56). By a second test at ** the 
sprAg of trembling " he again reduced the 
number of his followers to 800 (Judg. vii. 5, 
sq.). The midnight attack upon the Midian- 
ites, their panic, and the rout and slaughter 
that followed, are told in Judg. vii. The 
memory of this splendid deliveranoe took deep 
root in the national traditions (1 Sam. xiL 
11 ; Ps. IxxxiiL 11 ; Is. ix. 4, x. 26 ; Heb. 
xL 82). After this there was a peace of 40 
years, and we see Gideon in peaoeftd posses- 
sion of his well^enmed honours, and surround- 
ed by the dignity of a numerous household 
(viiL 29-81). It Is not improbable that, like 
Saul, he had owed a part of his popularity to 
his princely appearance (Judg. riii. 18). In 
this third stage of his life ooour alike his 
meet noble and his most questionable aeta, 
vis., the reftisal of the monarchy on theocra- 
tic grounds, and the irregular consecration of a 
Jewelled ephod formed out of the rich spoils of 
Midian which proved to the Israelitee a temp- 
tation to idolatry, although it was doubtless 
intended for use in the worship of Jehovah. 

GIER-EAGLE, an unclean bird mentioned 
in Lev. xi. 18 and Deut. xiv. 17. There is 
no reason to doubt that the r6th&m of the 
Heb. Scriptures is identical in reality as in 

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name with the raeham of the Arabs, riz., the 
KflTiytian Tolture. 

EcTpCUa Vulture. 

GI'HGN. 1. The second rirer of Paradise 
(Gen. ii. 18). [Edbm]. — 9. A place near 
Jerusalem, memorable as the scene of the 
anointing and proclamation of Solomon as 
king (1 K. i. 88, 88. 45). 

GILALAI', one of the priests' sons at the 
eooseeration of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 
xii. 86). 

GILBO'A, a mountain range on the eastern 
side of the plain of Esdraelon, rising over the 
eity of Jezreel (comp. 1 Sam. xxTiii. 4 with 
zxix. 1). It is only mentioned in Scripture 
in connexion with one event in Israelitish 
history, the defeat and death of Saul and 
Jonathan by the Philistines (1 Sam. xxxi. 1 ; 
S Sam. L 6, xxi. 12 ; 1 Chr. x. 1, 8). Of 
the identity of Gilboa with the ridge which 
stretches eastward, from the ruins of Jesreel, 
no doubt can be entertained. The village is 
BOW called JtlbSu, 

GIL'EAD. 1. A mountainous region 
bounded on the west by the Jordan, on the 
north by Bashan, on the east by the Arabian 
plateau, and on tbe south by Moab and Am- 
mon (Gen. xxxL 21 ; Deut iii. 12.17). It 
is sometimes called ** Mount Gilead " (Gen. 
xxxL 25), sometimes **the land of Gilead" 
(Num. xxxii. 1) ; and sometimes simply 
*( Gilead'* (Ps. Ix. 7 ; Gen. xxxtU. 25) ; but 
o comparison of the several passages shows 
that they all mean the same thing. The 
name Gilead, as is usual in Palestine, describes 
the physical aspect of the country. It signi- 
fies ** a hard rocky region." The statements 
in Gen. xxxi. 48, are not opposed to this 
etymology. The old name of the district 


was Gilead, but by a slight change in the 
pronunciation, the ladical letters being re- 
tained, the meaning was made beautifolly 
applicable to the " heap of stones " Jacob and 
Laban had bailt up—" the heap of witness." 
Those acquainted with the modern Arabs and 
their literature will see how intensely such a 
play upon the word would be appreciated by 
them. The mountains of Gilead haTc a real 
eleration of from two to three thousand feet ; 
but their apparent elevation on the western 
side is much greater, owing to the depression 
of the Jordan valley, which averages about 
1000 feet Their outline is singularly uni- 
form, resembling a massire wall running 
along the horizon. The name Galaad occurs 
several times in the history of the Maccabees 
(1 Mace. Y. 9, sq.). — 8. Possibly the name of 
a mountain west of the Jordan, near Jesreel 
(Judg. TlL 8). We are inclined, howerer, to 
think that the true reading in this place 
should be Gii3oa. — 8. Son of Maohir, grand- 
son of Manasseh (Num. xxTi. 29, 80).— 4. 
The father of Jephthah (Judg. xi. 1, 2). 

GIL'EADITES, THE (Judg. xii. 4, 5; 
Num. xxvi. 29 ; Judg. x. 8), a branch of the 
tribe of Manasseh, descended from Gilead. 
There appears to hare been an old standing 
feud between them and the Ephraimites, who 
taunted them with being deserters. 

GIL'GAL. 1. The site of the first camp 
of the Israelites on the west of the Jordan^ 
the place at which they passed the first night 
after crossing the river, and where the twelre 
stones were set up which had been taken 
frxnn the bed of the stream (Josh. ir. 19, 20, 
comp. 3) ; where also they kept their first 
passover in the land of Canaan (v. 10). It 
was in the " end of tbe east of Jericho " 
(A.V. "in the east border of Jericho") ap- 
parently on a hillock or rising ground (v. 8, 
comp. 9) in the Arboth-Jericho (A. Y. ** the 
plains "), that is, the hot depressed district 
of the Ghor which lay between the town and 
the Jordan (v. 10). We again encounter 
Gilgal in the time of Saul, when it seems to 
have exchanged its military associations for 
those of sanctity. We again have a glimpse 
of it, some sixty years later, in the history 
of Darid's return to Jerusalem (2 Bam. xix.). 
Its site is unoertain.~But, 8. it was certainly 
a distinct place trom the Gilgal which is con- 
nected with the last scene in the life of EUjah, 
and with one of Elisha's miracles (2 K. ii.). 
The mention of Baal-shalisha (ir. 42) gives 
a clue to its situation, when taken with the 
notice of Eusebius, that that pUce was fifteen 
miles tram Diospolis (Lydda) towards the 
north. In that very position stand now the 
ruins bearing the name of JmUith^ i. e. Gil- 
gal. — 8. The "Kwe or thk katiows or 

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OiLOAL," or rather perhaps the "king of 
Golm-at-GUgal,*' is mentioned in the cata- 
logue of the chiefs overthrown by Joshua (Josh, 
xii. 23).— 4. A Gilgal is spoken of in Josh. xr. 
7, in describing the north border of Jndah. 

OI'LOH, a town in the moontainooB part 
of Judah, named in the first group, with 
Debir and Eshtemoh (Josh. zr. 51) ; it was 
the natire place of the flunous Ahithophel 
(2 Sam. XT. 12). 

GIRDLE, an essential article of dress in 
the East, and worn both by men and women. 
The common girdle was made of leather (2 
K. i. 8 ; Matt. iU. 4), like that worn by the 
Bedouins of the present day. A finer girdle 
was made of linen (Jer. xiii. 1 ; Ee. xri. 10), 
embroidered with slUc, and sometimes with 
gold and silver thread (Dan. x. 5 ; Rev. L 
18, XV. 6), and frequently stndded with gold 
and precious stones or pearls. The manu- 
facture of these girdles formed part of the 
employment of women (Prov. xxxi. 24). 
The girdle was futened by a clasp of gold or 
silver, or tied in a knot so that the ends hung 
down in front, as in the figures on the rains 
of Persepolis. It was worn by men about 
the loins (Is. v. 27, xL 5). The girdle of 
women was generally looser than that of the 
men, and was worn about the hips, except 
when they were actively engaged (Prov. 
xxxi. 17). The military girdle was worn 
about the waist; the sword or dagger was 
suspended trom it (Judg. iii. 16 ; 2 Sam. xx. 
8 ; Ps. xlv. 8). Hence girding up the loins 
denotes preparation for battle or for active 
exertion. In times of mourning, girdles of 
sackcloth were worn as marks of humiliation 
and sorrow (Is. iii. 24, xxii. 12). In conse- 
quence ot the costly materials of which 
girdles were made, they were frequently 
given as presents (1 8am. xviil. 4 ; 2 Sam. 
xviii. 11). They were used as pockets, as 
among the Arabs still, and as purses, one end 
of the girdle being folded back for the purpose 
(Matt X. 9; Mark vi. 8). The girdle worn 
by the priests about the close-fitting tonic 
(Ex. xxvilL 89, xxxlx. 29), is described by 
Josephns as made of linen so fina of texture 
as to look like the slough of a snake, and 
embroidered witii flowers of scarlet, purple, 
blue, and fine linen. It was about four 
fingers broad, and was wrapped several times 
round the priest's body, the ends hanging 
down to the feet. The ** curious girdle " 
(Ex. xxviii. 8) was made of the same mate- 
rials and colours as the ephod, that is of 
" gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine 
twined linen." Josephus describes it as sewn 
to the breastplate. After passing once round 
it was tied in front npon the seam, the ends 
hanging down. 

GIR'GASHITES, THE, one of the nations 
who were in possession of Canaan before the 
entrance thither of the children of Israel 
(Gen. X. 16, xv. 21; Dent vii. I ; Josh. iiL 
10, xxiv. 11 ; 1 Chr. i. 14 ; Neh. ix. 8). 


GIT'TITES, the 600 men who followed 
David firom Gath, under Ittal the Gittite (2 
Sam. XV. 18, 19), and who probably acted as 
a kind of body-guard. Obed-edom "the 
Gittite ** may have been so named firom the 
town of Gittaim in Beqjamin (2 Sam. iv. 3 ; 
Neh. xi. 88), or from Gath-rimmon. 

OIT'TITH, a musical instrument, by some 
supposed to have been used by the people of 
Gath ; and by others to have been employed 
at the fesUvities of the vintage (Ps. viii., 
Ixxxi., Ixxxiv.). 

GLASS. The Heb. word ooeurs only in 
Job xxvilL 17, where in A. V., it is rendered 
" crystal." In spite of the absence of specific 
allusion to glass in the sacred writings, the 
Hebrews must have been aware of the inven- 
tion. From paintings representing the pro- 
cess of glass-blowing which have been dis- 
covered at Beni-Hassan, and in tombs at 
other places, we know that the invention is 
at least as remote as the age of Osirtasen the 
first (perhaps a contemporary of Joseph), 
8500 years ago. Fragments too of wine- 
vases as old as the Exodus have been dis- 
covered in Egypt. The art was also known 
to the ancient Assyrians. In the N. T. glass 
is alluded to as an emblem of brightness 
(Rev. iv. 6, XV. 2, xxL 18). 

GLEANING. The gleudng of fruit trees* 
as well as of cornfields, was reserved for the 

poor. [COBKBE.] 

GLEDE, the old name for the common kite 
{mUw$ ater) occurs only in Deut. xiv. IS 
among the unclean birds of prey. 

GNAT, mentioned only in the proverbial 
expression used by our Saviour in Matt. 
xxiiL 24. 

GOAD (Judg. iU. 81 ; 1 Sam. xiii. 21). 
But the Hebrew word in the latter passage 
probably means tto point of the plouffhshare 
The former word does probably refer to the 
goad, the long handle of which might be used 
as a fonnidable weapon. The Instrument, 
as still used in the countries of southern 
Europe and western Asia, consists of a rod 
about eight feet long, brought to a sharp point 
and sometimes cased with iron at the head. 

GOAT. There appear to be two or three 
varieties of the conmion goat (fiiiroMf aefiO' 
gnu) at present bred in Palestine and Syria, 
but whether they are identical with those 
which were reared by the ancient Hebrews 
it is not possible to say. The most marked 
varieties are the Syrian goat {Oapra Mam-' 

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hrieoj Linn.), and the Angora goat (Cbpra 
AnfforeiuiSf Linn.), with fine long hair. As 
to the "wild goats" (1 Sam. xxiY. 2 ; Job 
xxxix. 1, and Ps. dT. 18) it is not at all im- 
probable that some spedes of ibex is denoted. 

LonguMred 9grrian gotx 

OOAT, SCAPE. [Atonkmutt, Day of.] 
GOB, a place mentioned only in 2 Sam. 
xxi. 18, 19, as the scene of two encounters 
between David's warriors and the Philistines. 
In the parallel account in 1 Chr. xx. 4, the 
name is giren as Oazsn. 

GOD. Throughout the Hebrew Scriptures 
two chief names are used for the one true 
dirine Being — Elohim, commonly translated 
Ood in our Version, and Jbhotah, translated 
Lord. Elohui is the plural of Eloah (in 
Arable Ailah), a form which occurs only in 
poetry and a few passages of later Hebrew 
(Neh. ix. 17 ; 2 Chr. xxxii. 15). It is also 
formed with the pronominal suffixes, as Eloi, 
my Ood, with the dependent genitiTe, and 
with an epithet, in which case it is often used 
In the short form, El (a word signifying 
Mtreifth), as in Ei^Shaddai, Ood Almighty, 
the name by which God was specially known 
to the patriarchs (Gen. xrii. 1, xxriii. 3 ; 
Ex. tI. 8). The etymology is uncertain, 
but it is generally agreed that the primary 
idea is that of ttrengtk, power to effect ; and 
that it properly describes God in that cha- 
racter in which He is exhibited to all men in 
His works, as the creator, sostalner, and su- 

preme governor of the world. Hence it Is 
used to denote any being believed in and 
worshipped as God ; but in the sense of a 
heathen deity, or a difine being spoken of 
indefinitely, the singular is most often used, 
and the' plural is employed, with the strict 
idea of number, for the collective objects of 
polytheistic worship, the gods, the gods of the 
heathen. It is also used for any being that 
strikes an observer as god-like (Sam. xxviii. 
13), and for kings, judges, and others en- 
dowed with authority fh>m God (Psalm Ixxxii. 
1, 6, viii. 6, xcvU. 7, Ac. ; Ex. xxi. 6, xxii. 
7, 8). The short form El is used for a hero, 
or mighty man, as Nebuchadnezzar (Exek. 
xxxi. 11), a pense derived at once Arom the 
meaning of strength. The plural form of 
Elohim has given rise to much discussion. 
The fluiciful idea, that it referred to the 
jyinity qf Persons in the Godhead, hardly 
finds now a supporter among scholars. It is 
either what grammarians call the plural of 
mqjesty, or it denotes the fulness of divine 
strength, the sum <^ the powers displayed by 
God. Jehovah denotes specifically the one 
true God, whose people the Jews were, and 
who made them the guardians of His truth. 
The name is never applied to a false god, 
nor to any other being, except 0ms, the 
Amoxl-Jehovah, who is thereby marked as 
one with God, and who appears again in 
the New Covenant as *' God manifested in the 
flesh." Thus much is clear *, but all else is 
beset with difficulties. At a time too early 
to be traced, the Jews abstained from pro- 
nouncing the name, for fear of its irreverent 
use. The custom is said to have been founded 
on a strained interpretation of Lev. xxi v. 16 ; 
and the phrase there used, "Thk Namx" 
{Shema), is substituted by the Babbis for the 
unutterable word. They also call it **the 
name of four letters" (niM^), **the great 
and terrible name," "the peculiar name," 
" the separate name." In reading the Scrip- 
tures, they substituted for it the word Adokai 
{Lord), from the translation of which by 
Kvpio« in the LXX., followed by the Vulgate, 
which uses Dominus, we have got the Louo 
of our Version. Our translators have, how- 
ever, used Jkbovah in four paiwages (Ex. 
Ti. 3 ; Psalm IxxxiiL 18 ; Is. xii. 2, xxvi. 4), 
and in the compounds, Jehovah^ireh, Jeho^ 
vah^yissi, vad. Jehovah-Shalom {Jehovah shall 
see, Jehovah is my Banner, Jehovah is Feaee, 
Gen. xxiL 14 ; Ex. xvii. 15 ; Judges vi. 24) ; 
while the similar phrases Jehovah'T^dkenu 
and Jehovah'Shammah are translated, " the 
Loan our righteousness," and *' the Lord is 
there" (Jer. xxiu. 6, xxxiii. 16; Ezek. 
xlviii. 35). In one passage the abbreviated 
form Jab is retained (Psalm Ixviii. 4). Tht 
O 2 

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substitution of the word Lobo is most un- 
happy ; for, while it in no way represents 
the meaning of the sacred name, the mind 
has constantly to guard against a oonftuion 
with its lower uses, and, above all, the direct 
personal bearing of the name on the rere- 
lation of God through the whole course 
of Jewish history is kept ii^uriously out of 
light. The key to the meaning of the name 
is imquestionably giren in God's revelation 
of Himself to Moses by the phrase "I am 
THAT I AM,** in connexion with the state- 
ment, that He was now first revealed by 
his name Jkhovah (Ex. iii. 14, vi. 8). 
Without entering here upon questions of 
Hebrew philology, we must be content to 
take as established the etymological con- 
nexion of the name Jehovah with the He- 
brew substantive verb, with the inference 
that it expresses the essential, eternal, un- 
changeable Being of Jehovah. But more, it 
is not the expression only, or chiefly, of an 
aieolute truth : it is a practical revelation of 
God, in His essential, unchangeable relation 
to His chosen people, the basis of His Cboe- 
nant. This is both implied in the occasion 
on which it is revealed to Moses, and in the 
fifteenth verse of Ex. iiL And here we find 
the solution of a difliculty raised by Ex. 
vi. 3, as if it meant that the name Jehovah 
had not been known to the patriarchs. 
There is abundant evidence to the contrary. 
As early as the time of Seth, '* men began to 
eall on the name of Jehovah" (Gen. iv. 25). 
The name is used by the patriarchs them- 
selves (Gen. xviU. 14 ; xxiv. 40 ; xxvi. 28 ; 
xxviii. 21). It is the basis of titles, like 
Jehovah-Jireht and of proper names, like 
Moriah and Joehebed. Indeed, the same 
reasoning would prove that the patriarchs 
did not know God as Slohim, but exclu- 
sively as EUShaddai. But, in flut, the word 
name is used here, as elsewhere, for the 
attributes of God. He was about, for the 
first time, ftilly to reveal that aspect of His 
character which the name implied. 

GOG. [Maooo.] 

OO'LAN, a city of Bashan (Deut. iv. 43) 
allotted out of the half tribe of Manasseh 
to the Levites (Josh. xxl. 27), and one of 
the three cities of refuge east of the Jordan 
(xx. 8). lU very site is now unknown. It 
gave its name to the province of Gaulanitis, 
which is fluently mentioned by Josephus. 
It lay east of Galilee, and north of Gadaritia 
[Gabasa]. The Jordan tr<m. the Sea of 
Galilee to its fountains at Dan and Caesarea- 
Philippi, formed its western boundary. It 
corresponds to the modem province of JaulSn 
(which i^ the Arabic form of the Hebrew 
OoUn). The greater part of Gaulanitis is a 

flat and fertile table-land, well watered, and 
clothed with luxuriant grass. 

GOLD, the most valuable of metals, ttom 
its colour, lustre, weight, ductility, and other 
xaxtal properties. Hence it is used as aa 
emblem of parity (Job xxiii. 10) and no- 
bility (Lam. iv. I). Gold was known fhun 
the very earliest times (Gen. ii. 11). It was 
at first chiefly used for ornaments, ftc. (Gen. 
xxiv. 22). Coined money was not known to 
the ancients till a oomparatively late period ; 
and on the Egyptian tombs gold is repre> 
sented as being weighed in rings for com- 
mercial purposes. (Comp. Gen. xliii. 21.) 
Gold was extremely abundant in andent 
times (1 Chr. xxii. 14 ; 2 Chr. L 15, ix. 9 ; 
Nah. ii. 9 ; Dan. iii. 1) ; but this did not 
depreciate its value, because of the enormous 
quantities consumed by the wealthy in fiir- 
niture, Ac. (1 K. vi. 22, z. passim ; Cant, 
iii. 9, 10 ; EsUi. i. 6 ; Jer. x. 9). The chief 
countries mentioned as producing gold are 
Arabia, Sheba, and Ophir (1 K. ix. 28, z. 1 ; 
Job xxviiL 16). Other gold-bearing ooiu- 
tries were Uphaz (Jer. x. 9 ; Dan. z. 5) and 
Parvatan (2 Chr. iiL 6). Metallurgio pro- 
cesses are mentioned in Ps. Ixvi. 10 ; Prov.* 
zvU. 8, zzvU. 21 ; and in Is. zlvL 6, tiie 
trade of goldsmith (cf. Judg. zviL 4) is 
alluded to in connezion with the overlaying 
of idols with gold-leaf. 

GOL'GOTHA, the Hebrew name of the 
spot at which our Lord was crucified (Matt, 
zzvii. 88; Mark zv. 22; John ziz. 17). 
By theee three Evangelists it is interpreted 
to mean the ** place of a skull.*' St. Luke*s 
words are really as follow»~**the plaee 
which is called *a skull***— not, as in the 
other Gospels, ** of a skull,*' thus employing 
the Greek term ezactiy as they do the 
Hebrew one. Two ezplanations of the name 
are given : (1) that it was a spot where ez- 
ecutions ordinarily took place, and therefore 
abounded in skulls. Or (2) it may come 
fhmi the look or form of the spot itaeU; bald, 
round, and skull-like, and therefore a mound 
or hillock, in accordance with the common 
phrase— for which there is no direct autho- 
rity — " Mount Calvary.** Whichever of these 
is the correct explanation, Golgotha seems 
to have been a known spot 

GOLI'ATH, a fkmous giant of Gaih, who 
«* morning and evening for forty days" de- 
fied the armies of Israel (1 Sam. zviL). Ho 
was possibly descended ttom the dd Bephaim 
[GiAMTs], of whom a scattered remnant took 
refuge with the Philistines after tixeir di»- 
persion by the Ammonites (Deut ii. 20, 21 ; 
2 Sam. zzl. 22). His height was "sU 
cubits and a span,'* which, taking the cubit 
at 21 inches, would make him lOi feet high. 

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But the LXX. and Josephus read *'/<'*''' 
eablts and a span." The scene of his combat 
^th David was the Valley of the Terebinth, 
between Shoohoh and Axekah, probably 
among the western passes of Bei^amin, al- 
though a confused modem tradition has 
given the name of Ain Jahlood (spring of 
Goliath) to the spring of Harod (Judg. vii. 1). 
Tn S Sam. zzL 19, we find that another 
Goliath of Oath was slain by Elhanan, also a 

GO'MEB, the eldest son of Japheth, and 
the bther of Ashkenaa, Rlphath, and To- 
garmah (Gen. x. 2, 8). His name is sub- 
sequently noticed but once (Ex. xxxviii. 6) 
as an ally or subject of the Scythian king 
Gog. He is generally recognised as the pro- 
genitor of the early Cimmerians, of the latter 
CImbri and the other branches of the Oeltio 
flunily, and of the modem Gael and Cymry, 
the latter fn^serring, with very slight devi- 
ation, the original name. 

GOMOR'RAH, in the N. T. written GO- 
MOB'BHA, one of the five **citiee of the 
plain,** or **vale of Siddim,** that under 
their respective kings Joined battle there with 
Cbedoriaomer (Gen. xiv. 2-8) and his allies, 
by whom they were discomfited till Abraham 
came to the rescue. Four out of the five 
were afterwards destroyed by the Lord with 
fire from heaven (Gen. xix. 28-29). One of 
them only, Zoar or Bela, which was its ori- 
ginal name, was spared at the request of 
Lot, in order that he might take reftige 
there. Of these Gomorrah seems to have 
been cmly second to Sodom in importance, 
as well as in the wickedness that led to 
their overthrow. What that atrocity was 
may be gathered from Gen. xix. 4-8. Their 
geographical position is discussed under 

OOPHEB WOOD, only once in Gen. vi. 14. 
Two principal coi^ectures have been pro- 
posed : — 1. That the " trees of Gopher" are 
any trees of the resinous kind, such as pine, 
fir, ice. 2. That Gopher is cypress. 

GO'SHEN, the name of a part of Egypt 
where the Israelites dwelt for the whole 
period of their sojjoura in that country. It 
is usually called the *' land of Goshen,** but 
also Goshen simply. It appears to have 
borne another name, *' the land of Bameses*' 
(Gen. xlvii. 11), unless this be the name of a 
district of Ooehen. It was between Joseph*s 
resSdenee at the time and the fhmtier of 
Paloetine, and apparently the extreme pro- 
vince towards that frontier (Gen. xlvl. 29). 
The results of an examination of Biblical 
evidence are that the land of Goshen lay 
be t wee n the eastern part of the ancient Delta 
and the western border of Palestine, that it 

was scarcely a part of Egypt Proper, was 
inhabited by other foreigners besidM the 
Israelites ; that it was a pasture-land, espe- 
cially suited to a shepherd-people, and suffi- 
cient for the Israelites, who there prospered, 
and were separate fh>m the main body of 
the Egyptians. These indications seem to 
indicate the W6dU'T\imeyl&t, the valley 
along which anciently flowed the canal of 
the Red Sea. 

GOSPELS. The name Gospel (from god 
and spellf Angl. Sax. good meatagt or netcs^ 
which is a translation of the Greek cvayy^tov) 
is applied to the four inspired histories of 
the life and teaching of Christ contained in 
the New Testament, of which separate ac- 
counts are given in their place. They were 
all composed during the latter half of the 
first century : those of St. Matthew and St. 
Mark some years before the destruction of 
Jerusalem ; that of St. Luke probably about 
^.n. 64 ; and that of St. John towards the 
close of the century. Before the end of 
the second century, there is abundant evi- 
dence that the four Gospels, as one collection, 
were generally used and accepted. As a 
matter of literary history, nothing can be 
better established than the genuineness of 
the Gospels. On comparing these four books 
one with another, a peculiar difficulty claims 
attention, which has had much to do with 
the controversy as to their genuineness. In 
the fourth Gospel the narrative coincides 
with that of the other three in a few pas- 
sages only. Putting aside the account of the 
Passion, there are only three fisots which 
John relates in common with the other Evan- 
gelists. Two of these are, the feeding of the 
five thousand, and the storm on the Sea of 
Galilee (ch. vi.). The third is the anointing 
of His feet by Mary. Whilst the others pre- 
sent the life of Jesus in Galilee, John follows 
him into Judaea ; nor should we know, but 
for him, that our Lord had Journeyed to 
Jerusalem at the prescribed feasts. The re- 
ceived explanation is the only satisfkctory 
one, namely, that John, writing last, at the 
dose of the first centuiy, had seen the other 
Gospels, and purposely abstained from writing 
anew what they had sufficiently recorded.— In 
the other three Gospels there is a great 
amount of agreement If we suppose the 
history that they contain to be divided into 
sections, in 42 of these all the three narra- 
tives coincide, 12 more are given by Matthew 
and Mark only, 5 by Mark and Luke only, 
and 14 by Matthew and Luke. To these 
must be added 5 peculiar to Matthew, 2 to 
Mark, and 9 to Luke ; and the enumeration 
is complete. But this applies only to general 
coinddenoe as to the fticts narrated: the 

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amount of verbal coincidence, that is, the 
powtafl^s either verbally the same, or coin- 
ciding in the use of many of the same words, 
is much smaller. Various theories have been 
proposed to account for this phenomenon. 
(1). The first and most obvious suggestion 
would be, thi^t the narrators made use of 
each other's work. Accordingly many have 
endeavoured to ascertain which Gospel is to 
be regarded as the first; which is copied 
from the first ; and which is the last, and 
copied from the other two. But the theory 
in its crude form is in itself most improb- 
able ; and the wonder is that so much time 
and learning have been devoted to it. It 
assumes that an Evangelist has taken up the 
work of his predecessor, and, without sub- 
stantial alteration, has made a few changes 
in form, a few additions and retrenchments, 
and has then allowed the whole to go forth 
under his name. (2). The supposition of a 
common original f^om which the three Gos- 
pels were drawn, each with more or less 
modification, would naturally occur to those 
who rejected the notion that the Evangelists 
had copied fh)m each other. But if all the 
Evangelists had agreed to draw fh)m a 
common original, it must have been widely 
if not universally accepted in the Church ; 
and yet there is no record of its existence. 
If the work was of high authority, it would 
have been preserved, or at least mentioned ; 
if of lower authority, it could not have be- 
come the basis of three canonical Gospels. 
(3). There is another supposition to account 
for these facts. It is probable that none of 
the Gospels was written until many years 
after the day of Pentecost on which the Holy 
Spirit descended on the assembled disciples. 
From that day commenced at Jerusalem the 
work of preaching the Gospel and converting 
the world. Now their preaching must have 
been, from the nature of the case, in great 
part historical ; it must have been based 
apon an account of the life and acts of Jesus 
of Naxareth. Nor is there anything unna- 
tural in the supposition that the Apostles 
Intentionally uttered their witness in the 
same order, and even, for the most part, in 
the same form of words. It is supposed, 
then, that the portions of the three Gospels 
which harmonise most exactty owe their 
agreement to the fact that the apostolic 
preaching had already dothed itself in a set- 
tled or usual form of words, to which the 
writers Inclined to conform without feeling 
bound to do so ; and the differences which 
occur, often in the closest proximity to the 
harmonies, arise fh>m the feeling of indepen- 
dence with which each wrote what he had 
seen and heard, or, in the case of Mark 

and Luke, what apostolic witnesses had told 

GOURD. I. KUcSySn only in Jon. iv. 6-10. 
The plant, which is intended by this word, 
and which afforded shade to the prophet 
Jonah before Nineveh, is the Bicintu eom- 
mimu, or castor-oil plant, which, formerly a 
native of Asia, is now naturalised in America, 
Africa, and the south of Europe. This plant 
varies considerably in size, being in India a 
tree, but in England seldom attaining a 
greater height than three or four feet. The 
leaves are large and palmate, with serrated 
lobes, and would form an excellent shelter for 
the sun-stricken prophet. The seeds contain 
the oil so well known under the name of 
*' castor-oil,'* which has for ages been in high 

CMtor-oQ pUnt. 

repute as a medicine. 2. With regard to the 
"wUd gourds" (pakku'Sth) of 2 K. iv. 89, 
which one of "the sons of the prophets" 
gathered ignorantly, supposing them to be 
good for food, there can be no doubt that it 
is a species of the gourd tribe {Oueurbitaceae), 
which contains some plants of a very bitter 
and dangerous character. As several kinds 
of Oueurlntaeeaef such as melons, pumpkins, 
fto., are favourite articles of refireshing food 
amongst the Orientals, we can eaaily under- 
stand the cause of the mistake. 
OO'ZAN seems in the A. Y. of 1 Chr. t. 26. 

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to be the name of a river; but in Kings 
(2 K. zTiL 6, and xvlii. 11) it is eridently 
I4>plied not to a river bat a country. Ooxan 
was the tract to whic